This type is intended to work with the US Indian Reservation type in the location domain.Currently the properties on this type are:US Indian Reservations -- what US Indian Reservations, if any, these people live on If a group spreads across the border into Canada, you can co-type them with Canadian aboriginal group.The naming of this type is based on this wikipedia article which suggests that American Indian is generally the preferred term in the US. Since some groups are known as tribes, bands, nations, or other terms, I chose to use group which is more generic.
More about Best American Indian group of All Time:
Best American Indian group of All Time is a public top list created by Listnerd on Listnerd.com on November 27th 2012. Items on the Best American Indian group of All Time top list are added by the Listnerd.com community and ranked using our secret ranking sauce. Best American Indian group of All Time has gotten 2.386 views and has gathered 505 votes from 505 voters. Only owner can add items. Just members can vote.
Best American Indian group of All Time is a top list in the People category on Listnerd.com. Are you a fan of People or Best American Indian group of All Time? Explore more top 100 lists about People on Listnerd.com or participate in ranking the stuff already on the all time Best American Indian group of All Time top list below.
If you're not a member of Listnerd.com, you should consider becoming one. Registration is fast, free and easy. At Listnerd.com, we aim to give you the best of everything - including stuff like the Best American Indian group of All Time list.
Get your friends to vote! Spread this URL or share:
The Coquille Indian Tribe is the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs-recognized Native American tribal entity of the Coquille people, who have traditionally lived on the southern Oregon Coast.
In 1855, Joel Palmer, Oregon Superintendent of Indian Affairs, negotiated a treaty with the Coquille and surrounding tribes that set aside 125 miles (201 km) of coastline that extended from the Siltcoos River to Cape Lookout to form the Coastal (or Siletz) Indian Reservation near present-day Florence. The Coquille people were forcibly marched to the reservation in 1856; however, the treaty was never ratified by Congress. Disease and overcrowding were problems on the reservation, which was eventually reduced to a fraction of its former size. The remnants of the original Coastal Indian Reservation are contained in the Siletz Reservation and associated tribally owned lands. Over the years many Coquilles returned to their traditional homeland and fought for the acknowledgement of the Treaty of 1855.
The U.S. federal government terminated its recognition of the Coquille as part of the Termination Act of 1954.
In 1989 the tribe regained its federal recognition. With restoration came tribal
The Oneida Indian Nation (hereinafter referred to as OIN) is the federally recognized Oneida tribe that resides in New York, where the tribe originated and held its historic territory long before European colonialism. It is an Iroquoian-speaking people, and its early nation was one of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, or Hauendosaunee. Three other recognized Oneida tribes are in other locations where they migrated during and after the American Revolutionary War: one in Wisconsin in the United States, and two in Ontario, Canada.
Today it owns tribal land in Verona, Oneida, and Canastota, on which it operates a number of businesses, including a resort with a Class III gambling casino.
Since the late twentieth century, the OIN has been a party to land claim suits against the state of New York for treaties and purchases made without ratification by the United States Senate, as required under the US Constitution. Litigation has been complex, related to trust lands, property and sales taxes. Agreements and settlements with different levels of governments are still being negotiated.
In the early 1990s, the Oneida tribe originally opened a bingo house. Ray Halbritter (Oneida),
The Miami are a Native American nation originally found in what is now Indiana, southwest Michigan, and western Ohio. The Miami Tribe of Oklahoma is the only federally recognized tribe of Miami Indians in the United States. Another unrecognized tribe is the Miami Nation of Indiana.
The name Miami derives from the tribe's autonym (name for themselves) in their Algonquian language, Miami-Illinois, Myaamia (plural Myaamiaki); this appears to have come from an older term meaning "downstream people." Some scholars contended the Miami called themselves the Twightwee (also spelled Twatwa), supposedly an onomatopoeic reference to their sacred bird, the sandhill crane. Recent studies have shown that Twightwee derives from the Delaware language exonym for the Miamis, tuwéhtuwe, a name of unknown etymology. Some Miamis have stated that this was only a name used by other tribes for the Miamis, and not the autonym which the Miamis used for themselves. Another common term was Mihtohseeniaki (the people). The Miami continue to use this autonym today.
Early Miami people are considered to belong to the Fischer Tradition of Mississippian culture. Mississippian societies were characterized by
US Indian Reservations:Bridgeport Indian Reservation
Paiute ( /ˈpaɪjuːt/; also Piute) refers to three closely related groups of Native Americans — the Northern Paiute of California, Idaho, Nevada and Oregon; the Owens Valley Paiute of California and Nevada; and the Southern Paiute of Arizona, southeastern California and Nevada, and Utah.
The origin of the word Paiute is unclear. Some anthropologists have interpreted it as "Water Ute" or "True Ute." The Northern Paiute call themselves Numa (sometimes written Numu); the Southern Paiute call themselves Nuwuvi. Both terms mean "the people." The Northern Paiute are sometimes referred to as Paviotso. Early Spanish explorers called the Southern Paiute Payuchi (they did not make contact with the Northern Paiute). Early Euro-American settlers often called both groups of Paiute "Diggers" (presumably because of their practice of digging for roots). As the Paiute consider the term derogatory, they discourage its use.
The Northern and Southern Paiute both speak languages belonging to the Numic branch of the Uto-Aztecan family of Native American languages. Usage of the terms Paiute, Northern Paiute and Southern Paiute is most correct when referring to groups of people with similar language and
The Shinnecock Indian Nation is a federally recognized tribe, headquartered in Suffolk County, New York, on the south shore of Long Island. Shinnecock are an Algonquian people from Long Island. They now reside on the Shinnecock Reservation within the geographic boundaries of Southampton on the east end of Long Island.
The Shinnecock were recognized by the United States government in June, 2010 after a 30-year court battle. The Acting Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of Indian Affairs, George T. Skibine issued the final determination of the tribe's recognized status on June 13, 2010.
The Shinnecock Indian Reservation is a self-governing reservation. By 1859, the current borders of 800 acres (3.2 km) were established. Every Labor Day Weekend the reservation hosts a powwow. The reservation has a museum, shellfish hatchery, education center, community center, playground, and Presbyterian church. The reservation is three miles (5 km) west of Southampton, New York. In 1903, it had a population of 150.
The Shinnecock are believed to have spoken a dialect of Mohegan-Pequot-Montauk, similar to their neighbors the Montaukett on Long Island. Their western neighbors were Lenape people who
Chinook refers to several groups of Native Americans in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States, speaking the Chinookan languages. In the early 19th century, the Chinookan-speaking peoples lived along the lower and middle Columbia River in present-day Oregon and Washington. The Chinook tribes were those encountered by the Lewis and Clark Expedition in 1805 on the lower Columbia.
The Chinook peoples were not nomadic but rather occupied traditional tribal geographic areas. They had a form of society marked by social stratification consisting of a number of distinct social castes of greater or lesser status. Upper castes included shamans, warriors, and successful traders and were a minority of the community population compared to common members of the tribal group. Members of the superior castes are said to have practiced social isolation, limiting contact with commoners and forbidding play between the children of the different social groups.
Some Chinookan people practiced slavery, a practice borrowed from the northernmost tribes of the Pacific Northwest. These slaves are said to have been encouraged to practice thievery on behalf of their masters, who excluded themselves
The Ramaytush are one of the linguistic subdivisions of the Ohlone Native Americans of Northern California. Historically, the Ramaytush inhabited the San Francisco Peninsula between San Francisco Bay and the Pacific Ocean in the area which is now San Francisco and San Mateo Counties. The Ramaytush were not thought to be a self-conscious socio-political group. Instead they were defined by modern anthropologists and linguists, initially in the early twentieth century as the San Francisco Costanoans – the people who spoke a common dialect or language within the Costanoan branch of the Utian family. The term Ramaytush was first applied to them during the 1970s.
Historically, Ramaytush language territory was largely bordered by ocean and sea, except in the south where they bordered the people of the Santa Clara Valley who spoke Tamyen Ohlone and the people of the Santa Cruz Mountains and Pacific Coast at Point Año Nuevo who spoke dialects merging toward Awaswas Ohlone. To the east, across San Francisco Bay, were tribes that spoke the Chochenyo Ohlone language. To the north, across the Golden Gate, was the Huimen local tribe of Coast Miwok speakers. The northernmost Ramaytush local
The Guidiville Rancheria of California are a Pomo tribe located in Mendocino County, California.
During the California Gold Rush, an influx of non-Indian settlers drove the Guidiville Pomos from their ancestral lands near Lake County, California into Mendocino County. The US government sent commissioners to negotiate treaties with the tribe in 1851. Although the Guidiville Band, among other Pomo bands, ceded their ancestral lands, the US congress did not ratify the treaties and the Guidiville never received their promised treaty lands. These treaties were locked away in Washington DC and not rediscovered until the 20th century. In the meantime, the Guidiville Band was left landless.
Between the years of 1909 and 1915, the federal government purchased small parcels of land for homeless California Indians, called rancherias. The Guidiville Rancheria did not have the water or infrastructure for subsistence. Disease and harsh conditions resulted in early death for members of the band. Those that could traveled to the Bay Area for work. Other tribal members picked hops or fruit as migrant farm workers.
During the Indian termination policy, the federal government unilaterally terminated
The Ute ( /ˈjuːt/) are Native Americans now living primarily in Utah and Colorado. There are three Ute tribal reservations: Uintah-Ouray in northeastern Utah (3,500 members); Southern Ute in Colorado (1,500 members); and Ute Mountain which primarily lies in Colorado, but extends to Utah and New Mexico (2,000 members). The name of the state of Utah was derived from the name Ute. The The University of Utah, the state's flagship university, has adopted the Ute name as its mascot. The word Ute means "Land of the sun" in their language. "Ute" possibly derived from the Western Apache word "yudah", meaning "high up." This has led to the misconception that "Ute" means people high up or mountain people.
The native Ute language belongs to the Numic division of the Uto-Aztecan family of languages and is a dialect of Southern Numic. Most mountain Utes still speak Ute but its use has become much less frequent among the southern Ute. Peoples speaking Shoshonean dialects of the Numic family include the Bannocks, Comanches, Chemehuevi, Goshutes, Paiutes and Shoshones.
Prior to the arrival of Mexican settlers, the Utes occupied significant portions of what are today eastern Utah, western Colorado,
The Kumeyaay, also known as Tipai-Ipai, Kamia, or formerly Diegueño, are Native American people of the extreme southwestern United States and northwest Mexico. They live in the states of California in the US and Baja California in Mexico. In Spanish, the name is commonly spelled Kumiai.
The Kumeyaay consist of two related groups, the Ipai and Tipai. The two coastal groups' traditional homelands were approximately separated by the San Diego River: the northern Ipai (extending from Escondido to Lake Henshaw) and the southern Tipai (including the Laguna Mountains, Ensenada, and Tecate).
Nomenclature and tribal distinctions are not widely agreed upon. The general scholarly consensus recognizes three separate languages: Ipai, Kumeyaay proper (including the Kamia), and Tipai in northern Baja California (e.g., Langdon 1990). However, this notion is not supported by speakers of the language (actual Kumeyaay people) who contend that within their territory, all Kumeyaay (Ipai/Tipai) can understand and speak to each other, at least after a brief acclimatization period. All three languages belong to the Delta–California branch of the Yuman family, to which several other linguistically distinct
The Augustine Band of Cahuilla Indians is a federally recognized Cahuilla band of Native Americans based in Coachella, California. They are one of the smallest tribal nation in the United States, consisting of only eight members, only one of whom is an adult.
According to interviews with Augustine Elders in the winter of 1924-1925, the tribe is of the Nanxaiyem clan of Pass Cahuilla Indians. Francisco Nombre, a Desert Cahuilla ceremonial leader and keeper of traditional clan genealogy, stated that the Nanxaiyem migrated to the Coachella Valley around 1860 and their survivors settled at La Mesa, the flat land east of La Quinta, California. There, according to Nombre, they became known as Augustin [sic]. There are over a dozen Pass Cahuilla clans, traditionally following patrilineal descent, and are divided into the Wildcat and Coyote moieties, inhabiting the San Gorgonio Pass eastward to Indian Wells and westward to San Timoteo Canyon. The Nanxaiyem Clan of Augustine Reservation is Coyote moiety.
On April 13, 1956 the Commissioner of Indian Affairs approved a census roll of the tribe, documenting 11 living members. Roberta Augustine, the last original enrollee, died in 1986. The
The Iowa (also spelled Ioway), also known as the Báxoje, are a Native American Siouan people. Today they are enrolled in either of two federally recognized tribes, the Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma and the Ioway Tribe of Kansas and Nebraska.
Together with the Missouria and the Otoe, the Ioway are part of the Chiwere-speaking peoples, claiming the Ho-Chunks as their "grandfathers." Their estimated population of 1,100 (in 1760) dropped to 800 (in 1804), a decrease caused mainly by smallpox, to which they had no natural immunity.
In 1824, the Iowa were moved from Iowa to reservations in Brown County, Kansas, and Richardson County, Nebraska. Bands of Iowa moved to Indian Territory in the late 19th century and settled south of Perkins, Oklahoma, becoming the Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma.
Their name has been said to come from ayuhwa ("asleep"), but their autonym (their name for themselves) is Báxoje pronounced [b̥aꜜxodʒɛ] (alternate spellings: pahotcha, Bah-kho-je) ("dusted faces" or "grey snow"). The translation "dusted faces" is a likely folk etymology, since the Ioway words use different consonants. Early European explorers often adopted the names of tribes from the ethnonyms which other tribes
The Brothertown Indians (also Brotherton), located in Wisconsin, are a Native American tribe formed in the early nineteenth century from communities of several Pequot and Mohegan (Algonquian-speaking) tribes of southern New England and eastern Long Island, New York. In the 1780s after the American Revolutionary War, they migrated from New England into New York state, where they accepted land from the Iroquois Oneida Nation in Oneida County.
Under pressure from the United States government, the Brothertown Indians, together with the Stockbridge-Munsee and some Oneida, removed to Wisconsin in the 1830s, taking ships through the Great Lakes. In 1839 they were the first tribe of Native Americans in the United States to accept United States citizenship and have their communal land allocated to individual households, in order to prevent another removal further west. Most of the Oneida and many of the Delaware were relocated to Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma).
Seeking to regain recognition, the Brothertown Indians filed a documented petition in 2005. The Bureau of Indian Affairs notified the tribe in 2009 in a preliminary finding that they had not satisfied five of the seven
The Chilula were an Athapaskan tribe who inhabited the area on or near lower Redwood Creek, in Northern California, some 500 to 600 years before contact with Europeans. The Chilula have since been incorporated into the Hoopa tribe and live mainly on the Hoopa Reservation.
The tribes originally had 18 villages: Howunakut, Noleding, Tlochime, Kingkyolai, Kingyukyomunga, Yisining'aikut, Tsinsilading, Tondinunding, Yinukanomitseding, Hontetlme, Tlocheke, Hlichuhwinauhwding, Kailuhwtahding, Kailuhwchengetlding, Sikingchwungmitahding, Kinahontahding, Misme, and Kahustahding.
A 205' Cherokee-class US Navy oceangoing tugboat was christened the USS Chilula (WATF-153) in 1945, and recommissioned in 1958 as the United States Coast Guard Cutter Chilula (WMEC-153), serving until 1991.
The Chimariko were an indigenous people of California, who primarily lived in a narrow, 20-mile section of canyon on the Trinity River in Trinity County in northwestern California.
Originally hunter-gatherers, the Chimariko are possibly the earliest residents of their region. They had good reliations with Wintu people and were enemies of the Hupa, a Southern Athabaskan people.
Non-native fur trappers first entered Chimariko's territory in 1820, following by miners and settlers in the 1850s. The Chimariko were profoundly affected by the destructive practices of gold seekers during California Gold Rush during the 1850s. One of the major issues involved the disruption of the salmon population that was the main food source of the Chimariko. In the 1860s, conflict between Chimariko and white miners led to almost total extinction of the entire population. The surviving Chimariko fled to live with the Hupa and Shasta.
Chimariko people spoke the Chimariko language, a Northern Hokan language. The language is currently extinct. The language probably became extinct sometime in the 1930s. It is extensively documented in unpublished fieldnotes which John Peabody Harrington obtained from the
The Nomlaki (also Noamlakee, Central Wintu, Nomelaki) are a Wintun people native to the area of the Sacramento Valley, extending westward to the Coast Range in Northern California. Currently one person speaks Nomlaki. Currently, only 2 elder tribal members of the Paskenta Band of Nomlaki Indians are said to remain who speak adequately; 1 younger tribal member currently championing the language revitalization efforts.
The Nomlaki were bordered by the Wintu (Wintun) in the north, the Yana in the northeast and east, the Konkow (Maiduan) in the east, the Patwin (Wintun) in the south, and the Yuki in the west.
There are two main groups:
The Nomlaki spoke a Wintuan language known as Nomlaki. It was not extensively documented, however, some recordings exist of speaker Andrew Freeman and Sylvester Simmons.
Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. (See Population of Native California.) Alfred L. Kroeber (1925:883) put the combined 1770 population of the Nomlaki, Wintu, and Patwin at 12,000. Sherburne F. Cook (1976:180-181) estimated the combined population of the Nomlaki and northern Patwin as 8.000. Walter Goldschmidt
The United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma (ᎠᏂᎩᏚᏩᎩ ᎠᏂᏣᎳᎩ or Anigiduwagi Anitsalagi, abbreviated UKB) is a federally recognized tribe of Cherokee Indians headquartered in Tahlequah, Oklahoma. According to the UKB website, its members are mostly descendants of "Old Settlers", Cherokee who migrated to Arkansas and Oklahoma about 1817, before the forced relocation of Cherokee from the Southeast in the 1830s under the Indian Removal Act. Many of its members are traditionalists and Baptists.
Today the UKB has over 14,300 members, with 13,300 living within the state of Oklahoma. Their elected Chief is George G. Wickliffe, serving a four-year term. Charles Locust is the Assistant Chief. Tim Goodvoice is their executive director of tribal operations.
The tribe owns and operates Keetoowah Construction in Tahlequah, and the Keetoowah Treatment Center in Tulsa, Oklahoma. They have an arts and crafts gallery, showcasing members' work. They run the Keetoowah Cherokee Casino, with over 500 gaming machines, in Tahlequah. The UKB issue their own tribal vehicle tags. Their estimated annual economic impact is $267 million. They host an annual homecoming festival over the first weekend
In 1749, the Jesuit missionary, Abbé Francois Picquet, built a fort where the Oswegatchie River empties into the St. Lawrence River (present-day Ogdensburg, New York). He invited the Iroquois to come to Fort de La Présentation to learn about Catholicism. To settle at La Présentation, families had to agree to live monogamously, convert to Catholicism, give up alcohol and swear allegiance to France. Within a few years, over 3,000 Native Americans, mostly Onondaga, had settled in the area. They came to be called the Oswegatchie. This was one of the Seven Nations of Canada.
While never allowed as a separate tribal member of the Iroquois Confederation, the Oswegatchie were considered "nephews" because of their members' family ties to the Six Nations. When the Seven Years War broke out between France and England, the Oswegatchie fought with the French on numerous raids in the Ohio, Champlain and Mohawk valleys, where they attacked British colonists.
After the British conquered the French in 1760, British soldiers were stationed at La Présentation. They renamed it Fort Oswegatchie. The Oswegatchie who remained there after the conquest swore allegiance to the British. They fought alongside
Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians are a federally recognized Algonquian-speaking Potawatomi-people located in southwestern Michigan and northeastern Indiana. Tribal government functions are located in Dowagiac, Michigan. The tribal membership has grown to approximately 4,563 members as of 2009. They occupy land in a total of ten counties in the area.
The Potawatomi originated as a people along the Atlantic coastline at the mouth of the St. Lawrence River. Over centuries, along with the Ojibwe and Odawa Anishinaabe peoples, they migrated west to the Great Lakes region some 500–800 years ago in a "Great Migration."
The Pokagon are descendants of the allied Potawatomi villages that were historically located along the St. Joseph, Paw Paw and Kalamazoo rivers in what are now southwest Michigan and northern Indiana. They were the only Potawatomi band to gain permission from the United States government to remain in Michigan after Indian removal. Many of the cities and streets in the Michigan area have adopted Potawatomi names. The tribe has been federally recognized since 1994 and has established self government.
The Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians were party to 11 treaties with the
Apache ( /əˈpætʃiː/; French: [a.paʃ]) is the collective term for several culturally related groups of Native Americans in the United States originally from the Southwest United States. These indigenous peoples of North America speak a Southern Athabaskan (Apachean) language, which is related linguistically to the languages of Athabaskan speakers of Alaska and western Canada.
The modern term Apache excludes the related Navajo people. Since the Navajo and the other Apache groups are clearly related through culture and language, they are all considered Apachean. Apachean peoples formerly ranged over eastern Arizona, northern Mexico, New Mexico, west and southwest Texas and southern Colorado. The Apachería consisted of high mountains, sheltered and watered valleys, deep canyons, deserts and the southern Great Plains.
The Apachean groups had little political unity; the major groups spoke seven different languages and developed distinct and competitive cultures. The current division of Apachean groups includes the Navajo, Western Apache, Chiricahua, Mescalero, Jicarilla, Lipan, and Plains Apache (formerly Kiowa-Apache). Apache groups live in Oklahoma and Texas and on reservations in
The Chalon people are one of eight divisions of the Ohlone (Costanoan) people of Native Americans who lived in Northern California. Chalon (also called Soledad) is also the name of their spoken language, listed as one of the Ohlone (alias Costanoan) languages of the Utian family. Recent work suggests that Chalon may be transitional between the northern and southern groups of Ohlone languages.
The original Chalon homeland area is the subject of some local controversy. Initial studies in the early twentieth century placed them in the portion of the Salinas Valley that surrounds the modern town of Soledad, as well as in the adjacent lower Arroyo Seco area to the west and Chalon Creek are to the east. In contrast, a late twentieth century study gives the Spanish-contact period Chalon people the rugged Coast Range valleys centered farther to the east, including upper Chalon Creek, the San Benito River east of the Salinas Valley, and the small creeks around San Benito Mountain. The latter study assigns most of that Salinas Valley area to the Eslenajan local tribe of Esselen speakers.
Specific Chalon material culture was never documented, but beyond doubt it was a hunter-gatherer culture
The Kitanemuk were a Native American tribe and people who lived in the Tehachapi Mountains and the Antelope Valley area of the western Mojave Desert of southern California, United States.
The Kitanemuk spoke a Uto-Aztecan language, probably akin to that of the Takic branch and to the Serrano language in particular.
Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. Alfred L. Kroeber (1925:883) proposed a 1770 population for the Kitanemuk, together with the Serrano and Tataviam, as 3,500. Thomas C. Blackburn and Lowell John Bean (1978:564) estimated the Kitanemuk alone as 500-1,000.
The combined population of the Kitanemuk, Serrano, and Tataviam in 1910 had fallen to only 150 persons, according to Kroeber.
The Kitanemuk were first contacted by the Franciscan missionary-explorer Francisco Garcés in 1776. Some Kitanemuk were recruited and relocated for the Spanish missions of Mission San Fernando Rey de España in the San Fernando Valley, Mission San Gabriel Arcángel in the San Gabriel Valley, and perhaps Mission San Buenaventura at the coast in Ventura County. Therefore they are sometimes grouped with the Mission Indians. Beginning
The Nisenan, also known as the Southern Maidu and Valley Maidu, are one of many native groups of the Central Valley. The name Nisenan, derives from the ablative plural pronoun nisena·n, "from among us". A few Nisenan people speak any of the Nisenan dialects. Some Nisenan people today are enrolled in the Shingle Springs Band of Miwok Indians, a federally recognized tribe.
Nisenan, as with many of the tribes of central California, was never a true political distinction, but in fact is based on a 'common' language (in reality, a wide spectrum on similar dialects). There was no Nisenan Tribe, but instead a number of tribelets, which were small independent self-sufficient sovereign tribes. Each 'tribelet', or tribe, spoke a different variant of what is called the Nisenan language, which has led to some inconsistency among the linguistic data on the language.
The Nisenan lived in the Central Valley of California between the Sacramento River to the west and the Sierra Mountains to the east. The southern reach went to about Cosumnes River but north of Elk Grove and the Meadoview and Pocket regions of Sacramento, and the northern reach somewhere between the northern fork of the Yuba River
In the late 1900's, the Virginia Powhatan Confederacy was noted by President Thomas Jefferson to be almost extinct with only a few Black Indians remaining. The Powhatan-Toney Tribe descended from Black Indians in Virginia and a segment of the original Cherokee Nation, which once covered almost all of North Alabama. Unlike many southeastern Indian tribes, the Powhatan-Toney Tribe evolved within the slave culture of America and were not removed from tribal lands but were asked to transfer land to the Federal Government in the interest of Conservation, Economic Development, Energy Production and National Security. Powhatan and Toney Indian descendants from Virginia have lived together for 200 years in Alabama and over 100 years in the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma. This historic Powhatan Tribal legacy is preserved by the Powhatan-Toney Tribe and the United States of America.
In treaties of the early 1800's Cherokee and Chickasaw Tribes claimed land squatted and controlled by Powhatan slave owner and polygamist Harris Toney from Virginia. Allied with the federal Government, Toney and other cultured slave owners from Virginia were allowed to establish businesses to accommodate u suck dick
The Tübatulabal (/təˈbɑːtələbɑːl/to bottle a ball) are Native Americans whose ancestral home was in the Kern River basin, in the southern Sierra Nevada mountains of California.
Their traditional culture was similar to that of the Yokuts, who occupied most the of the southern half of the California's Central Valley. Acorns, piñon nuts, and game animals were key elements in Tubatulabal subsistence. Their ancestral language belonged to the Uto-Aztecan language family. In the current state of the linguistics of the Uto-Aztecan family, it is classified as a branch unto itself.
Estimates for the precontact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. (See Population of Native California.) By two estimates, the Tübatulabal were a small to very small nation. Alfred L. Kroeber (1925:883) put the 1770 population of the Tübatulabal as 1,000. Erminie W. Voegelin (1938:39) considered Kroeber's estimate too high. For the time of initial Euro-American settlement, ca. 1850, she estimated 200-300.
Kroeber in 1910 reported the population of the Tübatulabal as 150. Yamamoto in 2000 estimated the population at 900.
Today about 400 Tubatulabal people reside in the Kern
The Lakota (pronounced [laˈkˣota]; also known as Teton, Titunwan ("prairie dwellers"), Teton Sioux ("snake, or enemy") are an indigenous people of the Great Plains. They are part of a confederation of seven related Sioux tribes, the Oceti Šakowiŋ or seven council fires, and speak Lakota, one of the three major dialects of the Sioux language.
The Lakota are the western-most of the three Sioux-language groups, occupying lands in both North and South Dakota. The seven bands or "sub-tribes" of the Lakota are:
Notable persons include Tataŋka Iyotake (Sitting Bull) from the Hunkpapa band; Touch the Clouds from the Miniconjou band; and, Tašuŋke Witko (Crazy Horse), Maȟpiya Luta (Red Cloud), Heȟaka Sapa (Black Elk), Siŋte Gleška (Spotted Tail), and Billy Mills from the Oglala band.
Siouan language speakers may have originated in the lower Mississippi River region and then migrated to or originated in the Ohio Valley. They were agriculturalists and may have been part of the Mound Builder civilization during the 9th–12th centuries CE. In the late 16th and early 17th centuries, Dakota-Lakota-Nakota speakers lived in the upper Mississippi Region in present day Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and
The Pima (or Akimel O'odham) are a group of American Indians living in an area consisting of what is now central and southern Arizona. The long name, "Akimel O'odham", means "river people". They are closely related to the Tohono O'odham (meaning "desert people", formerly known as Papagos) of Eastern Papagueria and the Hia C-ed O'odham ("Sand Dune People", formerly known as Sand Papagos or Sand Pimas) of the Western Papagueria. They are also closely related to another river people, the Sobaipuri, whose descendants still reside on the San Xavier Indian Reservation or Wa:k (together with the Tohono O'odham) and in the Gila River communities. The short name, "Pima" is believed to have come from the phrase pi 'añi mac or pi mac, meaning "I don't know," used repeatedly in their initial meeting with Europeans.
The creation story of the Pima’s, or Akimel Oodham, starts out with one person, the Doctor of Earth. He was known as Juh-wert-a-Mah-kai and before him, there was no earth, no water, no sun, no light, no life, or anything. He created the world from perspiration on his chest called, moah-haht-tack. It took four times until the world actually formed. He first created a greasewood bush,
The Wyandotte Nation is a federally recognized Native American tribe in Oklahoma. They are descendants of the Wendat Confederacy and Native Americans with territory near Georgian Bay and Lake Huron. Under pressure from Iroquois and other tribes, then from European settlers and the United States government, the tribe gradually moved south and west: to Ohio, Michigan, Kansas and Oklahoma in the United States.
Smaller organized groups of Wendat descendants live in Kansas and Michigan in the United States. The Huron-Wendat First Nation has a reserve at Wendake, Quebec, Canada, with a population close to that of the Wyandotte Nation.
The headquarters of the federally recognized Wyandotte Nation is in Wyandotte, Oklahoma, and their tribal jurisdictional area is in Ottawa County, Oklahoma.
Billy Friend is the elected Chief, currently serving a four-year term. The Wyandotte Nation issue their own tribal vehicle tags and operate their own housing authority. They have a seven-man police department providing 24-hour law enforcement response to the Nation and surrounding area.
Of the 4,957 enrollment Wyandottes, 1,218 live in the state of Oklahoma. Enrollment is based in lineal descent; that
The Yuki are a Native American people from the zone of Round Valley, in what today is part of the territory of Mendocino County, Northern California. Yuki tribes are thought to have settled as far south as Hood Mountain in present-day Sonoma County. In their own language, the Yuki call themselves the autonym Ukomno'm (Valley People).
European Americans learned and adopted the name Yuki from the their neighbors and competitors, the Nomlaki, who called them "enemy" in Wintu language. Yuki was thus an exonym, a name by another group. European Americans learned of the Yuki from the Nomlaki circa 1850.
Unlike most Californian peoples, the Yuki were aggressive and attacked other nearby native peoples on several occasions. As European-American settlers began to flock to Northern California in the early 1850s, they drove the Yuki from their lands. The Indians suffered deaths in raids by the local ranchers and the authorities, and captives were taken into slavery.
In 1856, the US government established the Indian reservation of Nome Cult Farm (later to become Round Valley Indian Reservation) at Round Valley. It forced thousands of Yuki and other local tribes on to these lands, often without
Cassons or Casson is the name of a Yokut Native American tribe in central eastern California. The Cassons are also called the Gashowu. The Casson Yokut territory extended from the eastern side of San Joaquin Valley floor eastward to the upper foothills, between the San Joaquin River to the north and Kings River to south. The Cassons signed the Camp Barbour Treaty under Tom-quit, on the San Joaquin River, state of California, April 19, 1851. The treaty was signed by several Yokut tribes and between Redick McKee, George W. Barbour, and O. M. Wozencraft, commissioners on the part of the United States of America. Casson Yokut territory included Madera County and parts of Fresno County. The three chiefs who signed for the Cassons were Domingo Perez, Tom-mas and Jose Antonio. Many Native Californians had acquired Spanish names during the Mission Period. The Cassons, like other Yokuts, and central California Native groups, were pushed from their homes in the San Joaquin Valley to reservations after they signed several treaties, including the Camp Babour Treaty. The Barbour Treaty, Fremont Treaty and other California treaties were never ratified. Several Casson Yokut families went to work
US Indian Reservations:Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation
The Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians (Ojibwe language: Mikinaakwajiw-ininiwag) is a Native American tribe of Ojibwa and Métis peoples, based on the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation in Belcourt, North Dakota. The tribe has 30,000 enrolled members. A population of 5,815 reside on the main reservation and another 2,516 reside on off-reservation trust land (as of the 2000 census). It is federally recognized and Merle St. Claire is the current Tribal Chairman.
Around the end of the eighteenth century, prior to the advent of white traders in the area, the formerly woodland-oriented Chippewa moved out onto the Great Plains in pursuit of the buffalo and new beaver resources to hunt and trade. They successfully reoriented their culture to life on the plains, adopting horses, and developing the bison-hide tipi, the Red River cart, hard-soled footwear, and new ceremonial procedures. Around 1800, these Indians were hunting in the Turtle Mountain area of present-day North Dakota.
Chief Little Shell I (Esens), a leader of the Pembina Band of Chippewa Indians, signed such documents with the federal government as the 1863 Treaty of the Old Crossing, signed near the Red Lake River,
The Bay Miwok were a cultural and linguistic group of Miwok, a Native American people in Northern California who lived in Contra Costa County. They joined the Franciscan mission system during the early nineteenth century, suffered a devastating population decline, and lost their language as they intermarried with other native California ethnic groups and learned the Spanish language.
The Bay Miwok were not recognized by modern anthropologists or linguists until the mid-twentieth century. In fact, Alfred L. Kroeber, father of California anthropology, who knew of one of their constituent local groups, the Saclan (his Saklan), from nineteenth century manuscript sources, presumed that they spoke a Ohlone (aka Costanoan) language.
In 1955 linguist Madison Beeler recognized an 1821 vocabulary taken from a Saclan man at Mission San Francisco as representative of a Miwok language. The language was christened Bay Miwok and its territorial extent was rediscovered during the 1960s (see Landholding Groups or Local Tribes section below).
The Bay Miwok lived by hunting and gathering, and lived in small bands without centralized political authority. They spoke Bay Miwok also known as Saclan. They
The Salinan Native Americans lived in what is now the Central Coast of California, in the Salinas Valley. Said to have gone extinct by the Census of 1930, the Salinan Native Americans survived and are now in the process of applying for tribal recognition from the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
There were two major divisions, the San Miguel in the south, on the upper course of the Salinas River (which flows south to north), and the San Antonio in the north, in the lower part of the Salinas Basin, corresponding to the two missions in the Salinas Valley (Mission San Antonio de Padua and Mission San Miguel Arcángel). There were also a Playano group which lived on the Pacific Coast in the vicinity of what is now San Simeon and Lucia. The Salinans lived by hunting and gathering and were organized in small groups with little centralized political structure.
The Salinan people were named after the Salinas River by Robert Latham (1856) and John Powell (1891). The people's own name for themselves was never recorded. C. Hart Merriam called these people the En-'ne-sen on advice from one informant; En-'ne-sen was the native word for the Salinan headquarters.
The Salinan language, spoken until the
The Houma people are a Native American tribe. The United Houma Nation is a state recognized tribe in Louisiana. They number approximately 17,000 tribal citizens residing within a six-parish (county) service area, which encompasses 4,750 square miles. The six parishes are the following: Lafourche, Terrebonne, Jefferson, St. Mary, St. Bernard and Plaquemines parishes. The city of Houma, west of the mouth of the Mississippi River, was named for them.
The Houma tribe, thought to be Muskogean-speaking like other Choctaw tribes, was recorded living along the Red River on the east side of Mississippi River, by the French explorer La Salle in 1682. Because their war emblem is the saktce-ho’ma, or Red Crawfish, the anthropologist John R. Swanton has speculated that the Houma are an offshoot of the Yazoo River region’s Chakchiuma tribe, whose name is a corruption of saktce-ho’ma.
Individuals in the tribe maintained contact with other Choctaw communities after settling in present-day lower Lafourche and Terrebonne parishes. It is not certain how the Houma came to settle near the mouth of the Red River (formerly called the River of the Houma). By the time of French exploration, the Houma were
The Lake Miwok were a branch of the Miwok, a Native American people of Northern California. The Lake Miwok lived in the Clear Lake basin of what is now called Lake County.
The Lake Miwok spoke their own Lake language in the Utian linguistic group. They lived by hunting and gathering, and lived in small bands without centralized political authority. They were skilled at basketry.
The original Lake Miwok people world view included Shamanism, one form this took was the Kuksu religion that was evident in Central and Northern California, which included elaborate acting and dancing ceremonies in traditional costume, an annual mourning ceremony, puberty rites of passage, shamanic intervention with the spirit world and an all-male society that met in subterranean dance rooms. Kuksu was shared with other indigenous ethnic groups of Central California, such as their neighbors the Lake Pomo, also Maidu, Ohlone, Esselen, and northernmost Yokuts. However Kroeber observed less "specialized cosmogony" in the Miwok, which he termed one of the "southern Kuksu-dancing groups", in comparison to the Maidu and other northern California tribes.
In their myths, legends, tales, and histories, the Lake
The Shoshone or Shoshoni (/ʃoʊˈʃoʊniː/ or /ʃəˈʃoʊniː/) are a Native American tribe in the United States with three large divisions: the Northern, the Western and the Eastern.
They traditionally spoke the Shoshoni language, a part of the Numic languages branch of the large Uto-Aztecan language family. The Shoshone were sometimes called the Snake Indians by early ethnic European trappers, travelers, and settlers.
The Northern Shoshone are concentrated in eastern Idaho, western Wyoming, and northeastern Utah. The Northern Shoshone would live in teepees, ride horses, and hunt buffalo.
The Eastern Shoshone tribes lived in Wyoming, northern Colorado and Montana. After 1750, warfare and pressure from the Blackfoot, Crow, Lakota, Cheyenne, and Arapaho pushed them south and westward. Some of them moved as far south as Texas, to become the Comanche.
The Western Shoshone tribes lived in Oregon and western Idaho, and ranged from central Idaho, northwestern Utah, central Nevada. Some are also located in California. The Idaho groups of Western Shoshone were called Tukuaduka (sheep eaters), while the Nevada/Utah bands were called the Gosiute or Toi Ticutta (cattail eaters). In California the
The Eel River Athapaskans include the Wailaki, Lassik, Nongatl, and Sinkyone groups of Native Americans that traditionally live on or near the Eel River of northwestern California.
These groups speak dialects of a single language belonging to the Athapaskan language family which is prominently represented in Alaska, western Canada, and the southwestern U.S. Other related Athapaskan groups neighboring the Eel River Athapaskans included the Hupa-Whilkut-Chilula to the north, the Mattole on the coast to the west, and the Kato to the south.
Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. (See Population of Native California.) Alfred L. Kroeber (1925:883) proposed a 1770 population for the Nongatl, Sinkyone, and Lassik as 2,000, and the population of the Wailaki as 1,000. Sherburne F. Cook (1976) suggested a total of 4,700 for the Nongatl, Sinkyone, Lassik, Wailaki, Mattole, and Kato. Martin A. Baumhoff (1958) estimated the aboriginal populations as 2,325 for the Nongatl, 4,221 for the Sinkyone, 1,411 for the Lassik, and 2,760 for the Wailaki, or a total of 10,717 for the four Eel River Athapaskan groups.
Kroeber estimated the
The Meskwaki (sometimes spelled Mesquakie or Meskwahki) are a Native American people often known to outsiders as the Fox tribe. They have often been closely linked to the Sauk people. In their own language, the Meskwaki call themselves Meshkwahkihaki, which means "the Red-Earths." Historically their homelands were in the Great Lakes region. The tribe coalesced in the St. Lawrence River Valley in Ontario; it later moved to Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, and Iowa. In the 19th century, Euro-American colonization and settlement proceeded, forcing resettlement of the people south into the tall grass prairie in the American Midwest. The Meskwaki, within the designation 'Sac and Fox,' currently have reservations in Iowa, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska.
The name is derived from the Meskwaki creation myth, in which their culture hero, Wisaka, created the first humans out of red clay. The name Fox originated from a French mistake of applying a clan 'fox' name to the entire tribe. Anglo-Americans, including the United States government, adopted the French term Renards (the Foxes) into English.
Meskwaki are of Algonquian origin from the prehistoric Woodland period culture area. The Meskwaki
US Indian Reservations:Moapa River Indian Reservation
The Moapa Band of Paiute Indians of the Moapa River Indian Reservation are a federally recognized tribe of Paiutes, who live in southern Nevada on the Moapa River Indian Reservation. They were in the past called the Moapats and the Nuwuvi.
The Moapa are adept at basketry. They traditionally wore clothing made of leather, yucca, and cliff-rose bark.
The Moapa practiced irrigation agriculture before contact with Europeans. The Moapa suffered from Spanish slave raiders attacks in the 18th and early 19th centuries.
In 1869 the United States relocated the Southern Paiutes to the Moapa area. Originally the entire Moapa River watershed and lands along the Colorado River (some of which area is now under Lake Mead) was assigned to the Moapa; however, in 1875 their reservation was reduced to 1,000 acres (4.0 km).
They latter suffered from decimation by disease in the 1920s and 1930s.
In 1941, they organized with a formal constitution. In 1980 the Moapa River reservation was expanded, with about 75,000 acres (300 km) added.
High rates of unemployment have plagued the reservation and caused some of the Moapa to relocate elsewhere.
Their reservation is the Moapa River Indian Reservation,
The Waxhaw Tribe (also spelled Waxhau) was a tribe native to what are now the counties of Lancaster, in South Carolina; and Union and Mecklenburg in North Carolina, around the area of Charlotte. The Waxhaw were related to other nearby Southeastern Siouian tribes, such as the Catawba and Sugeree.
Some scholars suggest the Waxhaw may have been a tribe of the Catawba rather than a separate people, given the similarity in what is known of the language and customs. A distinctive custom which they shared was flattening of the forehead of individuals. Flattening of the head gave the Waxhaw a distinctive look, with wide eyes and sloping foreheads. They started the process at birth by binding the infant to a flat board. The wider eyes were said to give the Waxhaw a hunting advantage.
The typical Waxhaw dwellings were similar to those of other peoples of the region. They were covered in bark. Ceremonial buildings, however, were usually thatched with reeds and bullgrass. The people held ceremonial dances, tribal meetings and other important rites in these council houses.
During the Yamasee War of 1715, the Waxhaw were almost annihilated by European colonists and rival tribes. An epidemic of
The Ho-Chunk, also known as Winnebago, are a Siouan-speaking tribe of Native Americans, native to the present-day states of Wisconsin, Minnesota, and parts of Iowa and Illinois. Today the two federally recognized Ho-Chunk tribes, the Ho-Chunk Nation of Wisconsin and Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska, have territory primarily within the states included in their names.
Since the late twentieth century, the two tribal councils have authorized the development of gambling casinos to generate revenues to support economic development, infrastructure, health care and education. The Ho-Chunk Nation is working on language restoration and has developed a Hocąk-language "app" for the iPhone. Since 1988, it has pursued a claim to the Badger Army Ammunition Plant as traditional territory; it has since been declared surplus, but the Ho-Chunk have struggled with changes in policy at the Department of Interior. It supported their claim in 1998 but in 2011 refused to accept the property on their behalf.
To build on its revenues from casinos, the Winnebago Tribe created an economic development corporation in 1994; it has grown and received awards as a model of entrepreneurial small business. With a number
The Quinnipiac Valley Indians were a 17th Century confederation of Native American groups under the leadership of Manitowese. They resided along the Quinnipiac River between modern New Haven and Meriden.
Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Nation, also known as the Three Affiliated Tribes, are a Native American group comprising a union of the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara peoples, whose native lands ranged across the Missouri River basin in the Dakotas. Hardship, losses from infectious disease and forced relocations brought the remnants of the peoples together in the late 19th century.
Today, the nation is based at the Fort Berthold Reservation in North Dakota. The Tribe consists of about 12,800 enrolled members. Nearly 4,500 live on the reservation; others live and work elsewhere.
In 2010 the tribe passed amendments emphasizing blood quantum or minimum amounts of tribal ancestry to qualify individuals for membership and as candidates for public office. Individuals must have at least 1/8 Mandan, Hidatsa, or Arikara ancestry (the equivalent of one full blooded great-grandparent) to become an enrolled member of the MHA Nation. Before the amendment's passage on November 3, 2010, membership was open to any individual with "Lineal Descent" with at least one parent being a member of the MHA Nation. This amendment passed by a vote of 616 for and 477 against. 2,583 people were registered to vote.
The Lytton Band of Pomo Indians is a federally recognized tribe of Pomo Native Americans. They were recognized in the late 1980s as lineal descendants of the two families who lived at the Lytton Rancheria in Healdsburg, California from 1937 to about 1960. The tribe now has between 200 and 300 enrolled members.
The tribe was founded in 1937 by Bert Steele, who was one-quarter Achomawi and part Nomlaki, and his wife, a Pomo from Bodega Bay, when they successfully petitioned the U.S. Office of Indian Affairs for the right to build on a 50-acre (200,000 m) plot north of Healdsburg north of Lytton Station Road after Steele's home was destroyed in a flood. Along with his brother-in-law, John Myers, and his wife, Mary Myers Steele (both Pomo from Sonoma), he moved onto the land, which the government had set aside for Native Americans. This land became the Lytton Rancheria and the namesake for the tribe
In 1958, in accordance with a policy of assimilating Native Americans into the rest of American society, Congress terminated the federal trust in the reservations lands of over forty California bands, including the Lytton Rancheria. The Lytton band was dissolved and its land was deeded to
The Maidu are an indigenous people of northern California. They reside in the central Sierra Nevada, in the drainage area of the Feather and American Rivers. In Maiduan languages, Maidu means "person".
There are three subcategories of Maidu:
Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. Population of Native California. Alfred L. Kroeber estimated the 1770 population of the Maidu (including the Konkow and Nisenan) as 9,000. Sherburne F. Cook raised this figure slightly, to 9,500.
Kroeber reported the population of the Maidu in 1910 as 1,100. The 1930 census counted only 93. As of 1995, the Maidu population had recovered to an estimated 3,500.
The Maidu were hunters and gatherers.
The Maidu were exemplary basket makers, weaving highly detailed and useful baskets in sizes ranging from thimble-sized to huge ones ten or more feet in diameter. The stitches on some of these baskets are so fine that you need a magnifying glass to see them. In addition to closely woven, watertight baskets for cooking, they made large storage baskets, bowls, shallow trays, traps, cradles, hats and seed beaters. To make these baskets they used dozens
The Awaswas people,also known as Santa Cruz people, are one of eight divisions of the Ohlone (Costanoan) Native Americans of Northern California. The Awaswas lived in the Santa Cruz Mountains and along the coast of present-day Santa Cruz County from present-day Davenport to Aptos.
Historically, they spoked the Awaswas language, one of the Costanoan language dialects in the Utian family, becoming the main language spoken at the Mission Santa Cruz. However, there is evidence that this grouping was more geographic than linguistic, and that the records of the 'Santa Cruz Costanoan' language in fact represent several diverse dialects.
The Awaswas territory was bordered by the Pacific Ocean to the west, and other Ohlone people on all other sides: the Ramaytush to the north, Tamyen to the east, and the Mutsun and Rumsien to the south.
During the era of Spanish missions in California, the Awaswas people's lives changed with the Mission Santa Cruz (founded in 1791) built in their territory. Most moved into this mission and were baptized, lived and educated to be Catholic neophytes, also known as Mission Indians, until the missions were discontinued by the Mexican Government in 1834.
The Duwamish (pronounced [dxʷdɐwʔabʃ] in Lushootseed) are a Lushootseed Native American tribe in western Washington, and the indigenous people of metropolitan Seattle, where they have been living since the end of the last glacial period (c. 8000 BCE, 10,000 years ago). The Duwamish tribe descends from at least two distinct groups from before intense contact with people of European ancestry—the People of the Inside (the environs of Elliott Bay) and the People of the Large Lake (Lake Washington)—and continues to evolve both culturally and ethnically. By historic language, the Duwamish are (Skagit-Nisqually) Lushootseed; Lushootseed is a Salishan language. Adjacent tribes throughout the Puget Sound-Strait of Georgia basin were, and are, interconnected and interrelated, yet distinct.
The present-day Duwamish tribe developed in parallel with the times of the Treaty of Point Elliott and its aftermath in the 1850s. Although not recognized by the U.S. federal government, the Duwamish remain an organized tribe with roughly 500 enrolled members as of 2004. In 2009, the Duwamish tribe opened the Duwamish Longhouse and Cultural Center on purchased land near their ancient settlement of
The Western Shoshone comprise several Shoshone tribes that are indigenous to the Great Basin and have lands identified in the Treaty of Ruby Valley 1863. They resided in Idaho, Nevada, California, and Utah. The tribes are very closely related culturally to the Paiute, Goshute, Bannock, Ute, and Timbisha tribes. Linguistically, they speak the Western dialect of the Shoshone language. Other Shoshone-speaking groups include the Goshute (Utah-Nevada border), Northern Shoshone (southern Idaho), and Eastern Shoshone (western Wyoming).
Federally recognized Western Shoshone Tribes include Duckwater Shoshone Tribe, Te-Moak Tribe of Western Shoshone Indians of Nevada and its four constituent band councils of Battle Mountain Band, Elko Band, Wells Band and South Fork Band), and Yomba Western Shoshone Tribe (near Austin, Nevada) and Timbisha Shoshone Tribe (in the region surrounding Death Valley, California) and Ely Shoshone Tribe. Other affiliated Tribes include: Owyhee Shoshone Paiute Tribe, Bishop Paiute-Shoshone Tribe, Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribe, and the Lone Pine Paiute-Shoshone Tribe.
The Western Shoshone have been engaged in legal battles with the federal government over rights to
The Habematolel Pomo of Upper Lake is a federally recognized tribe of Pomo Indians in Lake County, California. The tribe's reservation, the Upper Lake Rancheria, is 119 acres (0.48 km) large and located near the town of Upper Lake in northwestern California.
The Habematolel Pomo are indigenous to California's Clear Lake Basin. Artifacts made by early Native Americans in the Clear Lake Basin have been carbon-dated to 8,000 years ago, although tribal occupation probably extends back further in time. By 6,000 years ago the entire lake was used by tribes evenly settled around the lake shore. By 1800, Pomo population in California was an estimated to be 10,000-18,000 people, belonging to 70 different Pomo tribes and speaking seven different Pomo languages. The Habematolel Pomo, were some of the estimated 350 Northern Pomo. The Habematolel Pomo belong to the Northern and Eastern Pomo language groups, both of which are considered today to be extinct.
Known for their extensive trade networks, the Habematolel Pomo traded magnesite and obsidian with the Coast Miwoks for a variety of shells. Pomo are known for their woven baskets and elaborate feather headdresses.
The Bloody Island Massacre
The Elem Indian Colony of Pomo Indians (also known as the Elem Band of Pomo and Sulfur Bank Band of Pomo Indians) are a Native American band of Pomo based on 50 acres (200,000 m) near Clearlake Oaks, California on the Eastern shore of Clear Lake. The Elem Indian Colony reservation was originally formed under the name Sulfur Bank Rancheria in 1949.
The tribe was organized in 1936 and has a population of about 100. Currently they are attempting to regain ownership of Rattlesnake Island near their reservation, where they had held ceremonies for centuries.
The Indigenous peoples of the Great Basin are the Native American peoples of the Great Basin inhabited a cultural region between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada, in what is now Nevada, and parts of Oregon, California, Idaho, Wyoming, and Utah. There is very little precipitation in the Great Basin area, which affects the lifestyles and cultures of the inhabitants. The Great Basin is a cultural classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas.
While anthropologists can point to many distinct peoples, they shared certain common cultural elements that distinguished them from the surrounding groups. All but the Washoe spoke Numic languages, and there was considerable intermingling between the groups, which lived peacefully and often shared common territories. They were predominantly hunters and gatherers.
Anthropologists use the terms "Desert Archaic" or more simply "The Desert Culture" to refer to the culture of the Great Basin tribes. This culture is characterized by the need for mobility to take advantage of seasonally available food supplies. The use of pottery was rare due to its weight, but intricate baskets were woven for containing water, cooking food, winnowing
The Saura were a tribe of Native Americans who lived in the Piedmont area of North Carolina near the Sauratown Mountains, east of Pilot Mountain and north of the Yadkin River. They were believed to have spoken a Siouan language.
There are few historical references to the Saura people. Hernando de Soto may have passed through Saura towns, although the route of de Soto's expedition is a subject of dispute. References do appear in English records. John Lederer reported visiting Saura villages along the Yadkin River, Catawba River, and Dan River in 1670. In 1728, William Byrd conducted an expedition to survey the North Carolina and Virginia boundary, and reported finding two Saura villages on the Dan River, known as Lower Saura Town and Upper Saura Town. The towns had been abandoned by the time of Byrd's visit.
Scholars have conflicting theories about the tribe, its history, and its relation to other tribes. The Saura have been described as related to, or possibly a band of, various other tribes, primarily the Siouan Cheraw, Tutelo, Saponi, or Monacan.
The Saura are said to be of Siouan linguistic stock. Some sources argued they were Algonquian. Their name has been spelled variously as
The Eastern Pequot Tribal Nation is a Native American group based in southeastern Connecticut. They, along with the Schaghticoke in westernmost Connecticut, have been trying to regain federal recognition from the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Federal recognition was revoked in October 2005 following legal action by Connecticut. BIA recognition had been granted in 2002 after approval of a merger between two groups, the Paucatuck Eastern Pequots and the Eastern Pequots, as the Eastern Pequot Tribal Nation.
The Esselen are a Native American linguistic group in the hypothetical Hokan language family, who previously resided on the Central California coast and the coastal mountains, including what is now known as the Big Sur region in Monterey County, California. The members of this tribe are currently scattered, but many still live in the Monterey Peninsula and nearby regions. Historically, they were one of the smallest native American populations in California and due to their proximity to three Spanish Missions they were likely one of the first whose culture was severely repressed as a result of European contact and domination.
Archaeological and linguistic evidence indicates that the original people's territory once extended much farther north, into the San Francisco Bay Area, until they were displaced by the entrance of Ohlone people. Based on linguistic evidence, Richard Levy places the displacement at around AD 500. Breschini and Haversat place the entry of Ohlone speakers into the Monterey area prior to 200 B.C. based on multiple lines of evidence. Carbon dating of excavated sites places the Esselen in the Big Sur since circa 2630 BCE. Recently, however, a radiocarbon date has
The Yurok, whose name means "downriver people" in the neighboring Karuk language (also called yuh'ára, or yurúkvaarar in Karuk) , are Native Americans who live in northwestern California near the Klamath River and Pacific coast. Their autonym is Olekwo'l meaning "Persons." Today they live on the Yurok Indian Reservation, on several rancherias, including the Trinidad Rancheria, or throughout Humboldt County.
Traditionally, Yurok people lived in permanent villages along the Klamath River. Some of the villages date back to the 14th century. They fished for salmon along rivers, gathered ocean fish and shellfish, hunted game, and gathered plants.
Their first contact with non-Natives was when Spanish explorers entered their territory in 1775. Fur traders and trappers from the Hudson's Bay Company came in 1827. Following encounters with white settlers moving into their aboriginal lands during a gold rush in 1850, the Yurok were faced with disease and massacres that reduced their population by 75%. In 1855, following the Klamath and Salmon River Indian War the Lower Klamath River Indian Reservation was created by executive order. The Reservation boundaries included a portion of the Yurok's
The Occaneechi Band of the Saponi Nation are descendants of the historic Saponi and other Siouan-speaking Indians who occupied the Piedmont of North Carolina and Virginia. The community is located primarily in Pleasant Grove Township, Alamance County, North Carolina. The tribe maintains an office in Mebane, where it carries out programs to benefit the roughly 701 enrolled tribal members.
Limited documentation exists linking members of the tribe to the historical Occaneechi and Saponi tribes. After warfare in the Southeast in the 18th century, most of the remaining Saponi tribe members went north in 1740 for protection with the Iroquois. After the American Revolution, they relocated with the Iroquois in Canada, as they had been allies of the British.
After the war and migration, the Saponi disappeared from the historical record in the Southeast, in part because of racial discrimination that often included them in records only as free blacks or free people of color, when the states and federal government had no category in censuses for American Indian. In addition, because slavery became essentially a racial caste, southern society tended to classify people with any African ancestry
The Okwanuchu were one of a number of small Shastan-speaking tribes of Native Americans in Northern California, who were closely related to the adjacent larger Shasta tribe. The Okwanuchu occupied territory south, southwest, and southeast of Mount Shasta, California, USA, including the present-day cities of Mount Shasta, California, McCloud, California and Dunsmuir, California, the upper Sacramento River downstream to North Salt Creek, the Squaw Valley Creek drainage, and the upper McCloud River downstream to where it meets Squaw Valley Creek.
The Okwanuchu were speakers of the older Hokan-speaking family of languages, with archaeological sites associated with their range dating back in excess of 5000 years. Members of the Penutian-speaking family of languages, especially the Wintu, arrived in central Northern California in the vicinity of Redding, California about 1200 years ago, likely from southern Oregon. The Wintu possessed superior technology, were out-competing their Hokan-language family neighbors, and were expanding Wintu territory at the expense of the Okwanuchu and the Achomawi to the north, and the Yana to the east. It appears likely that even if Europeans and Americans
The Sacs or Sauks are a group of Native Americans of the Eastern Woodlands culture group. Their autonym is (oθaakiiwaki in their own language, and their exonym is Ozaagii(-wag) in Ojibwe. The latter is the source of their names in French and English.
Originally, the Sauk had a patrilineal clan system, in which descent was traced through the father. Clans which continue are: Fish, Ocean/Sea, Thunder, Bear, Fox, Potato, Deer, Beaver, Snow, and Wolf. The tribe was governed by a council of sacred clan chiefs, a war chief, the head of families, and the warriors. Chiefs fell into three categories: civil, war, and ceremonial, but only the civil chief was hereditary. The other two chiefs were determined by demonstrating their ability or their spiritual power.
This traditional manner of selecting historic clan chiefs and governance was replaced in the 19th century by United States appointees of the Sac and Fox Agency. In the 20th century, the tribe adopted a constitutional government patterned after the United States form. They elect their chiefs.
The Sac are believed to have had their original territory along the St. Lawrence River. They were driven by pressure from other tribes,
The Alturas Indian Rancheria is a federally recognized tribe of Achomawi Indians in California.
The tribe controls 20-acre (81,000 m) reservation near Alturas, California, in Modoc County. Tribal enrollment is estimated at 15. The tribe operates the Desert Rose Casino and the Rose Cafe in Alturas.
The Achomawi are also known as the Pit River Indians. They traditionally spoke the Achumawi language.
41°28′40″N 120°31′28″W / 41.477654°N 120.524403°W / 41.477654; -120.524403
The Chemehuevi are a federally recognized Native American tribe enrolled in the Chemehuevi Indian Tribe of the Chemehuevi Reservation. They are the southernmost branch of Paiutes.
The Chemehuevi Reservation is located in San Bernardino County, California bordering Lake Havasu for 25 miles (40 km) and along the Colorado River. The reservation is 30,653 acres (124.05 km) large and has a population of 345.
"Chemehuevi" has multiple interpretations. It is considered to either be a Mojave term meaning "those who play with fish;" or a Quechan word meaning "nose-in-the-air-like-a-roadrunner." The Chemehuevi call themselves Nüwüwü ("The People", singular Nüwü) or Tantáwats, meaning "Southern Men."
The language, Chemehuevi, is a Colorado River Numic language, in the Numic language branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family. First transcribed by John P. Harrington and Carobeth Laird in the early 20th Century, it was studied in the 1970s by linguist Margaret L. Press. whose field notes and extensive sound recordings remain available. The language is now near extinction; during the filming of Ironbound Films' 2008 American documentary film The Linguists, linguists Greg Anderson and K. David
The Colorado River Indian Tribes is a geo-political unit consisting of the four distinct tribes associated with the Colorado River Indian Reservation: the Mohave, Chemehuevi, Hopi and Navajo. The combined tribe is governed by a council of nine members and overseen by a tribal Chairman, Secretary and Treasurer who come from amongst the council members. The four tribes continue to maintain and observe their traditional ways and religious and culturally unique identities.
Their reservations cover 1,119.4445 km² (432.22 sq mi) of land in Riverside and San Bernardino counties in California, and La Paz County, Arizona. Today there are only about 3,500 active members of the tribes. They are located in communities in and around Parker and Poston. The 2000 census reported a population of 9,201 persons residing on the reservation. The main economy for the tribes is derived from the agricultural industry, growing cotton, alfalfa and sorghum. Recently, they've added tourism to the economy with the opening of the BlueWater Resort and Casino. The largest community is the town of Parker.
The Coos, Lower Umpqua and Siuslaw Indians are also known as the Confederated Tribes of the Coos, Lower Umpqua & Siuslaw, and are a United States Bureau of Indian Affairs-recognized Native American tribal entity.
They are the owners of the Three Rivers Casino in Florence, Oregon.
The Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria, formerly known as the Federated Coast Miwok, is a federally recognized American Indian tribe of Coast Miwok and Southern Pomo Indians. The tribe was officially restored to federal recognition by the U.S. government pursuant to the Graton Rancheria Restoration Act, Pub. L. No. 106-568, Title XIV (114 Stat. 2939), 25 U.S.C. § 1300n et. seq. (2000).
Prior to European contact, the residents of Marin and Sonoma Counties were bands of Native Californians belonging to two linguistic and cultural groups: the Coast Miwok and Southern Pomo, living in close proximity to each other and indigenous to Marin and southern Sonoma Counties in Northern California.
Occupied at various times during more than thirty centuries, over 600 village sites have been identified in the Coast Miwok territory, stretching from Bodega Bay to the north, eastward beyond the towns of Cotati and Sonoma, and along the Point Reyes National Seashore and the shores of Tomales Bay. The year 1579 was the earliest recorded account made by the Europeans of the Coast Miwok people on the coast of Marin in the Point Reyes area, as documented in a diary by Chaplain Fletcher who was aboard
The Modoc Tribe of Oklahoma is a federally recognized tribe, the smallest in Oklahoma, of Modoc people. They are descendants of Captain Jack's band of Modoc people, removed from the West Coast after the Modoc Wars.
The Modoc Tribe of Oklahoma is headquartered in Miami, Oklahoma. Of the 250 enrolled tribal members, 120 live within the state of Oklahoma. The Tribe's Chief is Bill Follis, who was instrumental in securing federal re-recognition. The Modoc tribal jurisdictional area falls within Ottawa County, Oklahoma.
The Oklahoma Modocs operate their own housing authority, one casino, a tribal smoke shop, Red Cedar Recycling, and the Modoc Bison Project as a member of the Inter-Tribal Bison Cooperative. They also issue their own tribal license plates. The Modoc Tribe operates its casino, The Stables. The casino is located in Miami, Oklahoma, and includes a restaurant and gift shop.
Tribally-owned Red Cedar Recycling provides free cardboard and paper recycling for area businesses and residents and pays market rate for aluminum to recycle. The tribal company also provides educational materials about recycling and hosts tire recycling events.
The ancestral home of the Modoc Tribe of
The Mono ( /ˈmoʊnoʊ/) are a Native American people who traditionally live in the central Sierra Nevada Mountains, the Eastern Sierra (generally south of Bridgeport), the Mono Basin, and adjacent areas of the Great Basin.
Throughout recorded history, the Mono have also been known as "Mona," "Monache," or "Northfork Mono," as labeled by E.W. Gifford, an ethnographer studying people in the vicinity of the San Joaquin River in the 1910s. The tribe's western neighbors, the Yokuts, called them monachie meaning "fly people" because fly larvae was their chief food staple and trading article. That led to the name Mono.
The Mono referred to themselves as Nyyhmy in the Mono language; a full blooded Mono person was called cawu h nyyhmy.
Today, many of the tribal citizens and descendents of the Mono tribe inhabit the town of North Fork (thus the label "Northfork Mono") in Madera County. People of the Mono tribe are also spread across California in: the Owens River Valley; the San Joaquin Valley and foothills areas, especially Fresno County; and in the San Francisco Bay Area.
The two clans of the North Fork Mono Tribe are represented by the golden eagle and the coyote. Mono traditions still in
The Nespelem people belong to one of 12 aboriginal Confederated Tribes of the Colville Indian Reservation in eastern Washington. They lived primarily near the banks of the Nespelem River, an Upper Columbia River tributary, in an area now known as Nespelem, Washington, located on the Colville Indian Reservation. Alternate spellings include Nespelim or Nespilim.
The Nespelem are considered Interior Salish, a designation that also includes the Okanagan, Sinixt, Wenatchi, Sanpoil, Spokan, Kalispel, Pend d'Oreilles, Coeur d'Alene, and Flathead peoples.
Ross classifies Nespelem as one of the Okanagan tribes, while Winans classifies them as part of the Sanpoil.
In 1905, the United States Indian Office counted 41 Nespelim; in 1910, the census counted 46; in 1913, after a survey, the Office of Indian Affairs counted 43.
half above Skik.
The Nicoleño were a Native American tribe living on San Nicolas Island in California. Juana Maria, the "Lone Woman of San Nicolas," was the last surviving Nicoleño when she died in 1853.
Archeological evidence suggests San Nicolas, like the other Channel Islands, has been populated for at least 10,000 years, though perhaps not continuously. It is thought the Nicoleño were closely related to the peoples of Santa Catalina and San Clemente Islands; these were members of the Takic branch of the Uto-Aztecan peoples and were related to the Tongva of modern-day Los Angeles County. The name "Nicoleño" has been conventional since its use by Alfred L. Kroeber in Handbook of Indians of California; the Chumash called them the "Niminocotch," and called San Nicolas "Ghalas-at." Their name for themselves is unknown.
The expedition of Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo spotted San Nicolas Island in 1543, but they did not land or make any notes about the inhabitants. In 1602 the Spanish explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno visited San Nicolas and gave it its current name. Little is known of the Nicoleño through the historical record between that date and the early 19th century. By that time the population seems to
The Suisunes (also called the Suisun and the "People of the West Wind") were a tribe of Native Americans that lived in Northern California's Suisun Marsh regions of Solano County, California between what is now Suisun City, Vacaville and Putah Creek around 200 years ago. The Suisunes' main village, Yulyul, is believed to be where Rockville, California is located today. Father Abella, visitor to the tribe in 1811, indicated they resided in the present location of Fairfield, north of the Suisun Bay. One of the Suisunes' primary food sources was acorns. Their diet also included fish as well as Miner's Lettuce. Their huts (as recorded by the Spaniards in 1817) were conical wikiups made of rushes or tule thatch.
The Suisunes were one tribe of the Patwin Indians, who were the southern branch of the Wintun group, who had lived in the region for up to 4000 years. Few records have been handed down; approximately 2500-5000 Patwins existed in all.
By 1800, Spain had taken control of most of the Bay Area, having erected seven missions in the Ohlone region south and west of the Suisunes' region. The closest mission to the Suisunes was across the San Francisco Bay, Mission San Francisco de Asís.
The Wintu (also Northern Wintun) are Native Americans who live in what is now Northern California. They are part of a loose association of peoples known collectively as the Wintun (or Wintuan). Others are the Nomlaki and the Patwin. The Wintu language is part of the Penutian language family.
Historically, the Wintu lived primarily on the western side of the northern part of the Sacramento Valley, from the Sacramento River to the Coast Range. The range of the Wintu also included the southern portions of the Upper Sacramento River (south of the Salt Creek drainage), the southern portion of the McCloud River, and the upper Trinity River. They also lived in the vicinity of present-day Chico, on the west side of the river extending to the Coast Ranges.
Many Wintun live on the Round Valley Reservation, and on the Colusa, Cortina, Grindstone Creek, Redding, and Rumsey rancherias.
The first recorded encounter between Wintu and Euro-Americans dates from the 1826 expedition of Jedediah Smith, followed by an 1827 expedition led by Peter Skene Ogden. Between 1830 and 1833, many Wintu died from malaria: an epidemic that killed an estimated 75% of the indigenous population in the upper and
The Mattole, including the Bear River Indians, are a group of Native Americans traditionally living on the Mattole and Bear rivers in the vicinity of Cape Mendocino, within the present Humboldt County, California. A notable difference between the Mattole and other indigenous people of what is now northwest California is that the men traditionally had facial tattoos (on the forehead), while other local groups traditionally restricted facial tattooing to women.
The Mattole spoke an Athapaskan language that may have been closely related to that of their Eel River neighbors to the east.
Their Wailaki name was Tul'bush, meaning "foreigners." The Bear River Indians called themselves and the Mattole "Ni'ekeni'".
Aboriginal Bear River villages included Tcalko', Chilsheck, Chilenche, Selsche'ech, Tlanko, Estakana, and Sehtla.
Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. (See Population of Native California.) Alfred L. Kroeber put the 1770 population of the Mattole at 500. Sherburne F. Cook estimated the combined populations of the Mattole, Whilkut, Nongatl, Sinkyone, Lassik, and Kato at 4,700, at least 50% higher than Kroeber's
The Washoe are a Great Basin tribe of Native Americans, living in California and Nevada. The name "Washoe" is derived from the autonym waashiw (wa·šiw) meaning "people from here" in the Washo language (transliterated in older literature as Wa She Shu).
Washoe people have lived in the Great Basin for at least the last 6000 years. Prior to contact with Europeans, the territory of the Washoe people was roughly bounded by the southern shore of Honey Lake in the north, the west fork of the Walker River in the south, the Sierra Nevada crest in the west, and the first range east of the Sierra Nevada in the east. The Washoe would generally spend the summer in the Sierra Nevada, the fall in the ranges to the east, and the winter and spring in the valleys between them.
Washoe people are the only Great Basin tribe whose language is not Numic, so they are believed to have inhabited the region before neighboring tribes. The Kings Beach Complex that emerged around 500 CE around Lake Tahoe and the northern Sierra Nevadas are regarded as early Washoe culture. The Martis complex may have overlapped with the Kings Beach culture, and Martis pit houses gave way to conical bark slab houses of historic
The Hasinai Confederacy (Caddo: Hasíinay) was a large confederation of Caddo-speaking Native Americans located between the Sabine and Trinity rivers in eastern Texas. Today they are enrolled in the Caddo Nation of Oklahoma.
They were known as the Tejas—Texas, old Spanish spelling—by Spanish explorers, or even Hasini, being the plural Spanish version of the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend". This name was later given to the state of Texas. They are also referred to as Hasini, Asenai, Asinai, Assoni, Asenay, Cenis and Sannaye.
At the time of the Spanish and French encounter with the Hasinai in the 1680s the Hasinai were a centrally organized chiefdom under the control of a religious leader known as the Grand Xinesi. The Xinesi lived in a secluded house. He met with a council of councilors. The Hasinai chieftainship consisted of several sub-divisions which the have been designated "contonments". Each of these was under the control of a Caddi. There was also men designated as Canahas and Chayas who helped the Caddi run the system.
During the 17th century the Hasinai carried on trade with the Jumanos at the western Hasinai city of Nabedache. Some consider the residents of Nabedache to have
The Potatuck tribe (also Pohtatuck, Pootatuck) were a Native American existed during and prior to colonial times in western Connecticut, USA. They were a sub-group of the Paugussett Nation and lived in what is present day Newtown, Woodbury and Southbury. They were a farming and fishing culture, cultivating corn, squash, beans and tobacco and fishing in freshwater and possibly traveling to the coast to fish in summer months.
They eventually amalgamated with the Weantinock and other indigenous people to form Schaghticokes in western Connecticut.
The Crow, also called the Apsáalooke in their own Siouan language, or Absaroka, are a federally recognized tribe of Native Americans who in historical times lived in the Yellowstone River valley, which extends from present-day Wyoming, through Montana and into North Dakota, where it joins the Missouri River.
They had migrated there from Eastern Woodland areas. In turn, they were pushed to the west by the Lakota (Sioux), who took over the territory from the Black Hills of South Dakota to the Big Horn Mountains of Montana.
Since the nineteenth century, the people have been concentrated on a reservation established south of Billings, Montana. They also live in several major, mainly western, cities. Tribal headquarters are located at Crow Agency, Montana.
The name of the tribe, Apsáalooke [əˈpsaːloːke], meaning "children of the large-beaked bird", was a name given by the Hidatsa, a neighboring Siouan tribe. The bird, perhaps now extinct, was defined as a fork-tailed bird resembling the blue jay or magpie. French interpreters translated the name as gens du corbeaux (people of [the] crows), and they became known in English as the Crow. In 1743 the Absaroka encountered their first people
The Cupeño are a Native American tribe from Southern California. Their name in their own language is Kuupangaxwichem.
They traditionally lived about 50 miles (80 km) inland and 50 miles (80 km) north of the modern day U.S.-Mexico border in the Peninsular Range of Southern California. Today they are part of the Pala Band of Luiseno Mission Indians, Morongo Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians, and Los Coyotes Band of Cahuilla and Cupeno Indians.
Several different groups combined to form Cupeño culture around 1000 to 1200 CE. They were closely related to Cahuilla culture. The Cupeño people traditionally lived in the mountains in the San Jose Valley at the headwaters of the San Luis Rey River. They lived in two autonomous villages, Wilákalpa and Kúpa, also spelled Cupa, which north of Warner Springs, California. They also lived at Agua Caliente, located east of Lake Henshaw on State Highway 79 near Warner Springs, California. The 200-acre (0.81 km) Cupeño Indian village site is now abandoned but evidence of its historical importance remains.
Spaniards entered Cupeño lands in 1795 and took control of the lands by the 19th century. Juan Jose Warner, a naturalized American-Mexican citizen,
The Cloverdale Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California is a federally recognized tribe of Pomo Indians in California.
The Tribe is currently considered "landless", as they do not have any land that is in Federal Trust for the Tribe. However, in 2008 the Tribe acquired approximately 80 acres of property on the southern end of Cloverdale, Sonoma County, California. The property is currently going through the Fee to Trust process to become the Tribe's landbase.
The Cloverdale Rancheria is a community of Pomo Indians, who are indigenous to Sonoma County in northern California. They traditionally spoke the Southern Pomo language. Basketry was integral to Pomo culture, and both men and women wove baskets. Annie Burke, the mother of one of the most celebrated Pomo basket weavers, Elsie Allen, was a Cloverdale Pomo and Elsie spent part of her childhood living on the Cloverdale Rancheria.
Russian fur traders were the first non-Indians to settle in Pomo land in the late 18th century. They established Fort Ross in 1812 and hunted sea otter. The gold rush of the mid-19th century brought an onslaught of European-Americans to the region, who disrupted tribal life and destroyed tribal lands.
The Halchidhoma (Halchidhoma: Xalychidom Piipaa or Xalychidom Piipaash -'people who live toward the water') are an Indian tribe now living mostly on the Salt River reservation, but formerly native to the area along the lower Colorado River in California and Arizona when first contacted by Europeans. In the early nineteenth century, under pressure from their hostile Mohave and Quechan neighbors, they moved to the middle Gila River, where some merged with the Maricopa, and others went on to Salt River and maintained an independent identity.
The Halchidhoma speak a Yuman language. It belongs to the River branch of the Yuman family, together with the Quechan (or Yuma), Maricopa, and Mohave languages.
The Halchidhoma entered written history in 1604-1605, when a Spanish expedition coming overland from New Mexico under Juan de Oñate encountered the "Alebdoma" on the lower Colorado River, below its junction with the Gila River. When the Jesuit missionary-explorer Eusebio Francisco Kino returned to the river in 1700, the Halchidhoma had moved to a portion of the river 100 miles farther north.
A system of military alliances and traditional hostilities seems to have prevailed among the
The Hidatsa (called Minnetaree by their allies, the Mandan; Assiniboine: wakmúhaza yúde, ȟewáktųkta ) are a Siouan people, a part of the Three Affiliated Tribes. The Hidatsa's autonym is Hiraacá. According to the tribal tradition, the word hiraacá derives from the word "willow"; however, the etymology is not transparent and the similarity to mirahací ‘willows’ inconclusive. The present name Hidatsa was formerly borne by one of the three tribal villages. When the villages consolidated, the name was adopted for the tribe as a whole. Their language is related to that of the Crow, and they are sometimes considered a parent tribe to the modern Crow in Montana. Occasionally they have also been confused with the Gros Ventres in Montana.
Accounts of recorded history in the early 18th century identify three closely related village groups to which the term Hidatsa is applied. What is now known as the Hidatsa tribe is the amalgamation of these three groups: the Hidatsa proper, the Awatixa, and the Awaxawi (or Amahami) (Bowers 1965). These groups had discrete histories and spoke different dialects; they came together only after settling on the Missouri River.
The Amahami have a creation
The Seneca–Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma is a federally recognized tribe of Seneca and Cayuga people, based in Oklahoma, United States. They have a tribal jurisdictional area in the northeast corner of Oklahoma are headquartered in Grove, Oklahoma.
The Seneca–Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma have an electorate system of government, consisting of two governing bodies: the Reservation Business Committee (RBC), which acts as the Tribe's council that oversee the daily governing of the Tribe, and the Grievance Committee, which acts as the Tribe's judiciary.
The Reservation Business Committee consists of seven members: Chief, Second Chief, Secretary-Treasurer and four RBC Members. The current chief is LeRoy Howard. The Grievance Committee consists of five members. On odd years, Chief, First and Third RBC Members, and First, Third and Fifth Grievance Committee Members are elected. On even years, the Second Chief, Secretary-Treasurer, Second and Fourth RBC Members and Second and Fourth Grievance Committee Members are elected. All elected terms are for two years.
The Seneca–Cayuga criteria for tribal membership are:
There are 5,059 enrolled members of the tribe, of which 1,174 live in Oklahoma.
The Sherwood Valley Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California is a federally recognized tribe of Pomo Indians in California.
The tribe's reservation, the Sherwood Valley Rancheria, is located in Mendocino County, near Willits, California, on Highway 101. It is 356 acres (1.44 km) large. The lands on the reservation are called the old and new rancheria.
The Sherwood Valley Rancheria is a community of Coastal Pomo Indians, who are indigenous to Sonoma and Mendocino Counties in northern California. Their historical community was called Kulá Kai Pomo, and they traditionally lived along the upper course of the Eel River. They spoke the Pomo language. The last traditional chief of the Kulá Kai Pomo was Lunkaya.
Russians were the first non-Indians with whom the Pomo had sustained contact. They withdrew, only to be replaced by increasing numbers of European-Americans, who came to Pomo country to farm or to mine gold in the mid-19th century. Non-Indians quickly outnumbers the Indians and wreaked havoc on their communities. A system of rancherias, or small reservations, was established by the US government for displaced Californian tribes, including the Sherwood Valley Rancheria.
The Sitka Tribe of Alaska is the federally recognized tribal government for more than 4,000 federally recognized Native people, mostly Alaska Native from Southeast Alaska, living in or near Sitka in the U.S. state of Alaska.
The tribal government was created through the passage of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. It was originally called the Sitka Community Association.
The Timbisha ("Red Rock Face Paint") are a Native American tribe federally recognized as the Death Valley Timbisha Shoshone Band of California. They are known as the Timbisha Shoshone Tribe and are located in south central California, near the Nevada border.
The Timbisha have lived in the Death Valley region of North America for over a thousand years. In 1933 President Herbert Hoover created Death Valley National Monument, an action that subsumed the tribe's homeland within park boundaries. Despite their long-time presence in the region, the proclamation failed to provide a homeland for the Timbisha people. After unsuccessful efforts to remove the band to nearby reservations, National Park Service officials entered into an agreement with tribal leaders to allow the Civilian Conservation Corps to construct an Indian village for tribal members near park headquarters at Furnace Creek in 1938. Thereafter tribal members survived within monument boundaries, although their status was repeatedly challenged by monument officials. They also lived in the Great Basin Saline Valley and northern Mojave Desert Panamint Valley areas of present day southeastern California.
Estimates for the
Cheyenne (/ʃaɪˈæn/ shy-AN) are an indigenous people of the Great Plains, who are of the Algonquian language family. The Cheyenne Nation is composed of two tribes, the Só'taeo'o (more commonly spelled as Suhtai or Sutaio) and the Tsétsêhéstâhese (more commonly spelled as Tsitsistas). These merged to form a unified nation in the early 19th century. Today Cheyenne people are split geographically with the Southern Cheyenne in Oklahoma and the Northern Cheyenne in Montana. Both are enrolled, federally recognized tribes.
The Cheyenne are thought to have branched off other tribes of Algonquian stock inhabiting lands around the Great Lakes in present-day Minnesota, perhaps ca. 1500. In historic times they moved west, migrating across the Mississippi River and into North and South Dakota. During the early 19th century, the Cheyenne formed a unified tribe, with more centralized authority through ritual ceremonies and structure than other Plains Indians. Having settled the Black Hills of South Dakota and the Powder River Country of present-day Montana, they introduced the horse culture to Lakota (Sioux) bands about 1730. Allied with the Arapaho, the Cheyenne pushed the Kiowa to the South. In
The Piegan Blackfeet (Aamsskáápipikani (Southern Piikáni/Peigan) or simply as Piikáni in Blackfoot) are a tribe of Native Americans of the Algonquian language family based in Montana, having lived in this area since around 6,500 BC. Many members of the tribe live as part of the Blackfeet Nation in northwestern Montana, with population centered in Browning. According to the 1990 US census, there are 32,234 Blackfeet. Three other tribes of the Blackfoot Confederacy are First Nations located in Alberta, Canada.
The Blackfeet are closely related to three First Nations in the Canadian province of Alberta. All speak dialects of the Blackfoot language. These First Nations are the Kainai Nation (formerly the Blood), the Northern Peigan and the Siksika Nation. These First Nations and the Blackfeet are sometimes collectively referred to as the Blackfoot or the Blackfoot Confederacy. Ethnographic literature most commonly uses "Blackfoot people", and Canadian Blackfoot people use the singular Blackfoot. The US and tribal governments officially use "Blackfeet", as in Blackfeet Indian Reservation and Blackfeet Nation, as seen on official tribe website. The term Siksika, derived from Siksikáíkoan
The Manchester Band of Pomo Indians of the Manchester-Point Arena Rancheria is a federally recognized tribe of Pomo Indians in California.
The tribe's reservation is the Manchester-Point Arena Rancheria, situated near the towns of Manchester and Point Arena in Mendocino County, California. The reservation is 364 acres (1.47 km) large.
The tribe is a community of Pomo Indians who are native to northern California. The Manchester-Point Arena Pomos speak the Central Pomo dialect of the Pomo language. The late Eileen Oropeza and Winifred Leal are Manchester-Point Arena native speakers of the language, as was the late Jesse Frank.
The Manchester-Point Arena Pomos formed their current governmental system under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1935, and their constitution was ratified on 11 March 1936. To vote in tribal elections, enrolled members must be at least 18. All qualified voters form a community council and officers include the tribal chairman, vice-chairman, secretary, and treasurer. The population of the tribe is estimated at 873. Tribal enrollment is based upon lineal descent from members listed on the official 1 April 1935 census rolls and does not require a minimum blood
The MOWA Band of Choctaw Indians are a state-recognized Native American tribe located in southern Alabama, primarily in Washington and Mobile counties. The MOWA Choctaw Reservation is located along the banks of the Mobile and Tombigbee rivers, on 300 acres (1.2 km²) near the small southwestern Alabama communities of McIntosh, Mount Vernon and Citronelle, and north of Mobile. In addition to those members on the reservation, about 3,600 tribal citizens live in 10 small settlements near the reservation community. They are led by elected Chief Wilford Taylor. They claim descent from small groups of Choctaw people of Mississippi and Alabama who avoided removal to Indian Territory in present-day Oklahoma at the time of the 1830 Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek.
Since the late 20th century, the MOWA Choctaw have attempted to gain recognition as a federally recognized tribe. They have encountered difficulties in trying to satisfy documentation of continuity requirements of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). So far they have been unsuccessful in gaining recognition. In addition, the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians and the Poarch Band of Creek Indians, both federally recognized tribes
The Ohlone people, also known as the Costanoan, are a Native American people of the central California coast. When Spanish explorers and missionaries arrived in the late 18th century, the Ohlone inhabited the area along the coast from San Francisco Bay through Monterey Bay to the lower Salinas Valley. At that time they spoke a variety of languages, the Ohlone languages, belonging to the Costanoan sub-family of the Utian language family, which itself belongs to the proposed Penutian language phylum or stock. The term "Ohlone" has been used in place of "Costanoan" since the 1970s by some descendant groups and by most ethnographers, historians, and writers of popular literature. Before the Spanish came, the Ohlone lived in more than 50 distinct landholding groups, and did not view themselves as a distinct group. They survived by hunting, fishing, and gathering, in the typical ethnographic California pattern. Originally, the Ohlone religion was shamanism, but in the years 1769 to 1833, the Spanish missions in California had a devastating effect on Ohlone culture. The Ohlone population declined steeply during this period.
The Ohlone living today belong to one or another of a number of
The Sycuan Band of the Kumeyaay Nation is a federally recognized tribe of Mission Indians from Southern California, near the El Cajon. The Sycuan band are a Kumeyaay tribe, one of the four ethnic groups indigenous to San Diego County.
Daniel Tucker is their current tribal spokesperson.
The band operates two waste water treatment plants, a sequencing batch reactor used for their casino, administrative buildings, and maintenance buildings. They also operate and own a modular treatment plant in a flood plain near one of their residential areas. The tribe operates a water treatment facility which controls their nitrate levels. Additionally, the tribe has and operates a small medical clinic, dental office, a fire department and a small tribal police force. In 2005, they eliminated their environmental department for political and economic reasons. In 2004, they installed a new air conditioning system, internal control systems, and a new parking lot.
The move toward casino gaming on the Sycuan Band reservation was spearheaded by the Sycuan Band's former chairwoman, Anna Prieto Sandoval. The Sycuan Band opened its first gambling facility, the Sycuan Bingo Palace, on their reservation in
The Tolowa people are a Native American tribe. They still reside in their traditional territories in northwestern California and southern Oregon. Tolowa are members of the federally recognized Smith River Rancheria, Elk Valley Rancheria, Confederated Tribes of Siletz, Trinidad Rancheria, as well as the unrecognized Tolowa Nation.
The Tolowa people traditionally lived in the Smith River basin and vicinity in northwestern California and southwestern Oregon in the United States. The area was bounded by Port Orford, Oregon to the north and Wilson Creek, north of the Klamath River, in California to the south. They lived in approximately eight permanent villages in what is now California and Oregon, including on Crescent Bay, Lake Earl, and the Smith River. The name "Tolowa" is an Algonquian name given to them by the Yurok people. Their autonym is Xus, meaning "person." (Their Karuk name, yuh'ára, "Indian from downriver" was also used for the Yurok).
They have traditionally spoken the Tolowa language, one of the Athapaskan languages. Their subsistence was oriented around riverine and marine resources and acorns. Their society was not formally stratified, but considerable stress was put
The Beaver Creek Indians are a state recognized tribe located in South Carolina, USA. They achieved state recognition on January 27, 2006 and are seeking federal recognition. The tribe formally organized as a non-profit organization in 1998 to seek official recognition.
The people were recorded on historical lands are between the two forks of the Edisto River in Orangeburg County, and especially along Beaver Creek. Historical accounts document the tribe in this area since the 18th century. Most of the tribe members live in the area. They have traditionally farmed (it is a rural area) or held jobs within the local community.
The tribe's historical language family was Siouan, one of the major languages connecting them to such tribes of the Piedmont region as the Pee Dee and Catawba. Today all members speak English. Common family names within the tribe are: Chavis, Hutto, Williams, Barr, Bolin, Jackson, Huffman and Gleaton.
The tribe is governed by a Chief (Louie Chavis) and a Vice Chief (Kenneth Adams), and an elected Tribal Council of nine members. An Elders Council of five members also provides consultation and advice. The tribe's current headquarters is in the town of Salley,
The Flandreau Santee Sioux Tribe are a federally recognized tribe of Santee Dakota people. Their reservation is the Flandreau Indian Reservation. The tribe are members of the Mdewakantonwan people, one of the sub-tribes of the Isanti (Santee) Dakota (Sioux) originally from central Minnesota.
In 1934, the Tribe was recognized under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. Today the Flandreau Santee Sioux Reservation is located on 2,500 acres (10 km) of land in South Dakota. Notable tribal member Chief Little Crow participated in the Dakota War of 1862.
The Hahamog'na, commonly anglicized to Hahamongna /hɑːˈhɑːməŋɡə/, are a tribe of the Tongva people of California. They speak a language of the Uto-Aztecan family.
Tongva spelling: Xaxaamonga
Xaxaamovetam = people of Xaxaamonga Xaxaamovet = person of Xaxaamonga
The Hahamogna inhabited the Verdugo Mountains foothills: in the Arroyo Seco and westernmost San Gabriel Valley area around present day Pasadena and Altadena; and the easternmost San Fernando Valley area north of the Los Angeles River around present day Glendale; all in Los Angeles County, California. Two settlements named Hahamongna, California have been located. The Hahamogna band have also been called Pascual and Pascualite Indians, after which the 1843 Mexican land grant Rancho San Pascual, that included their part of the Arroyo Seco, was named.
Most correctly Hahamog'na is the name of this tribe's chief, and the tribe's name and the place in which they live also take this name. Other derivatives have been shown in an adjectival style thus referring to them as the "Hahamovic Indians."
Hahamog'na was met by Gaspar de Portolà of the overland Mexican Expedition in 1770. The Spanish began a proselytizing campaign of religious
The Little Shell Band of Chippewa Native Americans was the historic sub-band of the Pembina Band of Chippewa Indians led by Chief Little Shell in the nineteenth century. Based in North Dakota around the Pembina River, they were part of the large Anishinaabe (Ojibwe) tribe that occupied territory west of the Great Lakes by that time. Many had partial European ancestry from intermarriage by French-Canadian fur traders and trappers. Some began to identify as Métis, today recognized as one of the First Nations in Canada. Located in the 17th century in the areas around the Great Lakes, they gradually moved west into North Dakota and Montana.
Recognized successor apparent bands include the federally recognized Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians, based in North Dakota, and the state-recognized Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana, which has been seeking federal recognition.
The so-called Little Shell Pembina Band of North America has not been recognized as a successor band, nor as Native American by any governmental body. Led by the members of the Chippewa Delorme family, most of its members are whites associated with "sovereign citizen" groups. It is classified as an
The Rappahannock are one of the eleven state-recognized Native American tribes in Virginia. They are made up of descendants of several small Algonquian-speaking tribes who merged in the 17th century.
In 1607, the Rappahannock were the dominant tribe of the Rappahannock River valley, maintaining thirteen villages along the north and south banks of the river named after them. Their capital town was Topahanocke (or Tappahannock). They were a peripheral group within the Powhatan Confederacy. In spring of that year when news spread of explorers sailing on the James River, their weroance took a party and rushed there. They stayed with their cousins the Quiockohannock, and sent word requesting audience with the newcomers. The weroance and explorers met on May 4.
George Percy wrote a vivid description of the weroance, whose body was painted crimson, and face was painted blue sprinkled with silver. He wore a red deer-hair crown tied around his hair knot and a copper plate on the other side, with two feathers arranged like horns, and earrings made of bird-claws fastened with yellow metal. When the weroance came to the shore, he was playing a flute. He escorted the explorers to his camp
The United Auburn Indian Community (UAIC) is a federally recognized Native America tribe consisting mostly of Miwok and Maidu Indians indigenous to the Sacramento Valley region. The historic Auburn Rancheria is located in the Sierra Nevada foothills near Auburn, California.
Total tribal membership of UAIC is approximately 170, with 52 members residing on the Auburn Rancheria. The Tribe is governed by its tribal council, which consists of the chairperson, vice-chairperson, treasurer, secretary and council member at large. (2)
The UAIC is the successor to the Auburn Band, largely Maidu and Miwok Indians. These indigenous communities of California Indians resided near Auburn, California and survived the depredations of the 19th century as one cohesive band.
This territory offered UAIC ancestors abundant year-round food sources. Food gathering was based on seasonal ripening, but hunting, gathering and fishing went on all year, with the greatest activity in late summer and early fall.
Seasonal harvests were both communal and personal property and much activity and social behavior centered on them. Status, sharing, trading, ceremonies and disagreements were important adjuncts to the
The Yelamu were a Native American tribe of Ohlone people from the San Francisco Bay Area in Northern California.
The Yelamu lived on the northern tip of the San Francisco Peninsula in the region comprising the City and County of San Francisco before the arrival of Spanish missionaries in 1769. The first four Yelamu people who converted to Christianity were baptized by Father Palou and Father Santa Maria between 1777 and 1779. They were absorbed into the Mission San Francisco de Asís that was founded in 1776 by the Spaniards, and became some of the first "Mission Indians".
Within two generations of European contact, the effects of colonization and missionization, including disease and loss of their traditional economic model, drove the Yelamu people to extinction.
The Yelamu had five villages, some of which were recorded by the Spanish Missionaries circa 1769:
The Yuman people are a group of Native American ethnic groups of the Yuman-Cochimí language family. The historic Yuman-speaking peoples in this region were skilled warriors and active traders, maintaining exchange networks with the Pima in southern Arizona and with the Pacific coast.
The term Patayan is used by archaeologists to describe the prehistoric Native American cultures that inhabited parts of modern day Arizona, California and Baja California, including areas near the Colorado River Valley, the nearby uplands, and north to the vicinity of the Grand Canyon. These prehistoric people may have been ancestral to the Yuman. They practiced floodplain agriculture where possible, but relied heavily on hunting and gathering.
Subgroups include the River Yuman, Delta-Californian, and Upland Yuman ("Pai").
The Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians (LTBBOI) is a federally recognized Native American tribe of Odawa Indians. A large percentage of the more than 4000 tribal members continue to reside within the tribe's traditional homelands on the northwestern shores of the state of Michigan's Lower Peninsula. The historically delineated reservation area, located at 45°21′12″N 84°58′41″W / 45.35333°N 84.97806°W / 45.35333; -84.97806, encompasses approximately 336 square miles (870 km) of land in Charlevoix and Emmet counties. The largest communities within the reservation boundaries are Harbor Springs, where the tribal offices are located, Petoskey, where the Tribe operates the Odawa Casino Resort, and Charlevoix.
The name Odawa, or Ottawa, allegedly derives either from the Anishnaabe term "trader" or a truncated version of an Odawa phrase meaning "people of the bulrush". Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa tribal members are descendants of, and political successors to, the Ottawa of L'abre Croche who were signatory parties to the Treaty of Washington and one of the three 1855 Treaties of Detroit. The treaties ratified the cession of approximately 37% of Michigan's current land area
The Tataviam (Tataviam: people facing the sun), were called the Alliklik by their neighbors the Chumash (Chumash: meaning grunter or stammerer, probably because they spoke a different language), are a Native American group in southern California. They traditionally occupied an area in northwest present-day Los Angeles County and southern Ventura County, primarily in the upper basin of the Santa Clara River, the Santa Susana Mountains, and the Sierra Pelona Mountains. They were distinct from the Kitanemuk and Fernandeño (Tongva).
The meager evidence concerning the language spoken by the Tataviam has been extensively debated by scholars. The prevalent view is that it was an Uto-Aztecan language, probably belonging to the Takic branch of that family.
Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. (See Population of Native California.) Alfred L. Kroeber (1925:883) estimated the combined 1770 population of the Serrano, Kitanemuk, and Tataviam as 3,500, and their population in 1910 as about 150. A close study of genealogical records indicates that people of Tataviam descent survived into the twentieth century, although most had
The Goshutes are a band of Western Shoshone Native American. There are two federally recognized Goshute tribes today: the Confederated Tribes of the Goshute Reservation and Skull Valley Band of Goshute Indians of Utah of the Skull Valley Indian Reservation.
The name Goshute derived either from a leader named Goship or from Gutsipupiutsi, a Shoshone word for Desert People.
The Goshute lived in the most desolate part of what is now the western portion of Utah and eastern portion of Nevada. In aboriginal times they lived at a minimum subsistence level with no economic surplus on which a more elaborate social structure could be built. Organized primarily in nuclear families, the Goshutes hunted and gathered in family groups and would often cooperate with other family groups that usually made up a village. Most Goshutes gathered with other families only two or three times a year, typically for pine nut harvests, communal hunts for no more than two to six weeks, and winter lodging which was for a longer period. These gatherings often lasted no more than two to six weeks, although winter gatherings were longer, with families organizing under a dagwani, or village headman.
Pawnee people (also Paneassa, Pari, Pariki) are a Caddoan-speaking Native American tribe. They are federally recognized as the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma.
Historically, the Pawnee lived along outlying tributaries of the Missouri River: the Platte, Loup and Republican rivers in present-day Nebraska and in northern Kansas. They lived in permanent earth lodge villages where they farmed. They left the villages on seasonal buffalo hunts, using tipis while traveling.
In the 1830s, the Pawnee numbered about 2,000 people, as they had escaped some of the depredations of exposure to Eurasian infectious diseases. By 1859, their numbers were reduced to about 1,400; however, by 1874 they were back up to 2,000. Still subject to encroachment by the Lakota and European Americans, finally most accepted relocation to a reservation in Indian Territory. This is where most of the enrolled members of the nation live today. Their autonym is Chahiksichahiks, meaning "men of men".
There are approximately 3,240 enrolled Pawnee, with 1,791 living in Oklahoma. Their tribal headquarters is in Pawnee and their tribal jurisdictional area is in parts of Noble, Payne, and Pawnee Counties. Their elected president is
The Fort Sill Apache Tribe is the federally recognized Native American tribe of Chiricahua Warm Springs Apache in Oklahoma.
The Fort Sill Apache Tribe is headquartered in Apache, Oklahoma. Tribal member enrollment, which requires a 1/16 minimum blood quantum (equivalent to one great-great-grandparent), stands at 650. The tribe continues to maintain close connections to the Chiricahua Apache who moved to the Mescalero Apache Reservation in the late 19th century.
Jeff Houser is the elected tribal chairman; the position has a two-year term, as do the elected tribal council positions.
The tribal jurisdictional area, as opposed to a reservation, spans Caddo, Comanche, and Grady Counties in Oklahoma. A private landholder returned four acres of sacred land in Cochise County, Arizona to the tribe, and it is included in their trust lands.
In 2011, the tribe won the right to establish a reservation in New Mexico. They now control 30 acres (12 ha) near Deming, New Mexico.
The tribe operates its own housing program, Fort Sill Apache Industries, and the Fort Sill Apache Casino in Lawton. The tribe's 2008 economic impact was $10 million.
Working with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),
The Otoe or Oto are a Native American people. The Otoe language, Chiwere, is part of the Siouan family and closely related to that of the related Iowa and Missouri tribes.
The Otoe were once part of the Siouan tribes of the Great Lakes region, a group commonly known as the Winnebago. At some point, a large group split off and began to migrate to the South and West. This group eventually split again, coalescing into at least three distinct tribes: the Ioway, the Missouria and the Otoe. The latter settled in the lower Nemaha River valley. They adopted the horse culture and semi-nomadic lifestyle of the Great Plains, making the American bison central to their diet and culture.
Following the Louisiana Purchase by the United States, the Lewis and Clark Expedition headed up the Missouri River to explore the new territory. The Otoe were the first tribe they encountered. They met at a place on the west bank of the Missouri River that would become known as the Council Bluff.
Like other Great Plains tribes, the Otoe periodically left their villages to hunt for buffalo. Between 1817 and 1841, the Otoe lived around the mouth of the Platte River in present-day Nebraska. During this time, the
The Spokane (or Spokan) are a Native American people in the northeastern portion of the U.S. state of Washington. The Spokane Indian Reservation, at 47°55′42″N 118°02′45″W / 47.92833°N 118.04583°W / 47.92833; -118.04583, is located in eastern Washington, almost entirely in Stevens County, but includes two very small parcels of land (totaling 1.52 acres) and part of the Spokane River in northeastern Lincoln County.
The city of Spokane, Washington takes its name, which literally means "children of the sun" or "Sun People", from them. Their language belongs to the Interior Salishan family. According to Lewis and Clark, in the early 19th century they lived in the vicinity of the Spokane River and numbered around 600. The 2000 census reported the resident population of the reservation at 2,004 persons, living on a land area of 615.168 km² (237.518 sq mi). They called themselves simply Sqeliz – “The People”. The Spokane Tribe comprises five bands: sntu/t/uliz, snzmeme/, scqesciOni, sl/otewsi, hu, sDmqeni
For thousands of years the Spokanes lived near the Spokane River, living by fishing, hunting and gathering. Spokane territory once sprawled out over three million acres (12,000 km²)
The Plains and Sierra Miwok (the Miwok of the Sacramento Valley and the Sierra Mountains), were the largest group of Miwok Native American people. They lived in Northern California on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada Mountains between the Fresno and Cosumnes Rivers and also in the "Central Valley" in the north portion of the Delta area, where the Cosumnes, Mokelumne, and Sacramento Rivers converge.
Many Sierra Miwok today live in or close to their traditional territories and Indian rancherias, such as Buena Vista Rancheria, Chicken Ranch Rancheria, Jackson Rancheria, Sheep Ranch Rancheria, Shingle Springs Rancheria, Tuolumne Rancherias.
The Plains and Sierra Miwok lived by hunting and gathering, and lived in small local tribes, without centralized political authority. They are skilled at basketry and continue the traditions today.
The original Plains and Sierra Miwok people world view included Shamanism, one form this took was the Kuksu religion that was evident in Central and Northern California, which included elaborate acting and dancing ceremonies in traditional costume, an annual morning ceremony, puberty rites of passage, shamanic intervention with the spirit world and
The Wappo are a group of Native Americans who traditionally lived in Northern California in the areas of Napa Valley, the south shore of Clear Lake, Alexander Valley, and Russian River. When Mexicans arrived to colonize California, Wappo villages existed near the present-day towns of Yountville, St. Helena and Calistoga. Those on the south shore of Clear Lake were completely absorbed and dispersed to the Spanish missions in California. The mission accounted for at least 550 Wappo baptisms.
The Wappo lived by hunting and gathering, and lived in small groups without centralized political authority, in homes built from branches, leaves and mud. Their woven baskets were so well-crafted that they were able to hold water.
The name Wappo is an Americanization of the Spanish term guapo, which means, among other things, "brave." They were known as brave for their stubborn resistance to Mexican domination, particularly their resistance to all military attempts from General Vallejo and his enlisted allies. In 1836 the warring parties signed a peace treaty.
Alfred L. Kroeber put the 1770 population of the Wappo at 1,000. Sherburne F. Cook (1976:174) raised this estimate to 1,650.
By the early
The Mandan are a Native American people living in North Dakota. They are enrolled in the Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Reservation, North Dakota. About half of the Mandan still reside in the area of the reservation; the rest reside around the United States and in Canada.
The Mandan historically lived along the banks of the Missouri River and two of its tributaries—the Heart and Knife Rivers—in present-day North and South Dakota. Speakers of Mandan, a Siouan language, the people developed a settled culture in contrast to that of more nomadic tribes in the Great Plains region. They established permanent villages featuring large, round, earth lodges some 40 feet (12 m) in diameter, surrounding a central plaza. While the bison was key to the daily life of the Mandan, it was supplemented by agriculture and trade.
The Mandan population was 3,600 in the early 18th century. In 1836, there were over 1,600 fullblood Mandans, but this number was estimated to have dropped to 125 by 1838. In the 1990s, 6,000 people were enrolled in the Three Affiliated Tribes.
The English name Mandan is derived from the French-Canadian explorer Pierre Gaultier, Sieur de la Verendrye, who heard it
The Mechoopda are a tribe of Maidu people, indigenous peoples of California. They are enrolled in the Mechoopda Indian Tribe of Chico Rancheria, a federally recognized tribe. Historically, the tribe has spoken Konkow, a language related to Maidu language, and as of 2010, has created digital learning materials from old recordings of Emma Cooper, made during the 1940s as a part of the war effort.
The tribe was formerly centered in a village located about 3+⁄2 miles (5.6 km) south of contemporary Chico. The Mechoopda gained federal recognition in 1992.
The Mechoopda Indian Tribe ratified their constitution on 1 February 1998. The tribe is governed by a seven-member council. The current administration is as follows:
The Chico Rancheria is a federal reservation located in Butte County. The population on the rancheria is approximately 70. Chico is the closest town.
The Missouria or Missouri (in their own language, Niúachi, also spelled Niutachi) are a Native American tribe that originated in the Great Lakes region of United States before European contact. The tribe belongs to the Chiwere division of the Siouan language family, together with the Iowa and Otoe.
Historically, the tribe lived in bands near the mouth of the Grand River at its confluence with the Missouri River; the mouth of the Missouri at its confluence with the Mississippi River, and in present-day Saline County, Missouri. Since removal, today they live primarily in Oklahoma.
French colonists adapted a form of the Illinois language-name for the people: Wimihsoorita. Their name means "One who has dugout canoes". In their own language, the Missouri call themselves Niúachi, also spelled Niutachi, meaning "People of the River Mouth." The Osage called them the Waçux¢a, and the Quapaw called them the Wa-ju'-xd¢ǎ.
The state of Missouri and the Missouri River are named for the tribe.
The tribe's oral history tells that they once lived north of the Great Lakes. They began migrating south in the 16th century. By 1600, the Missouria lived near the confluence of the Grand and Missouri
The Shasta (or Chasta) are an indigenous people of Northern California and Southern Oregon in the United States. They spoke one of the Shastan languages.
The Shasta people were originally located in the greater Shasta Valley area of Siskiyou County near such modern communities as Yreka, California.
Generally included with the Shasta tribe proper, are a number of adjacent smaller tribes who spoke a related Shastan language. These related tribes include the Konomihu, New River Shasta and the Okwanuchu tribes.
The Shasta tribe is not a federally recognized tribe, though the Chasta of Oregon are part of the Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community of Oregon. Many former members of the Shasta tribe have since been inducted into the Karuk and Alturas tribes. Current members are petitioning the government to again recognize their tribal status.
Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. (See Population of Native California.) Alfred L. Kroeber (1925:883) put the 1770 population of the Shasta proper as 2,000 and the New River, Konomihu, and Okwanuchu groups, along with the Chimariko, as 1,000. In the 1940s, Sherburne F.
The Yana people were a group of Native Americans indigenous to Northern California in the central Sierra Nevada Mountains, on the western side of the range. The Yana-speaking people comprised four groups: the Northern Yana, the Central Yana, the Southern Yana, and the Yahi. The noun stem Ya- means "person"; the noun suffix is -na in the northern Yana dialects and -hi [xi] in the southern dialects. The groups are extinct as functional tribes, though some individuals still survive.
The anthropologist Alfred L. Kroeber put the 1770 population of the Yahi at 1,500. Sherburne F. Cook estimated their numbers at 1,900 and 1,850. Estimates of the total Yana population before the Gold Rush was 3,000. The Yana people lived on wild game, fished salmon, fruit, acorns and roots. Their territory was approximately 40 miles by 60 miles and contained mountain streams, gorges, boulder-strewn hills, and some lush meadows. Each group had relatively distinct boundaries, dialects and customs.
The Yahi were the southern portion of the Yana-speaking people. They were hunter-gatherers who lived in small egalitarian bands without centralized political authority. They were reclusive and fiercely defended
US Indian Reservations:Shakopee-Mdewakanton Indian Reservation
Mdewakantonwan (currently pronounced Bdewákhathuŋwaŋ, also M'DAY-wah-kahn-tahn) are one of the sub-tribes of the Isanti (Santee) Dakota (Sioux). Their historic home is Mille Lacs Lake in central Minnesota, which in the Dakota language was called mde wakan (mystic/spiritual lake). Together with the Wahpekute (Waȟpékhute - “Shooters Among the Trees”), they form the so-called Upper Council of the Dakota or Santee Sioux (Isáŋyáthi - “Knife Makers”).
Their Siouan-speaking ancestors had migrated to the upper Midwest from the area of South Carolina in the present-day United States; colonists named the Santee River in present-day South Carolina after them. Over the years they migrated up through Ohio and into Wisconsin. Facing competition from the Chippewa and other eastern Native American tribes, the Santee moved further west into present-day Minnesota.
Originally the term Santee was applied only to the Mdewakanton and later the closely related and allied Wahpekute. (As it was a nomadic group, it was not identified by the suffixes of thuŋwaŋ - “settlers,” or towan - “village”). Soon European settlers applied the name to all the tribes of the Eastern Dakota.
In the fall of 1837, the
The Patwin (also Patween, Southern Wintu) are a Wintun people native to the area of Northern California. The Patwin comprise the southern branch of the Wintun group, native inhabitants of California since approximately 500 AD (Golla 2011: 250).
The Patwin were bordered by the Yuki in the northwest; the Nomlaki (Wintun) in the north; the Konkow (Maiduan) in northeast; the Nisenan (Maiduan) and Plains Miwok in the east; the Bay Miwok to the South; the Coast Miwok in the southwest; and the Wappo, Lake Miwok, and Pomo in the west.
The "Southern Patwins" lived between what is now Suisun, Vacaville and Putah Creek. By 1800 they had been forced by Spanish and European invaders into small tribal units - Ululatos (Vacaville), Labaytos (Putah Creek), Malacas (Lagoon Valley), Tolenas (Upper Suisun Valley) and Suisunes (Suisun Marsh and Plain).
The Patwin spoke a Southern Wintuan language called Patwin.
Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. (See Population of Native California.) Alfred L. Kroeber (1925:883) put the 1770 population of the Wintun, including the Patwin, Nomlaki, and Wintu proper, at 12,000. Sherburne F. Cook
The Sanpoil (or San Poil) is one of 12 aboriginal Confederated Tribes of the Colville Indian Reservation. The name Sanpoil comes from the Okanagan [snpʕílx], "gray as far as one can see". It has been folk-etymologized as coming from the French sans poil, "without fur". The Yakama people know the tribe as Hai-ai'-nlma or Ipoilq. The Sanpoil call themselves Nesilextcl'n, .n.selixtcl'n, probably meaning "Salish speaking," and N'pooh-le, a shortened form of the name. The Sanpoil had a semi-democratic system of government with various chiefs representing each community within the tribe. Heredity was not a requirement for chiefs. In later years, United States government officials began recognizing one chief at a time.
The last four officially recognized chiefs of the San Poil Tribe were Que Que Tas (b.1822-d.1905), his son Nespelem George (b. 1863-d. Jan. 29, 1929), Skolaskin, and Jim James. The mother of Que Que Tas was a woman chief who met Lewis and Clark on the great plateau when they came through on the Pacific Northwest Expedition.
Since the 17th century the Sanpoil flourished with a large number of villages along the Sanpoil River and Nespelem River, tributaries of the Columbia
The Shawnee Tribe is a federally recognized Native American tribe in Oklahoma. Also known as the Loyal Shawnee, they are one of three federally recognized Shawnee tribes. The others are the Absentee-Shawnee Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma and Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma.
The headquarters of the Shawnee Tribe is Miami, Oklahoma. Currently, there are 2,226 enrolled tribal members, with 1,070 of them living within the state of Oklahoma.
Ron Sparkman is the elected chairman, currently serving a four-year term.
The Shawnee Tribe issues its own tribal vehicle tags. They operate their own housing authority as well as a tribal smoke shop, the Shawnee Trails Gift Shop and Gallery, Shawnee Development LLC, and Shawnee Heritage Government Solutions. Their annual economic impact is estimated by the Oklahoma Indian Affairs Commissions to be $3 million. Shawnee Development LLC is an economic development corporation established in 2001, owned by the tribe but conducting business business separately from the general government functions. The Shawnee Journal is a newspaper published by the tribe and distributed at no cost to all tribal members.
Some traditional ceremonies, such as the Spring and
The Sioux ( /ˈsuː/) are Native American and First Nations people in North America. The term can refer to any ethnic group within the Great Sioux Nation or any of the nation's many language dialects. The Sioux comprise three major divisions based on Siouan dialect and subculture: Isáŋyathi or Isáŋathi ("Knife," originating from the name of a lake in present-day Minnesota), residing in the extreme east of the Dakotas, Minnesota and northern Iowa, and are often referred to as the Santee or Eastern Dakota; Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋ and Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna ("Village-at-the-end" and "little village-at-the-end"), residing in the Minnesota River area, they are considered to be the middle Sioux, and are often referred to as the Yankton and the Yanktonai, or, collectively, as the Wičhíyena (endonym) or the Western Dakota (and have been erroneously classified as “Nakota”); Thítȟuŋwaŋ or Teton (uncertain, perhaps "Dwellers on the Prairie"; this name is archaic among the natives, who prefer to call themselves Lakȟóta), the westernmost Sioux, known for their hunting and warrior culture, are often referred to as the Lakota.
Today, the Sioux maintain many separate tribal governments scattered across several
US Indian Reservations:Umatilla Indian Reservation
The Cayuse are a Native American tribe in the state of Oregon in the United States. The Cayuse tribe shares a reservation in northeastern Oregon with the Umatilla and the Walla Walla tribes as part of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. The reservation is located near Pendleton, Oregon at the base of the Blue Mountains.
The Cayuse call themselves the Tetawken, which means "we, the people". Originally located in northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington, they lived adjacent to territory covered by the Nez Perce. Like the Plains tribes, the Cayuse placed a high premium on warfare and were skilled horsemen, often using their horse-riding prowess to intimidate other tribes. Skilled horsemanship proved beneficial to the Indians and the neighboring cowboys who adopted the Cayuse pony. The Cayuse moved to the Umatilla Reservation after signing a treaty with the U.S. federal government in 1855.
The Cayuse Indians are a nomadic tribe that occupied territories at the heads of the Walla Walla, Umatilla, and Grande Ronde Rivers and from the Blue Mountains to the Deschutes River in Washington and Oregon. The tribe has always been closely associated with the
Chiricahua ( /ˌtʃɪrɨˈkɑːwə/ US dict: chĭr′·ĭ·kâ′·wə) are a group of Apache Native Americans who live in the Southwest United States. At the time of European encounter, they were living in 15 million acres (61,000 km2) of territory in southwestern New Mexico and southeastern Arizona in the United States, and in northern Sonora and Chihuahua in Mexico. Today two branches of the tribe are federally recognized as independent units: the Fort Sill Apache Tribe, located near Apache, Oklahoma; and the Chiricahua tribe located on the Mescalero Apache reservation near Ruidoso, New Mexico.
The Chiricahua Apache are also known as the Chiricagui, Apaches de Chiricahui, Chiricahues, Chilicague, Chilecagez, and Chiricagua. The White Mountain Apache, including the Cibecue and Bylas groups of the Western Apache, called them Ha’i’ą́há (meaning 'Eastern Sunrise"). The San Carlos Apache called them Hák’ą́yé. The Navajo, a group distinct from the Western Apache although related in language, call the Chiricahua Chíshí.
This group was once led by the chiefs Cochise (whose name was derived from the Apache word Cheis, meaning "having the quality of oak"); Mangas Coloradas, Victorio, Nana, Juh. Later they
Citizen Potawatomi Nation is a federally recognized tribe of Potawatomi people located in Oklahoma. The Potawatomi are traditionally an Algonquian-speaking Eastern Woodlands tribe. They have 29,155 enrolled tribal members, of which 10,312 live in the state of Oklahoma.
The Citizen Potawatomi Nation is headquartered in Shawnee, Oklahoma. Their tribal jurisdictional area is in Cleveland and Pottawatomie County, Oklahoma. Of the 26,917 enrolled members, 10,312 live within the state of Oklahoma. They have their housing authority and issue tribal vehicle tags.
Enrollment to the tribe is based on lineal descent; that is to say, the tribe has no minimum blood quantum.
They operate a truck stop, two gas stations, two smoke shops, a bingo hall, and two tribal casinos, FireLake Discount Foods in Shawnee, FireLake Golf Course, and First National Bank and Trust, with two locations in Shawnee, one in Holdenville, two in Lawton, and three in communities surrounding Lawton. Their estimated economic impact is $422.4 million.
In January 2006, the tribe opened its extensive Citizen Potawatomi Nation Museum and Cultural Heritage Center in Shawnee. The
The Kawaiisu (also Nuwa or Nuooah) are a Native American group which lives in the southern California Tehachapi Valley and across the Tehachapi Pass in the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains to the north, toward Lake Isabella and Walker Pass. Historically, the Kawaiisu also traveled eastward on food-gathering trips to areas in the northern Mojave Desert, to the north and northeast of the Antelope Valley, as far east as the Panamint Valley, the Panamint Mountains, and the western edge of Death Valley.
Before European contact, the Kawaiisu lived in permanent winter villages of 60 to 100 people. They often divided into smaller groups during the warmer months of the year and harvested California native plants in the mountains and deserts, and animals, for food and raw materials.
The Kawaiisu were related by language and culture to the Southern Paiute of southwestern Nevada and the Chemehuevi of the eastern Mojave Desert of California. They may have originally lived in the desert before coming to the Tehachapi Mountains region, perhaps as early as 2000 years ago or before.
The Kawaiisu have been known by several other names, including the Caliente, Paiute, and Tehachapi Indians, but they
The Minnesota Chippewa Tribe (MCT) is a centralized government for six Chippewa (Ojibwe or Anishinaabe) bands in the U.S. state of Minnesota. It was created on June 18, 1934, and the organization and its constitution were recognized by the Secretary of the Interior two years later on July 24, 1936. Powers are divided between the state tribal organization and the individual Indian reservations. The bands that make up the tribe are:
Notably, the Red Lake Band of Chippewa is not part of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe.
The Minnesota Chippewa Tribe provides basic services to each of its six member Band, unless the individual Band have signed a compact to provide these services themselves. The services are provided through their offices located in Cass Lake, Minnesota.
Miwok (also spelled Miwuk, Mi-Wuk, or Me-Wuk) can refer to any one of four linguistically related groups of Native Americans, indigenous to Northern California, who traditionally spoke one of the Miwokan languages in the Utian family. The word Miwok means people in their native language.
In 2008, ancient artifacts related to Miwok ancestors were unearthed in Calaveras County, some as many as 5000 years old. Many of the artifacts will be reburied with a special ceremony. The Miwok believe the artifacts belong to the land.
Anthropologists commonly divide the Miwok into four geographically and culturally diverse ethnic subgroups. These distinctions were unknown among the Miwok before European contact.
The United States Bureau of Indian Affairs officially recognizes eleven tribes of Miwok descent in California. They are as follows:
The Miwok lived in small bands without centralized political authority before contact with European Americans in 1769. They had domesticated dogs and cultivated tobacco, but were otherwise hunter-gatherers.
The Sierra Miwok preferentially exploited acorns from the California Black Oak, Quercus kelloggii; in fact, the modern-day extent of the California Black
The Ottawa Indian Tribe was one of the many First Peoples tribes. It is the largest group of the major Ottawa (tribe).
Ottawa (from ￇﾎdￄﾁwe, 'to trade', `to buy and sell,') a term common to the Cree, Algonquin, Nipissing, Montagnais, Ottawa, and Chippewa, and applied to the Ottawa because in early traditional times and also during the historic period they were noted among their neighbors as intertribal traders and barterers, dealing chiefly in cornmeal, sunflower oil, furs and skins, rugs or mats, tobacco, and medicinal roots and herbs.
In 1615 French explorer Samuel de Champlain met 300 men of a tribe which, he said, "we call les cheueux releuez."Near the French River mouth.Of these he said that their arms consisted only of the bow and arrow, a buckler of boiled leather, and the club; that they wore no breechclout, and that their bodies were much tattooed in many fashions and designs; that their faces were painted in diverse colors, their noses pierced, and their ears bordered with trinkets.In 1616 Champlain left the Huron villages and visited the "Cheueux releuez", which is now present-day Ottawa westward from the Huron tribe.There were many wars and disputes of the Ottawa
Indigenous peoples of the Northwest Plateau', also referred to by the phrase Indigenous peoples of the Plateau, and historically called the Plateau Indians (though comprising many groups) are indigenous peoples of the Plateau or Intermontane region of Western Canada and the United States, whose territories are located in the inland portions of the basins of the Columbia and Fraser Rivers. These tribes live in parts of the Central and Southern Interior of British Columbia, northern Idaho, western Montana, eastern Washington, eastern Oregon, and northeastern California. The eastern flank of the Cascade Range lies within the territory of the Plateau peoples.
Plateau tribes include the following:
Plateau tribes primarily spoke Interior Salish languages or Sahaptian languages. They also speak Chinookan languages, which are often classified as Penutian languages, but this classification is not universally agreed upon. The Ktunaxa speak the Kutenai language, which is a language isolate.
The people of the Plateau moved from place to place throughout the year to gather edible vegetables and fruits, including camassia, bitterroot, kouse root, serviceberry, chokecherry, huckleberry and wild
The United Remnant Band of the Shawnee Nation (also called the Shawnee Nation, URB) is a band of people claiming Native American ancestry who hold that they are descended from the Shawnee from before the Shawnee's removal from the U.S. state of Ohio. The Shawnee Nation, URB own the Zane Shawnee Caverns and a museum.
Prior to 1831, the Shawnee were relocated, band by band, to Missouri, Kansas, Oklahoma, and other parts of the American Plains as a number of Shawnee chiefs would surrender to the United States. By the time Black Hoof died, historians claim there were only 400 Shawnee living in Ohio. These Ohio Shawnee left Wapaughkonetta (today, Wapakoneta) and Hog Creek (near present-day Lima, Ohio) for Kansas after the death of Black Hoof. However, the United Remnant Band claims that there were Shawnee still living in Ohio after Black Hoof's death. In any case, say the URB supporters, Black Hoof never signed a treaty forfeiting the remaining Shawnee settlements to the U.S. government. The United Remnant Band therefore claims that there are lands in Ohio still legally owned by the Shawnee nation.
In 1971, the United Remnant Band of the Shawnee Nation was organized in an attempt to
The Coast Miwok were the second largest group of Miwok Native American people. The Coast Miwok inhabited the general area of modern Marin County and southern Sonoma County in Northern California, from the Golden Gate north to Duncans Point and eastward to Sonoma Creek. The Coast Miwok included the Bodega Bay Miwok from authenticated Miwok villages around Bodega Bay and Marin Miwok.
The Coast Miwok spoke their own Coast Miwok language in the Utian linguistic group. They lived by hunting and gathering, and lived in small bands without centralized political authority. In the springtime they would head to the coasts to hunt salmon and other seafood, including seaweed. Otherwise their staple foods were primarily acorns—particularly from black and tan oak–nuts and wild game, such as deer and cottontail rabbits and black-tailed deer, Odocoileus hemionus columbianus, a coastal subspecies of the California mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus. When hunting deer, Miwok hunters traditionally used Brewer's angelica, Angelica breweri to eliminate their own scent. Miwok did not typically hunt bears. Yerba buena and iris leaf tea were used medicinally.
Tattooing was a traditional practice among Coast
The Golden Hill Paugussetts are the Connecticut state-recognized tribal descendents of the Paugussett (also Paugusset) Nation of Native Americans that occupied much of western Connecticut prior to the arrival of Europeans. While state-recognized, they have been denied federal recognition.
The tribe lives in Colchester, Connecticut, where it has a 106-acre (0.43 km) reservation, and also has a ⁄4-acre (0.0010 km) reservation in Nichols section of Trumbull, Connecticut. The Nichols reservation is considered to be the oldest continuing reservation in Connecticut and the smallest in the US.
In 2009, a state court dismissed a challenge to their heritage, refusing to eject members of the Golden Hill Paugussett Tribe and their chief from reservations in Trumbull and Colchester.
While the history of the Paugussett Nation dates back to earlier times, written records begin with the arrival of Europeans on North American shores. At the time explorers first arrived, The Paugussets, an Algonquian-speaking nation, occupied a region bounded roughly by the coast of Long Island Sound from Norwalk to New Haven and the inland areas along the Housatonic River and Naugatuck River as far as they were
The Navajo (Navajo: Diné or Naabeehó) of the Southwestern United States are the largest federally recognized tribe of the United States of America with 300,048 enrolled tribal members. The Navajo Nation constitutes an independent governmental body, which manages the Navajo Indian reservation in the Four Corners area of the United States. The Navajo language is spoken throughout the region with most Navajo capable of speaking English as well.
Until contact with Pueblos and the Spanish, the Navajo were largely hunters and gatherers. The tribe adopted crop farming techniques from the Pueblo peoples, growing mainly corn, beans, and squash. When the Spanish arrived, the Navajo began herding sheep and goats as a main source of trade and food with meat becoming an essential component of the Navajo diet. Sheep, also became a form of currency and status symbol among the Navajo based on the overall quantity of herds a family maintained. In addition, the practice of spinning and weaving wool into blankets and clothing became common and eventually developed into a form of highly valued artistic expression.
The Navajo are speakers of a Na-Dené Southern Athabaskan languages known as Diné
The Serrano are a Native American tribe of present day California, United States. They use the autonyms of Taaqtam, meaning "people"; Maarenga'yam, "people from Morongo"; and Yuhaviatam, "people of the pines."
The Serrano historically populated the San Bernardino Mountains and extended east into the Mojave Desert and north in the San Gabriel Mountains through the Sierra Pelona Mountains to the Tehachapi Mountains in Southern California. They belong to the Takic-speaking group, and are closely related to the Tongva people.
Members of the Serrano tribe are part of the Takic subset of the large Uto-Aztecan group of Native Americans. The language family historically extended along the West Coast, into the Great Basin and into Mexico, with representation among tribes in Mesoamerica. (The following material appears to come mostly from the 1901 Smithsonian Institution report on American Indians.) They were a branch of the Takic languages speaking people who arrived in Southern California around 2,500 years ago. Serrano means "highlander" or "mountaineer" in Spanish. When the Spanish missionaries came into the region, in the late 18th century they helped create the tribal name Serrano,
The Dry Creek Rancheria Band of Pomo Indians is a federally recognized tribe of Pomo people, an indigenous people of California.
The Pomo people are indigenous to northern California and formed about 21 autonomous communities, speaking seven Pomoan languages. The Dry Creek Band are Southern Pomo, descended from the Mihilakawna and Makahmo bands. Sustained European contact began with the Russian fur trappers in the 18th century. They were followed in the 19th century by American gold prospectors and settlers, who quickly outnumbered the native populations.
The United States rancheria program began in 1893 and ran up until roughly 1922, when 58 tracts of land were purchased in California on which "homeless" Indians could live rent- and tax-free. Most of the land was selected and purchased by Special Indian Agent John Terrell, who took much care in finding good plots of land. Adults were to be given assigned plots of land, but in actuality, most Indians simply moved onto the rancherias with no assignments. No one was ever forced to live on a rancheria.
Many rancherias became home to Indians from a variety of tribal affiliations. Some rancherias had no residents for a decade or more
The Lamchin were one of many tribes of the Ohlone (Coastanoan) people, Native Americans who lived along the San Francisco Peninsula. The Lamchin were the native inhabitants of what is now San Carlos, California. Information is sparse and dispersed, coming mostly from Spanish mission records - as the natives had no written language. The collected information follows over 100 years of research by many noted historians. The Lamchin are believed to be extinct - as historical, statistical and limited written accounts would seem to indicate.
Their north-western neighbors were the Ssalson, to the south the Suchihín, and to the east the Puichon, respectively in present-day Belmont, California, the southern end of Crystal Springs Reservoir, and Redwood City, California. All the groups are considered part of the Ohlone (or Costanoan) language group. The Ohlone group language has been labeled Utian.
The Lamchin may have had two villages named Ormostac, close to the Ssalson and Cachanigtac, their main village in what is now directly south of the downtown San Carlos. The main village name appears to contain a word for vermin, which the Spanish missionaries translated as las Pulgas (the Fleas).
The Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa and Chippewa Indians is a federally recognized Native American tribe in Michigan. Alvin Pedwaydon is the current tribal chairman, elected in May of 2012 to succeed Derek Bailey who was the chairman of the Tribal Council from 2008 - 2012, whose offices are in Peshawbestown, Michigan. The tribe owns and operates the Leelanau Sands Casino, the Turtle Creek Casino and Hotel, and the Grand Traverse Resort & Spa.
Referring to themselves as Anishinaabeg or Three Fires Confederacy, the Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa and Chippewa Indians includes members of the Odaawaa/Odawa (Ottawa), the Ojibwe (Ojibwa/Chippewa) and Boodewaadami/Bodéwadmi (Potawatomi) peoples.
Under the Indian Reorganization Act, they applied for federal recognition in 1934 and 1943 and were denied. However, in 1978 Dodie Harris Chambers led an effort for recognition and on May 27, 1980, the tribe was formally recognized. The Grand Traverse Band is the first federally recognized tribe in Michigan and one of the first tribes to own a casino in the United States.
Members are descended from the various Ottawa (Odawa) and Chippewa (Ojibwe) peoples from northern Michigan.
The tribe's government
Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana, also known as the Little Shell Band of Landless Chippewa Indians of Montana, is an Anishinaabe (Ojibwa) tribe recognized by the State of Montana. The State-recognized tribe is seeking federal recognition from the Bureau of Indian Affairs. The tribe is named after its nineteenth-century Chief Esens, known as "Little Shell".
From probably both northern Ontario and northern Minnesota, during the early part of the 18th century, the ancestors of the Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana migrated from the Great Lakes area into the Plains of Canada and the United States. They allied with the Assiniboine and Cree in a confederacy and drove out the Dakota and probably other tribes native to what is now Alberta, Manitoba, Minnesota, Montana, Ontario and Saskatchewan.
The Little Shell Band of Chippewa Indians are part of the historical Pembina Band of Chippewa Indians, first recorded by European settlers in documents from the Hudson's Bay Company, Fort Garry (Winnipeg) in the early 18th century. These logs and diaries show the Ojibwa held approximately 63 million acres (250,000 km²) of land throughout what is now South Dakota,
The Nottoway ( in their own language Cheroenhaka), are an Iroquoian-language tribe of Virginia Indians. Two Nottoway groups, the Nottoway Indian Tribe of Virginia and the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe, have both been recognized as tribes by the state of Virginia. The Nottoway Indian Tribe of Virginia live from Southampton County into Surry County and the Tidewater region, and the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe live in Southampton County and surrounding counties in Virginia and North Carolina. Since colonial times, treaties by regional government with the Nottoway attested to their presence as a distinct people.
Both contemporary tribes received state recognition in February 2010. They do not have reservations or federal recognition.
The meaning of the name Cheroenhaka (Tuscarora: Čiruʼęhá·ka·ʼ) is uncertain. (It has been spelled in various ways: Cherohakah, Cheroohoka or Tcherohaka.) The late Iroquoian scholar Dr. Blair Rudes analyzed the second element as -hakaʼ meaning "one or people who is/are characterized in a certain way". He conjectured that the first element of the name was related to the Tuscarora čárhuʼ (tobacco). The term has also been interpreted as "People
The Omaha are a federally recognized Native American nation which lives on the Omaha Reservation in northeastern Nebraska and western Iowa, United States. The Omaha Indian Reservation lies primarily in the southern part of Thurston County and northeastern Cuming County, Nebraska, but small parts extend into the northeast corner of Burt County and across the Missouri River into Monona County, Iowa. Its total land area is 796.355 km² (307.474 sq mi) and a population of 5,194 was recorded in the 2000 census. Its largest community is Macy.
They migrated to the upper Missouri area and the Plains by the late 17th century from earlier locations in the Ohio River Valley. The Omaha speak a Siouan language of the Dhegihan branch that is very similar to that spoken by the Ponca. The latter were part of the Omaha before splitting off into a separate tribe in the mid-18th century. They were also related to the Siouan-speaking Osage, Quapaw, and Kansa peoples, who also migrated west under pressure from the Iroquois in the Ohio Valley.
About 1770, the Omaha became the first tribe on the Northern Plains to adopt equestrian culture. Developing "The Big Village" (Ton-wa-tonga) about 1775 in
US Indian Reservations:Isabella Indian Reservation
Saginaw Chippewa Tribal Nation is a band of Chippewa Indians (or Ojibwe) located in central Michigan in the United States. The tribal government offices are located on the Isabella Indian Reservation, near the city of Mount Pleasant. The tribe owns and operates Soaring Eagle Casino in Mount Pleasant and Saganing Eagles Landing Casino in Standish. They also hold land on the Saganing reservation near Standish, with a community center in addition to the recently completed Eagle's Landing casino on the Saganing reservation. As of February 2007, tribal membership was approximately 3,296.
Besides its gaming enterprises, the tribe owns other businesses and community operations. Including the Sagamok Shell Station, the Ziibiwing Cultural Society (a tribal museum), a substance abuse facility, a community clinic and health facilities. The tribe has recently opened a new Elders' Center. Educational programs include the Saginaw Chippewa Academy (an elementary school), as well as a presence in the local public schools through Native American advocates and tutors. Saginaw Chippewa Tribal College is an accredited two-year college which operates with funding from the tribe. The Saginaw Chippewa
The Biloxi tribe are Native Americans of the Siouan language family. They call themselves by the autonym Tanêks(a) in Siouan Biloxi language. When first encountered by Europeans in 1699, the Biloxi inhabited an area near the coast of the Gulf of Mexico near what is now the city of Biloxi, Mississippi. They were eventually forced west into Louisiana and eastern Texas. The Biloxi language--Tanêksąyaa ade--has been extinct since the 1930s, when the last known native semi-speaker, Emma Jackson, died.
Today, remaining Biloxi descendants have merged with the Tunica and other remnant peoples. They were federally recognized in 1981 as the Tunica-Biloxi Tribe of Louisiana and share a small reservation. The two main tribes were from different language group. Today the tribe members speak English or French.
Little is known of Biloxi history prior to their contact with Europeans in 1699. They encountered the French Canadian Pierre LeMoyne d'Iberville, who was establishing France's Louisiana colony. D'Iberville was told that the Biloxi nation was formerly quite numerous, but that their people were severely decimated by an epidemic of smallpox, which left an entire village abandoned and in
The Juaneño or Acagchemem are an indigenous tribe of Southern California. The Juaneño lived in what is now part of Orange and San Diego Counties and received their Spanish name from the priests of the California mission chain due to their proximity to Mission San Juan Capistrano. Today they call themselves the Juaneño Band of Mission Indians, Acjachemen Nation.
The former Spanish settlement at Sajavit lies within that area occupied during the late Paleoindian period and continuing on into the present day by the Native American society commonly known as the Juaneño. The name denotes those people who were ministered by the padres at Mission San Juan Capistrano. Many contemporary Juaneño, who identify themselves as descendents of the indigenous society living in the local San Juan and San Mateo Creek drainage areas, have adopted the indigenous term Acjachemen. Their language was related to the Luiseño language spoken by the nearby Luiseño tribe. The language was extinct but is being revived by several tribal members learning the language, thanks to the research and records of Anastacia Majel and John P. Harrington who recorded the language back in 1933 (the tape recordings resurfaced
The Atsugewi are Native Americans residing in northeastern California, United States. Their traditional lands are near Mount Shasta, specifically the Pit River drainage on Burney, Hat, and Dixie Valley or Horse Creeks. They are closely related to the Achomawi and consisted of two groups (the Atsugé and the Apwaruge). The Atsugé ("pine-tree people") traditionally are from the Hat Creek area, and the Apwaruge ("juniper-tree people") are from the Dixie Valley. They lived to the south of the Achomawi.
The Atsugewi traditionally lived by hunting and gathering and lived in small groups without centralized political authority.
The Atsugewi language is a Palaihnihan language. As of 1994, an estimated three people spoke Atsugewi. The majority of the tribe speaks English.
Today many Atsugewi are enrolled in the Pit River Tribe, while some Atsugewi people are members of the Susanville Indian Rancheria.
Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. Alfred L. Kroeber estimated the combined 1770 population of the Achumawi and Atsugewi as 3,000. A more detailed analysis by Fred B. Kniffen arrived at the same figure. T. R. Garth (1978:237)
The Cahto (also spelled Kato, especially in anthropological and linguistic contexts) are a indigenous Californian group of Native Americans. Today they are enrolled as the federally recognized tribe, the Cahto Indian Tribe of the Laytonville Rancheria or a small group of Cahto are enrolled in the Round Valley Indian Tribes of the Round Valley Reservation.
Cahto is a Northern Pomo word, meaning "lake", which referred to an important Cahto village site, called Djilbi. The Kato are sometimes referred to as the Kaipomo or Kato people.
The tribe controls the Laytonville Rancheria, also known as the Cahto Rancheria, a federal Indian reservation of Cahto and Pomo people. The rancheria is 264 acres large, and located three miles west of Laytonville in Mendocino County. It was founded in 1906. The reservation's population is about 188.
The Cahto Indian Tribe is run by a democratically-elected tribal council. The current tribal executive committee is:
The tribe operates its own housing authority, tribal police, and EPA office. Economic development comes from the tribe's Red Fox Casino, located in Laytonville.
The Kato language is one of four Athabaskan languages that were spoken in
The Piscataway Indian Nation is a state-recognized tribe in Maryland that is related to the historic Piscataway tribe. At the time of European encounter, the Piscataway was one of the most populous and powerful Native polities of the Chesapeake Bay region, with a territory on the north side of the Potomac River. By the early seventeenth century, the Piscataway had come to exercise hegemony over other Algonquian-speaking Native American groups on the north bank of the river. The Piscataway nation declined under the influence of colonization, infectious disease, and intertribal and colonial warfare.
The Piscataway Indian Nation organized out of a 20th-century revival of its people and culture. Its peoples are committed to indigenous and human rights. It is one of three contemporary organized groups of the Piscataway people. On January 12, 2012 Maryland Governor Martin O'Malley issued an Executive Order recognizing both the Piscataway Indian Nation and the Piscataway Conoy Tribe.
The Piscataway Indian Nation inhabits traditional homelands in the areas of Charles County, Prince George's County, and St. Mary's County; all in Maryland. Its people live near two major metropolitan areas,
The Tonawanda Band of Seneca Indians is a federally recognized tribe in the State of New York. They maintained the traditional form of government by Seneca chiefs (or more correctly, 'sachems') and clan mothers after the Alleghany and Cattaraugus Reservations broke away and formed the Seneca Nation of Indians (a republican form of government, electing a president, secretary, and council every two years) in 1848. The Tonawanda Senecas retrieved their horns of authority from the deposed chiefs at Alleghany and Cattaraugus and still continue to govern themselves in the traditional way. The Seneca are an Iroquois nation, one of the original five (and then six) of the historic Haudenosaunee or Iroquois Confederacy. Their people speak Seneca language, an Iroquoian language. This is one of two federally recognized tribes of Seneca, The Tonawanda Band of Seneca and The Seneca Nation of Indians, both Native Americans in New York state. In addition, there are Seneca in Oklahoma, who along with the Cayuga form the Seneca-Cayuga Nation. The majority of Seneca live in western New York, with a small number living in Canada: Six Nations of the Grand River First Nation, within Ontario, Canada. In
The Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, or simply Yakama Nation (formerly Yakima), is a Native American group with nearly 10,000 enrolled members, living in Washington. Their reservation, along the Yakima River, covers an area of approximately 1.2 million acres (5,260 km²). Today the nation is governed by the Yakama Tribal Council, which consists of representatives of 14 tribes and bands.
Many tribal members engage in ceremonial, subsistence, and commercial fishing for salmon, steelhead, and sturgeon in the Columbia River and its tributaries within land ceded by the tribe to the United States. The right to fish is protected by treaties and has been re-affirmed through court cases such as United States v. Washington (the Boldt Decision) and United States v. Oregon (Sohappy v. Smith.)
There is dispute on the origins of the name Yakama. Several possibilities for the origin come from the word, 'E-yak-ma' which means "a growing family", or from the Sahaptin word, iyakima, which means "pregnant ones". Though it could also have stemmed from yákama which means “black bear” or Ya-ki-ná which means “runaway”.
They have also been referred to as the Waptailnsim, "people of the
The Auke are an Alaskan Native people, a subgroup of the Tlingit whose name for themselves Aakʼw Ḵwáan means "Small Lake People". The Auke lived along the northwestern coast of North America, in the area that is now the Alexander Archipelago and adjoining mainlaind of the Alaska Panhandle around Juneau.
The Auke had a village on the bay just east of Point Louisa, about 13 miles northwest of Juneau. The site, now adjacent to Glacier Highway, has been reserved by the U.S. Forest Service as a recreation area.
In 1880, after Joe Juneau and Richard Harris were led to gold in the Silver Bow Basin, U.S. naval officers encouraged the Auke to move from the area to avoid conflict with miners and prospectors. The census of Alaska at the time listed the Auke population as 640, of whom 300 were on Admiralty Island, 50 on Douglas Island, and 290 on Stephens Passage, the latter presumably including those at the Point Louisa village.
The Chumash are a Native American people who historically inhabited the central and southern coastal regions of California, in portions of what is now San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Ventura and Los Angeles counties, extending from Morro Bay in the north to Malibu in the south. They also occupied three of the Channel Islands: Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa and San Miguel; the smaller island of Anacapa was uninhabited. Modern place names with Chumash origins include Malibu, Lompoc, Ojai, Pismo Beach, Point Mugu, Piru, Lake Castaic, Saticoy, and Simi Valley.
Archaeological research demonstrates that the Chumash have deep roots in the Santa Barbara Channel area and lived along the southern California Coast for millennia.
Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. The anthropologist Alfred L. Kroeber thought that the 1770 population of the Chumash might have been about 10,000. Alan K. Brown concluded that the population was not over 15,000. Sherburne F. Cook at various times estimated the aboriginal Chumash as 8,000, 13,650, 20,400, and 18,500.
Some scholars have suggested that Chumash population may have declined substantially
The Clatsop are a small tribe of Chinookan-speaking Native Americans in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. In the early 19th century they inhabited an area of the northwestern coast of present-day Oregon from the mouth of the Columbia River south to Tillamook.
Clatsop in the original language is La t cap, which means "placed of dried salmon". Apparently "Clatsop" was originally the name of a single settlement.
The Clatsop dialect used by the tribe is a nearly-extinct dialect of the Lower Chinookan language, a language in the Oregon Penutian family. Most Clatsops spoke Chinook Jargon and some spoke a dialect of Nehalem, by the time Lewis and Clark's Corps of Discovery made contact with them.
Chinook Jargon is a trade language, and was once used throughout much of the Pacific Northwest. Many place names in the area come from the Chinook Jargon, for example, Neakahnie Mountain — "The Mountain", and Ecola Creek and Park — "whale".
The tribe was encountered at the mouth of the Columbia in 1805 by the Lewis and Clark Expedition. The expedition named their last encampment Fort Clatsop after the tribe, whose nearest village was approximately seven miles (12 km) away. The tribe
The Poarch Band of Creek Indians is the only federally recognized tribe of Native Americans in Alabama. Historically speaking the Muskogean language, they were formerly known as the Creek Nation East of the Mississippi. They are located mostly in Escambia County. They operate three gaming casinos and a hotel.
The Poarch Band descends from Muscogee Creek Indians who sided with the United States in the Creek War of 1813–1814. Many Creeks remained in Alabama despite the Indian Removal Act of 1830.
They have lived in Alabama as a distinct community for the last two centuries. The Poarch Band represents only some of the descendants of those who were not removed.
Over the decades, many Indians intermarried with African-American or European-American neighbors, and some descendants assimilated into those social and cultural groups.
To be eligible to enroll in the tribe, people must be descended from the American Indians listed on the either of three roles: 1870 U.S. Census of Escambia County, Alabama; 1900 U.S. Census of Escambia County, Alabama; 1900 U.S. Special Indian Census of Monroe County, Alabama. Besides being of Muscogee Creek heritage, they must have a minimum blood quantum of
Wintun is the name generally given to a group of related Native American tribes who live in Northern California, including the Wintu (northern), Nomlaki (central), and Patwin (southern) tribes. Their range is from approximately present-day Lake Shasta to San Francisco Bay, along the western side of the Sacramento River to the Coast Range. Each of these tribes speak one of the Wintuan languages. Linguistic and archaeological evidence suggests that the Wintun people probably entered the California area around 500 AD from what is now southern Oregon, introducing bow and arrow technology to the region (Golla 2011: 205).
The Cahuilla, Iviatim in their own language, are Native Americans of the inland areas of southern California. Their original territory included an area of about 2,400 square miles (6,200 km). The traditional Cahuilla territory was near the geographic center of Southern California. It was bounded to the north by the San Bernardino Mountains, to the south by Borrego Springs and the Chocolate Mountains, to the east by the Colorado Desert, and to the west by the San Jacinto Plain and the eastern slopes of the Palomar Mountains.
The Cahuilla language is in the Uto-Aztecan family. A 1990 census revealed 35 speakers in an ethnic population of 800. It is nearly extinct, since most speakers are middle-aged or older. In their own language, their autonym is Iviatim, and the name of their language is Ivia. Cahuilla is an exonym applied to the group after mission secularization in the Ranchos of California. The word "Cahuilla" is probably from the Ivia word kawi'a, meaning "master."
Oral legends suggest that when the Cahuilla first moved into the Coachella Valley, a large body of water which geographers call Lake Cahuilla was in existence. Fed by the Colorado River, it dried up sometime before
The Ute Mountain Ute Tribe is one of three federally recognized tribes of the Ute Nation, and are mostly descendants of the historic Weeminuche Band who moved to the Southern Ute reservation in 1897. Their reservation is headquartered at Towaoc, Colorado on the Ute Mountain Ute Indian Reservation in southwestern Colorado, northwestern New Mexico and small sections of Utah.
The Ute Mountain Ute Tribe are descendants of the Weeminuche band who moved to the Southern Ute reservation in 1897. Two thousand years ago, the Utes lived and ranged in the mountains and desert over much of the Colorado Plateau: much of present day eastern Utah, western Colorado, northern Arizona and northwestern New Mexico. The use of lands in the Four Corners area, where the Ute Mountain Ute tribe now live, though, came later. Most anthropologists agree that Utes were established in the Four Corners area by 1500 A.D. The Ute people were hunters and gatherers who moved on foot to hunting grounds and gathering land based upon the season. The men hunted animals, including deer, antelope, buffalo, rabbits, and other small mammals and birds. Women gathered grasses, nuts, berries, roots, and greens in woven baskets;
The Achomawi (also Achumawi, Ajumawi and Ahjumawi) are one of eleven bands of the Pit River tribe of Native Americans who lived in northeastern California, USA.
Historically, the Achomawi homeland was located along the Pit River in northeastern California. Their territory extended from Big Bend to Goose Lake. This land was also home to the Atsugewi, who lived south of the Achomawi.
Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. Alfred L. Kroeber estimated the combined 1770 population of the Achomawi and Atsugewi as 3,000. A more detailed analysis by Fred B. Kniffen arrived at the same figure. T. R. Garth estimated the Atsugewi population at a maximum of 850, which would leave at least 2,150 for the Achomawi. Kroeber estimated population of the Achomawi 1910 as 1,000 and "three-fourths still full blood". Edward S. Curtis, a photographer and author in the 1920s, gave a 1910 population of Achomawi at 984. The Achomawi population was estimated at 1,500 in 2000.
The Achomawi speak the Achomawi language, a Palaihnihan language.
Historically, the Achomawi had upwards of 28 villages including Achomawi, Hamawi, Hantiwi, Atuami,
US Indian Reservations:Flathead Indian Reservation
The Bitterroot Salish are one of three tribes of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation in Montana. The Flathead Reservation is home to the Kootenai and Pend d'Oreilles tribes also.
The people are an Interior Salish-speaking group of Native Americans. Their language is also called Salish, and is the namesake of the entire Salishan languages group. The Spokane (npoqínišcn) and Kalispel (qlispé) and Bitterroot Salish (séliš) languages are all dialects the same language. There is no shared name for the language besides the linguistic designations Spokane-Kalispel-Flathead or npoqínišcn-qlispé-séliš.
Hupa, also spelled Hoopa, is a Native American tribe in northwestern California. Their autonym is Natinixwe, also spelled Natinookwa, meaning "People of the Place Where the Trails Return." The majority of the tribe is enrolled in the federally recognized Hoopa Valley Tribe; however, some Hupa are enrolled in the Elk Valley Rancheria. Most Hupa are enrolled in the federally recognized Hoopa Valley Tribe, while a small number of Hupa are enrolled in the Cher-Ae Heights Indian Community of the Trinidad Rancheria, located in Humboldt County, California,
The Hupa people migrated from the north into northern California around 1000 CE and settled in Hoopa Valley, California. Their heritage language is Hupa, which is a member of the Athabaskan language family. Their land stretched from the South Fork of the Trinity River to Hoopa Valley, to the Klamath River in California. Their red cedar-planked houses, dugout canoes, basket hats, and many elements of their oral literature identify them with their northern origin; however, some of their customs, such as the use of a sweat house for ceremonies and the manufacture of acorn bread, were adopted from surrounding indigenous peoples of
The Modoc are a Native American people who originally lived in the area which is now northeastern California and central Southern Oregon. They are currently divided between Oregon and Oklahoma and are enrolled in either of two federally recognized tribes, the Klamath Tribes in Oregon and the Modoc Tribe of Oklahoma.
Prior to the 19th century, when European explorers first encountered the Modoc, like all Plateau Indians, they caught salmon during salmon runs and migrated seasonally to hunt and gather other food. Their housing included portable tents used in summer, located near reliable sources of edible roots and hunting. In winter, they built earthen dug-out lodges shaped like beehives, covered with sticks and plastered with mud, located near lake shores with reliable sources of seeds from aquatic woka plants and fishing.
In addition to the Klamath, with whom they shared a language and the Modoc Plateau, the groups neighboring the Modoc home were the following:
The Modoc, Northern Paiute, and Achomawi shared Goose Lake Valley.
The known Modoc village sites are Agawesh where Willow Creek enters Lower Klamath Lake, Kumbat and Pashha on the shores of Tule Lake, and Wachamshwash and
The Nez Perce ( /ˌnɛzˈpɜrs/) (autonym: Niimíipu) are Native American people who live in the Pacific Northwest region (Columbia River Plateau) of the United States. An anthropological theory says they descended from the Old Cordilleran Culture, which moved south from the Rocky Mountains and west in Nez Perce lands. The Nez Perce nation currently governs and inhabits a reservation in Idaho. The Nez Perce's name for themselves is Nimíipuu (pronounced [nimiːpuː]), meaning, "The People."
They speak the Nez Perce language or Niimiipuutímt, a Sahaptian language related to the several dialects of Sahaptin. The Sahaptian sub-family is one of the branches of the Plateau Penutian family (which in turn may be related to a larger Penutian grouping).
Nez Percé is an exonym given by French Canadian fur traders who visited the area regularly in the late 18th century, meaning literally 'pierced nose'. The most common self-designation used today by the Nez Perce is Niimíipu. "Nez Perce" is also used by the tribe itself, the United States Government, and contemporary historians. Older historical ethnological works use the French spelling "Nez Percé," with the diacritic. The original French
The Quechan (Quechan: Kwtsaan - “those who descended”, spelled “kwuh-tsan”, also in English Yuma, Yuman, Kwtsan, Kwtsaan) are a Native American tribe who live on the Fort Yuma Indian Reservation on the lower Colorado River in Arizona and California just north of the border with Mexico. Members are enrolled into the Quechan Tribe of the Fort Yuma Indian Reservation. The federally recognized Quechan tribe's main office is located in Fort Yuma, Arizona. Its operations and the majority of its reservation land are located in California, United States.
The term Patayan is used by archaeologists to describe the prehistoric Native American cultures who inhabited parts of modern day Arizona, California and Baja California. These areas included territory near the Colorado River Valley, the nearby uplands, and north to the vicinity of the Grand Canyon. The prehistoric people may have been ancestral to the Quechan. They practiced floodplain agriculture where possible, but relied heavily on hunting and gathering. Subgroups include the River Yuman, Delta–Californian, and Upland Yuman ("Pai").
The historic Yuman-speaking peoples in this region were skilled warriors and active traders, maintaining
The Spirit Lake Tribe (In Santee Sioux: Mni Wakan Oyate, formerly Devils Lake Sioux) is a Sioux tribe. Its reservation is located in east-central North Dakota on the southern shores of Devils Lake. Established in 1867 in a treaty between Sisseton Wahpeton Bands and the United States government, the reservation, at 47°54′38″N 98°53′01″W / 47.91056°N 98.88361°W / 47.91056; -98.88361, consists of 1,283.777 km² (495.669 sq mi) of land area primarily in Benson County and Eddy County. Smaller areas extend into Ramsey, Wells and Nelson counties.
According to the Bureau of Indian Affairs in 2005, there were 6,677 enrolled members of the tribe. At the time of the U.S. 2000 census, 4,435 members were living on the reservation but slightly more than 6,000 are estimated to live there currently. The unemployment rate was 47.3% in 2000. The largest community on the reservation is Fort Totten.
The tribe operates the Spirit Lake Casino. Formerly, the tribe owned two smaller casinos, which were closed in 1996 to make way for the larger facility. The reservation also contains the attractions of the Sullys Hill National Game Preserve and the Fort Totten State Historic Site, which is listed on the
The Yuma Indians were an ethnic group of Native Americans that lived in southern California.They also lived across the Colorado River in Southwestern Arizona.
The United States engaged the Yuma Indians in warfare during the Yuma Expedition, which was one of many Indian Wars that took place before the Civil War.
US Indian Reservations:Umatilla Indian Reservation
Walla Walla ( /ˌwɒləˈwɒlə/ WOL-ə-WOL-ə is a Sahaptin Native American tribe of the northwestern United States. The reduplication of the word expresses the diminutive form. The name "Walla Walla" is translated several ways but most often as "many waters."
Many Walla Walla live on the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. The Walla Walla share land and a governmental structure with the Cayuse and the Umatilla tribes as part of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla. The reservation is located in the area Pendleton, Oregon, United States, near the Blue Mountains.
The people are a Sahaptin-speaking tribe which traditionally inhabited the Columbia River region of the northwestern United States. The Walla Walla occupied the territory along the Walla Walla River and along the junction of the Snake and Columbia Rivers in a territory that is now part of northern Oregon and southeastern Washington state in the United States before the coming of white settlers.
The Walla Walla encountered the Lewis and Clark Expedition both in 1805, during their trip down the Columbia River, and in 1806 during their return upriver. The Americans were welcomed warmly by the Walla Walla chief
The Big Pine Band of Owens Valley Paiute Shoshone Indians of the Big Pine Reservation are a federally recognized tribe of Mono and Timbisha Indians in California.
The Big Pine Reservation is located 18 miles (29 km) from Bishop, at the eastern base of the Sierra Nevada. The tribal headquarters is in Big Pine, California. The tribe has 462 enrolled members.
The Owen Valley Paiutes traditionally spoke a dialect of the Mono language, which is part of the Western Numic branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family. While there are extremely few speakers left, the language is still living today. Their name for themselves in their own language is Numa or "People." The so-called Shoshone in the community spoke the Timbisha language, which is part of the Central Numic branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
The Owens Valley Paiute were several Paiute groups that cooperated and lived together in semipermanent camps. They mediated between Californian and Great Basin culture. They irrigated crops along the Owens Valley, a highly arable and ecologically diverse region in the southern Sierra Nevada. Their name for themselves was Numa or "People."
The tribe participated in round dances and held
Carrier Indians (Takulli, Dakelh, ￢ﾀﾜwe travel by water￢ﾀﾝ)- An Athabaskan people in British Columbia, Canada.
/Name. The Carriers received their name from the custom involving dead warriors. The dead were disposed of by cremation and following the ceremony, the widow took any remaining charred bones from among the ashes and carried them in a leather satchel on her back./
== Carrier CentralNorthern Carrier
Carrier, Dakelh, is part of what is called the Athapaskan language group.
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carrier_indians"
The Cherokee (/ˈtʃɛrəkiː/; Cherokee: ᏣᎳᎩ Tsalagi) are a Native American people historically settled in the Southeastern United States (principally Georgia, the Carolinas, and East Tennessee). Linguistically, they are part of the Iroquoian language family. In the 19th century, historians and ethnographers recorded their oral tradition that told of the tribe having migrated south in ancient times from the Great Lakes region, where other Iroquoian-speaking peoples were located. They began to have contact with European traders in the 18th century.
In the 19th century, white settlers in the United States called the Cherokee one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they had assimilated numerous cultural and technological practices of European American settlers. The Cherokee were one of the first, if not the first, major non-European ethnic group to become U.S. citizens. Article 8 in the 1817 treaty with the Cherokee stated Cherokees may wish to become citizen of the United States. According to the 2000 U.S. Census, the Cherokee Nation has more than 300,000 members, the largest of the 565 federally recognized Native American tribes in the United States.
Of the three federally
Karuk (also Karok) (Tolowa: chum-ne ) is an indigenous people of California in the United States. They are one of the largest tribes in California today. Most Karuk people are enrolled in the federally recognized Karuk Tribe; however, some are enrolled in the Cher-Ae Heights Indian Community of the Trinidad Rancheria, located in Humboldt County, California. The tribal headquarters, located off State Route 96, is in the town of Happy Camp, California. Currently the tribe has three tribal board meeting places, in Yreka, Happy Camp, and Orleans.
Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. Alfred L. Kroeber proposed a population for the Karuk of 1,500 in 1770. Sherburne F. Cook initially estimated it as 2,000, later raising this figure to 2,700. Kroeber reported the surviving population of the Karuk in the year 1910 AD as 800.
As of Fall 2007, the Karuk Tribe of California had 3,507 enrolled members.
Since time immemorial, the Karuk, whose name means "upriver people", or "upstream" people, have resided in villages along the Klamath River, where they continue such cultural traditions as hunting, gathering, fishing, basket
The Nanticoke people are an indigenous American Algonquian people, whose traditional homelands are in Chesapeake Bay and Delaware. Today they live in the northeast United States, especially Delaware; in Canada; and in Oklahoma.
The Nanticoke people may have originated in Labrador, Canada and migrated through the Great Lake region and the Ohio Valley to the east, along with the Shawnee and Lenape peoples.
In 1608, the Nanticoke came into European contact, with the arrival of British captain John Smith. They allied with the British and traded beaver pelts with them. They were located in today's Dorchester, Somerset and Wicomico counties.
In 1684, the Nanticoke and English governments defined a reservation for their use, situated between Chicacoan Creek and the Nanticoke River in Maryland. Non-native peoples encroached upon their lands, so the tribe purchased a 3,000-acre tract of land in 1707 on the Broad Creek in Delaware. Facing continued encroachment, they sold that land in 1768. Some had moved up to Pennsylvania in 1744, where they gained permission from the Iroquois Confederacy to settle near Wyoming, Pennsylvania and along the Juniata River. They moved upriver a decade later.
The Osage Nation is a Native American Siouan-speaking tribe in the United States that originated in the Ohio River valley in present-day Kentucky. After years of war with invading Iroquois, the Osage migrated west of the Mississippi River to their historic lands in present-day Arkansas, Missouri, Kansas, and Oklahoma by the mid-17th century. At the height of their power in the early 18th century, the Osage had become the dominant power in their region, controlling the area between the Missouri and Red rivers. They are a federally recognized tribe and based mainly in Osage County, Oklahoma, coterminous with their reservation. Members are found throughout the country.
The 19-century painter George Catlin described the Osage as
The missionary Isaac McCoy described the Osage as an "uncommonly fierce, courageous, warlike nation" and Washington Irving said they were the "finest looking Indians I have ever seen in the West."
The Osage language is part of the Dhegihan branch of the Siouan stock of Native American languages. They originally lived among speakers of the same Dhegihan stock, such as the Kansa, Ponca, Omaha, and Quapaw in the Ohio Valley. The tribes likely became differentiated
Pillager Band of Chippewa Indians (or simply the Pillagers; Makandwewininiwag in the Ojibwe language) are a historical band of Chippewa (Ojibwe) who settled at the headwaters of the Mississippi River in present-day Minnesota. Their name "Pillagers" is a translation of Makandwewininiwag, which literally means "Pillaging Men". The French called them Pilleurs, also a translation of their name. The French and Americans adopted their autonym for their military activities as the advance guard of the Ojibwe in the invasion of the Dakota country. They settled first on Leech Lake and gradually pushed westward from that point.
Their name has been variously recorded as:
By the mid-nineteenth century, records showed that scholars and Indian agents were generally using the band's Ojibwe name, although they struggled to render the spelling in the best way to convey pronunciation:
The Pillagers at the time had several sub-bands, identified by location. These included the following:
Through the treaty process with the United States, the Pillager Band were settled on reservations in north-central Minnesota. A majority were placed on the following three reservations, established under the 1855
US Indian Reservations:Shakopee-Mdewakanton Indian Reservation
The Shakopee Mdewakanton (Dakota) Sioux Community ("SMSC") is a federally recognized Indian tribe formally organized under federal reservation status in 1969. Tribal members are direct lineal descendants of Mdewakanton Dakota people who resided in villages near the banks of the lower Minnesota River. Chief Sakpe spoke for a village that was located near what is today the City of Shakopee. The town of Shakopee was named after Sakpe [pronounced Shock-pay], which means the number six. The SMSC presently owns approximately 2,000 acres (8.1 km) of land, all of which are located within or near the original 250-acre (1.0 km) reservation established for the Tribe in the 1880s. Tribal lands are located in Prior Lake and Shakopee, Minnesota.
US Indian Reservations:Umatilla Indian Reservation
The Umatilla are a Sahaptin-speaking Native American group who traditionally inhabited the Columbia Plateau region of the northwestern United States, along the Umatilla and Columbia Rivers.
Linguistically, the Umatilla people spoke a tongue that was part of the Sahaptin division of the Penutian language family — closely related to other peoples of today's Eastern Oregon, Eastern Washington, and the Idaho panhandle. These included the Nez Perce, Cayuse, Walla Walla, and the Yakima. These peoples were ravaged by smallpox and other diseases during the first half of the 19th Century and their populations depleted.
In 1855 the inland Sahaptian-speaking nations were forced to surrender their historic homelands to the United States government in exchange for territorial set-asides on reservations.
The Umatilla share land and a governmental structure with the Cayuse and the Walla Walla tribes as part of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. Their reservation is located near Pendleton, Oregon near the Blue Mountains.
A number of places and geographic features have been named after the tribe, such as the Umatilla River, Umatilla County, and Umatilla National Forest.
The Yazoo were a tribe of the Native American Tunica people historically located on the lower course of Yazoo River, Mississippi. It was closely connected to other Tunica peoples, especially the Tunica, Koroa, and possibly the Tioux.
Nothing is definitely known concerning their language, believed to be related to Tunica, a language isolate. In 1699 Father Antone Davion, of the Quebec Seminary of Foreign Missions, established a mission among the Tunica. He also reached out to allied tribes, such as the Taensa. The Yazoo, however, like the Chickasaw were under the influence of the English traders from Carolina. In 1702 they aided the Koroa in killing Father Nicholas Foucault and three French companions. The seminary temporarily withdrew Father Davion from the area.
In 1718 the French established a fort near the village of St. Pierre to command the river. In 1722 the young Jesuit Father Jean Rouel was given the Yazoo mission, near the French post. He remained there until the outbreak of the Natchez War in 1729.
The Yazoo and Koroa joined with the Natchez in attacking the French. On 28 November, the Natchez attacked Fort Rosalie, killing more than 200 people, including the Jesuit
Arikara (also Sahnish,The Arikara call themselves Sahnish. Arikaree, Ree) are a group of Native Americans in North Dakota. Today they are enrolled in the federally recognized tribe the Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Reservation.
Sometimes called the Arikaree, or the Ree, the Arikara's name is believed to mean "horns", in reference to the ancient custom of wearing two upright bones in their hair. The name also could mean "elk people" or "corn eaters".
The Arikara language is a member of the Caddoan language family. Arikara is close to the Pawnee language, but they are not mutually intelligible. Arikara is now spoken mainly by a few elders. One of the last fluent speakers, Maude Starr, died on January 20, 2010. She was a certified language teacher who participated in Arikara language education programs.
In previous centuries, the Arikara were a semi-nomadic people who lived on the Great Plains of the United States of America for several hundred years. They lived primarily in earth lodges during the sedentary seasons. They created portable tipis as temporary shelter while traveling from their villages, or on seasonal bison hunts. They were primarily an agricultural
The Berry Creek Rancheria of Tyme Maidu Indians are a Native American people inhabiting a northeastern part California, south of Lassen Peak.
They are a federally recognized Maidu tribe, headquartered in Oroville in Butte County. Their reservation is 65 acres (260,000 m), located south of Oroville, and within a mile of the Feather River. The tribe has 304 enrolled members; 136 of whom live on the reservation.
The Berry Creek Rancheria has two Maidu language speakers.
39°37′32″N 121°19′40″W / 39.625641°N 121.327781°W / 39.625641; -121.327781
Pembina Band of Chippewa Indians (Ojibwe: Aniibiminani-ziibiwininiwag) are a historical band of Chippewa (Ojibwe), originally living along the Red River of the North and its tributaries. Through the treaty process with the United States, the Pembina Band were settled on reservations in Minnesota and North Dakota. Some tribal members refusing settlement in North Dakota relocated northward and westward, some eventually settling in Montana.
The successors apparent of the Pembina Band are:
The so-called Little Shell Pembina Band of North America, based in North Dakota, is a militia-type group made up of one family descended from the historical Little Shell Chippewa Band, mostly white militia members, and one Indonesian, who attempted a coup against the government of Fiji. It claims to be a successor apparent of the Pembina Band, but it is not recognized as a Native American tribe by the US federal government nor by North Dakota.
The Santee Indian Organization, a remnant tribe, was officially recognized by the South Carolina Commission for Minority Affairs on January 27, 2006. Historically the Santee were a small tribe (est. at a population of 3000 around 1600 AD), speaking a Siouan language and centered in the area of the present town of Santee, South Carolina. Their settlement was along the Santee River, since dammed and called Lake Marion.
Historically, the great majority of various Siouan-speaking tribes were found in the Great Plains states, where they had migrated and settled before European contact.
Some Siouan-speaking tribes also inhabited territory in present-day Virginia, Maryland and North Carolina. It is possible that some Upper South areas, such as the Big Sandy or Sandy rivers of Carolina and East Kentucky, were named for the Santee tribe. The English translations of Indian words was often lacking, and errors were and are common. The Santee have Lower Town connections to the Lower Town Cherokee and the Creek people, due to the westward movement of such American Indian groups during the Colonial Conguest era.
An earthwork mound believed to have been constructed by the Mississippian culture
The Big Valley Band of Pomo Indians of the Big Valley Rancheria is a federally recognized tribe of Pomo and Pit River Indians, with a reservation located in Lake County, California, near the town of Finley. They conduct tribal business from Lakeport, California.
The tribe formed its current governmental system under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1935 and ratified its constitution on 15 January 1936. Tribal membership is open to any descendant of the tribal members listed on the official 1935 census rolls, regardless of blood quantum. Today tribal enrollment is estimated to be 225.
The traditional language of the tribe is Eastern Pomo, also known as Bahtssal or Clear Lake Pomo. The tribe has been able to hold Eastern Pomo language classes, bring together elders with younger tribal members for lessons, and document elders speaking both in audio and video recordings.
Economic development for the tribe has been possible through the creation of the Konocti Vista Casino. which is located in Lakeport, on the shores of Clear Lake. The Big Valley Band also owns a hotel, marina, RV park, the Ku-Hu-Gui Cafe, and the Point Bar as part of the casino resort.
The tribe has an annual Tule Boat
The Chicora tribe was a small Native American tribe of the Pee Dee area in northeastern South Carolina, ranging to the Cape Fear River in North Carolina. Scholars consider them a Catawban group, likely to have spoken a Siouan language.
In 1521 a Spanish expedition from Santo Domingo, led by Francisco Gordilla, landed in this area. They took 70 natives captive and returned with them to Hispaniola. While most died within two years, one native, whom the Spanish named Francisco de Chicora, was baptized and learned Spanish. He worked for Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón and was taken to Spain on a trip with him. Chicora gave an account of his people and their practices to the court chronicler, Peter Martyr.
In 1526 de Chicora accompanied another Spanish expedition to North America. When the party reached land at the Santee River, he escaped and rejoined his people.
Martyr's De Orbe Novo was published in "Decades". It was translated into English in 1555 and a fuller account in 1912. "The Testimony of Francisco de Chicora" is included in the seventh Decade.
Remnants of the tribe are centered in Conway, South Carolina and are seeking official recognition by the state.
The Martis were a group of Native Americans who lived in Northern California on both the eastern and western sides of the Sierra Nevada. The Martis complex lasted from 2000 BCE to 500 CE, during the Middle Archaic era. Evidence of Martis habitation has been found from Carson River and Reno, Nevada in the east to Auburn, California and Oroville, California in the west. The Martis name refers to the geographic region of Martis Creek which spans Nevada County, California and Placer County, California.
Martis traveled to higher elevations in the winter and lower elevations in the summer in loose-knit groups. They lived in base camps on valley margins, often near hot springs. In the winter, they lived in pit houses with hearths, pit caches, and occasionally burials. Extended families are believed to have lived together. Summer camps were often located near springs or creeks.
They shared certain traits which included making stone tools from basalt, using pestles and mortars, and hunting with atlatls and spears. Martis engaged in a hunter-gatherer economic system. Martis people processed seeds and hunted big game, such as mountain sheep, antelope, deer, bison, and elk.
Moratto states that
The Round Valley Indian Reservation is a federally recognized Indian reservation lying primarily in northern Mendocino County, California, USA. A small part of it extends northward into southern Trinity County. The total land area, including off-reservation trust land, is 93.939 km² (36.270 sq mi). More than two-thirds of this area is off-reservation trust land, including about 405 acres (1.64 km) in the community of Covelo. The total resident population as of the 2000 census was 300 persons, of whom 99 lived in Covelo.
The Round Valley Indians consists of the Covelo Indian Community. This community is an acculmination of small tribes; the Yuki, who were the original inhabitants of Round Valley, Concow, Little Lake and other Pomo, Nomlaki, Cahto, Wailaki, and Pit River peoples. They were forced onto the land formerly occupied by the Yuki tribe.
The Round Valley Indian Reservation began in 1856 as the Nome Cult Farm, an administrative extension of the Nome Lackee Reservation located on the Northwestern edge of the Sacramento Valley, one of the five reservations in California legislated by the United States Government in 1852. The system of Indian reservations had a dual purpose: to
The Yavapai-Prescott Tribe is located on a reservation of 1,413.46 acres (5.720 km²) in central Yavapai County in west-central Arizona. There are less than 200 tribal members. The tribe has a shopping center, two casinos and a hotel where the reservation abuts State Highway 69 at Prescott, Arizona. There is also a business park on the reservation off State Highway 89 north of Prescott. The 2000 census reported a resident population of 182 persons on the Yavapai-Prescott Indian Reservation, 117 of whom were of solely Native American heritage. The tribal chief from 1940-1966 was Viola Jimulla.
Law Enforcement services are provided by the Yavapai-Prescott Tribal Police Department.
The Chochenyo (also called Chocheño, Chocenyo) are one of the divisions of the indigenous Ohlone (Costanoan) people of Northern California. The Chochenyo resided on the east side of the San Francisco Bay (the "East Bay"), primarily in what is now Alameda County, and also Contra Costa County, inland to the Mount Diablo coastal mountains.
Chochenyo (also called Chocheño and East Bay Costanoan) is also the name of their spoken language, one of the Costanoan dialects in the Utian family. Linguistically, Chochenyo, Tamyen and Ramaytush are thought to be close dialects of a single language.
The Ohlone tribes were hunter-gatherers who moved into the San Francisco Bay Region around 500 AD, displacing earlier Esselen people. In Chochenyo territory, recent datings of the ancient Emeryville Shellmounds and Newark Shellmounds attest to people residing in the Bay Area since the 4000 BC.
Chochenyo territory was bordered by the Karkin to the north (at Mount Diablo), the Tamyen to the south and southwest, the San Francisco Bay to the west, and overlapped a bit with the Bay Miwok and Yokuts to the east.
During the California Mission Era, the Chochenyos moved en masse to the Mission San Francisco de
The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservation are the Bitterroot Salish, Kootenai and Pend d'Oreilles (pronounced Pond oray) Tribes. The Flatheads lived between the Cascade Mountains and Rocky Mountains. The Salish (Flatheads) initially lived entirely east of the Continental Divide but established their headquarters near the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains. Occasionally hunting parties went west of the Continental Divide but not west of the Bitterroot Range. The easternmost edge of their ancestral hunting forays were the Gallatin, Crazy Mountain, and Little Belt Ranges.
They were called the Flathead Indians by the first white men who came to the area. The Flatheads call themselves Salish meaning the people.
The first written record of the tribes is from their meeting with the Lewis and Clark Expedition (September 5, 1805). Lewis and Clark came there and asked for horses but eventually ate the horses due to starvation. The Flatheads also appear in the records of the Catholic Church at St. Louis to which they sent four delegations to request missionaries (or "Black Robes") to minister to the tribe. Their request was finally granted and a number of
The Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma is one of three federally recognized Shawnee tribes. They are located in Oklahoma and Missouri.
The tribe holds an annual powwow every September at their tribal complex.
The headquarters of the Eastern Shawnee Tribe are Wyandotte, Oklahoma, and their tribal jurisdictional area is in Ottawa County, Oklahoma. Currently, there are 2,801 enrolled tribal members, with 904 of them living within the state of Oklahoma.
Glenna J. Wallace is the elected chief, currently serving a four-year term. The Eastern Shawnee Tribe issues its own tribal vehicle tags.
Membership to the tribe is based on lineal descent,, that is, the tribe has no minimum blood quantum requirements.
The Eastern Shawnee operate their own housing authority as well as the People's Bank of Seneca, Missouri; the Eastern Shawnee Print Shop; Red Stone Construction Company; Four Feathers Recycling; Longhouse Management, as well as two casinos, a bingo hall, a gas station, a truck stop, and an off-track wagering facility. Their annual economic impact is estimated by the Oklahoma Indian Affairs Commissions to be $164,000,000.
The Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma is an Eastern Woodland tribe,
The Great Sioux Nation is a general term sometimes applied to the Sioux.
The Great Sioux Nation is divided into three linguistically and regionally based groups and several subgroups:
The term "Great Sioux Nation" is also sometimes applied to a hypothetical state in the western and midwestern United States, which would occupy the following recognized Indian Reservations:
The hypothetical state would also include the defunct Great Sioux reservation and other "unceded Indian territory" in four states, as well as parts of the following states:
Therefore, the theoretical Great Sioux Nation occupies only parts of the United States where Sioux tribes have some legal claim with regard to treaties with the Federal government. (See, e.g., Treaty of Fort Laramie and map of treaty land in External Links section, below.)
Historically, the Great Sioux Nation and the United States have had a turbulent relationship. The last great Indian battles, the Battle of Little Bighorn and the Wounded Knee Massacre, were fought between these two peoples.
Canadian First Nations such as the Nakoda (Stoney) are descendants of the Great Sioux Nations.
The Mille Lacs Indians (Ojibwe: Misi-zaaga'iganiwininiwag), also known as the Mille Lacs and Snake River Band of Chippewa, are a Band of Indians formed from the unification of the Mille Lacs Band of Mississippi Chippewa (Ojibwe) with the Mille Lacs Band of Mdewakanton Sioux (Dakota). Today, their successor apparent Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe consider themselves as being Ojibwe, but many on their main Reservation have the Ma'iingan (Wolf) as their chief Doodem (Clan), which is an indicator of Dakota origins.
Mille Lacs Indians, because of their mixed Chippewa-Sioux heritage, have become the cultural linch-pin linking the two former warring Nations into a single people, providing Ojibwe culture and customs to the Dakota just as providing Dakota culture and customs to the Ojibwe. All of the Drums held among the Mille Lacs Indians are of Dakota origins, singing Dakota melodies but translated into Ojibwe.
First group forming the Mille Lacs Indians were the Mdewáḳaŋtuŋwaŋ Oyate or the Mille Lacs Band of Mdewakanton Dakota. The Mdewakanton Dakota were the western sub-division of the Isanti Dakota, who formed the Eastern Dakota division. Of the Mdewakanton Dakota who originally lived along
The Seneca Nation of New York, also known as the Seneca Nation of Indians (Salamanca) is a federally recognized tribe of Seneca people in New York. The tribe has two headquarters: one in Irving, New York on the Cattaraugus Reservation, and the other in Jimerson Town on the Allegany Indian Reservation.
The tribe was established in 1848 by a Constitutional Convention of Seneca people residing on the Allegany and Cattaragus Territories in present-day New York. The Seneca Nation of Indians Constitution established a tripartite governing structure based on general elections of 16 Councilors, three Executives (President, Treasurer, Clerk), and Court justices (Surrogates and Peacemakers). These elections are held every two years, concurrent with Election Day in the rest of the United States. The leadership rotates between the two reservations each elections, and no officer can serve consecutive terms because of this.
The government is primarily under one-party rule, with the Seneca Party having complete control over the political process. The Seneca Party has cemented their place through bribing people for votes and busing voters in from out of state during elections, both of which are
Shoalwater Bay Tribe is a Native American tribe in western Washington state in the United States. They are descendants of the Willapa Chinook, Lower Chehalis, and Willapa Hills tribes. The Shoalwater Bay tribe lives on the southwest coast of Washington in northwestern [[Pacific County, Reservation with 70 inhabitants (2000 census) is located. The reservation is just west of Tokeland, Washington.
The original language of the Shoalwater Bay Tribe (very possibly extinct) would have belonged to the Chinookan family of Native American languages.
Tulalip is a group of Native American peoples from western Washington state in the United States. Today they are federally recognized as the Tulalip Tribes of the Tulalip Reservation.
Contemporary Tulalip are descended from several older indigenous peoples: the Snohomish, Snoqualmie, Skagit, Sauk-Suiattle, Samish, Stillaguamish, Duwamish, Sammamish and Skykomish; all these groups (with the exception of the Samish, who spoke Straits Salish) spoke a Salishan language called Lushootseed ( dxləšúcid ); the Lushootseed spelling of "Tulalip" is "dxlilap". Like many Northwest Coast natives, the Tulalip relied on fishing from local rivers and marine waters for food and built plank houses (longhouses) to protect themselves from the harsh, wet winters west of the Cascade Mountains.
The Tulalip Indian Reservation, at 48°04′40″N 122°16′15″W / 48.07778°N 122.27083°W / 48.07778; -122.27083, lies on Port Susan in western Snohomish County, adjacent to the western border of the city of Marysville. It has a land area of 35.3 sq mi (91.3 km², or 22,567 acres) and a 2000 census population of 9,246 persons residing within its boundaries. Its largest community is Tulalip Bay.
The Tulalip people
The Iroquois ( /ˈɪrəkwɔɪ/ or /ˈɪrəkwɑː/), also known as the Haudenosaunee or the "People of the Longhouse", are a league of several nations and tribes of indigenous people of North America. After the Iroquoian-speaking peoples of present-day central and upstate New York coalesced as distinct tribes, by the 16th century or earlier, they came together in an association known today as the Iroquois League, or the "League of Peace and Power".
The original Iroquois League was often known as the Five Nations, as it was composed of the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga and Seneca nations. After the Tuscarora nation joined the League in 1722, the Iroquois became known as the Six Nations. The League is embodied in the Grand Council, an assembly of fifty hereditary sachems. Other Iroquian peoples lived along the St. Lawrence River, around the Great Lakes and in the American Southeast, but they were not part of the Haudenosaunee and often competed and warred with these tribes.
When Europeans first arrived in North America, the Haudenosaunee were based in what is now the northeastern United States, primarily in what is referred to today as upstate New York west of the Hudson River and through
The Kichai tribe (also Keechi or Kitsai) was a Native American Southern Plains tribe that inhabited northeastern Texas.
Their name for themselves was K'itaish, and they are most closely related to the Pawnee. French explorers encountered them on the Red River in Louisiana in 1701.
The Kitsai were part of the complex, shifting political alliances of the South Plains. Early Europeans identified them as enemies of the Caddo. In 1712, they fought the Hainai along the Trinity River; however, they were allied with other member tribe of the Caddoan Confederacy and intermarried with the Kadohadacho during this time.
By 1772, they primarily settled east of the Trinity River, near present day Palestine, Texas.
On November 10, 1837, the Texas Rangers fought the Kitsai in the Battle of Stone Houses. The Kitsai were victorious, despite losing their leader in the first attack.
The Kitsai are not a distinct, federally recognized tribe but instead are enrolled in the Caddo Nation of Oklahoma and Wichita and Affiliated Tribes, both whom they are related to, as well as the Delaware Nation. These tribes live mostly in Southwestern Oklahoma, particularly in Caddo County, to which they were forcibly
The Delaware Nation, sometimes called the Absentee or Western Delaware, is one of three federally recognized tribes of Delaware Indians in the United States, along with the Delaware Indians based in Bartlesville, Oklahoma and the Stockbridge-Munsee Community of Wisconsin. Communities also reside in Canada.
The Delaware Nation has 1440 enrolled members, of which 859 live in Oklahoma. Members must have a minimum blood quantum of 1/8 to join the tribe.
The Delaware Nation's tribal complex is located two miles north of Anadarko, Oklahoma on Highway 281. Their tribal jurisdictional area is located within Caddo County, Oklahoma. They operate their own housing authority and issue tribal vehicle tags.
The tribe's current administration is as follows.
The nation's annual economic impact was estimated at $5 million in 2010. Their tribal casino, Gold River Bingo and Casino, is located north of Anadarko.
The Delaware peoples traditionally spoke the Delaware language (also known as the Lenape language), Munsee and Unami, two closely related languages of the Eastern Algonquian subgroup of the Algonquian language family.
The Lenape people were divided into three dialectal divisions, which later
Little River Band of Ottawa Indians is a federally recognized tribe of Ottawa Indians whose headquarters are located on their 1836 reservation in Manistee, Michigan. They also own lands in their 1855 reservation in Mason County, Michigan. They represent 9 villages or bands of the original Grand River Bands. The Tribe became well known in the area after the opening of the Little River Casino and Resort. The tribe's original language is Anishinaabemowin, an Algonquian language. Some elders and members can still speak the full language but the tribe is spread out far beyond their reservation and the language is not in common usage.
The Tribe is governed by a tripartite constitutional government headed by an elected 9 member Council and an elected Ogema (Chief). There is a separate but equal elected Judicial branch. The government has 28 different departments dealing with various programs and processes necessary to running a modern government.
The St. Croix Chippewa Indians (Ojibwe language: Manoominikeshiinyag, the "Ricing Rails") are a historical Band of Ojibwe located along the St. Croix River, which forms the boundary between the U.S. states of Wisconsin and Minnesota. Majority of the St. Croix Band are divided into two groups: the Federally recognized St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin, and the non-Federally recognized St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Minnesota that forms one of four constituent members forming the Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe.
The Manoominikeshiinyag were one of the three major Bands forming the Biitan-akiing-enabijig (Border Sitters) due to their proximity to the Dakota peoples. In turn, the Biitan-akiing-enabijig were a sub-Nation of the Gichigamiwininiwag (Lake Superior Men).
The St. Croix Band arrived in the area nearly 600 years ago when directed to move southward from Lake Superior to "the place where there is food upon the waters." In establishing a presence in the St. Croix River valley and its tributaries, the St. Croix Band entered into fierce territorial dispute with the Dakota and the Fox, though eight other Native American Tribes were located in the St. Croix River Valley. To this day
The Klickitat (also spelled Klikitat) are a Native American tribe of the Pacific Northwest. A Shahaptian tribe, their eastern neighbors were the Yakama, who speak a closely related language. Their western neighbors were various Salishan and Chinookan tribes. Their name has been perpetuated in Klickitat County, Washington, Klickitat, Washington, Klickitat Street in Portland, Oregon, and the Klickitat River, a tributary of the Columbia River.
The Klickitat were noted for being active and enterprising traders, and served as intermediaries between the coastal tribes and those living east of the Cascade Mountains.
The ethnonym "Klikitat" is said to derive from a Chinookan word meaning "beyond," in reference to the Rocky Mountains. The Klickitat, however, call themselves Qwû'lh-hwai-pûm meaning "prairie people" (X̣ʷáɬx̣ʷaypam).
Other names for the Klickitat include:
The ancestral lands of the Klickitat were situated north of the Columbia River, at the headwaters of the Cowlitz, Lewis, White Salmon, and Klickitat rivers, in present-day Klickitat and Skamania Counties. They occupied their later base after the Yakama crossed this river. In 1805, the Klickitat were encountered by the Lewis
Mississippi River Band of Chippewa Indians (Anishinaabe: Gichi-ziibiwininiwag) or simply the Mississippi Chippewa, are a historical Ojibwa Band inhabiting the headwaters of the Mississippi River and its tributaries in present-day Minnesota.
According to the oral history of the Mississippi Chippewa, they were primarily of the southern branch of Ojibwe who spread from the "Fifth Stopping Place" of Baawiting (Sault Ste. Marie region) along Lake Superior's southern shores until arriving at the "Sixth Stopping Place" of the St. Louis River. They continued westward across the Savanna Portage, and spread both northward and southward along the Mississippi River and its major tributaries.
Before entering the treaty process with the United States, the Mississippi Chippewa consisted of the following sub-bands:
and many villages associated with these sub-bands. Together, they controlled the main north-south trade corridor of the Mississippi River headwaters.
In 1825, with the Treaty of Prairie du Chien, United States drew the Prairie du Chien Line to separate the Ojibwe from the Dakota, believing the two were still at war with each other. The Ojibwe and the Dakota had ended their war for
The Pascua Yaqui Tribe is a federally recognized tribe of Yaqui Native Americans in southern Arizona.
Descended from the ancient Uto-Azteca people of Mexico, the ancestors of the Pascua Yaqui Tribe first settled in the United States near Nogales and south Tucson. In the late 19th century, the tribe began to expand into settlements north of Tucson in an area they named Pascua Village, and in Guadalupe, near Tempe. They gained recognition by the United States government on September 18, 1978.
In 552 AD, Yaquis were living in family groups along the Yaqui River (Yoem Vatwe) north to the Gila River, where they gathered wild desert foods, hunted game and cultivated corn, beans, and squash. Yaquis traded native foods, furs, shells, salt, and other goods with many indigenous groups of central North America. Among these groups are the Shoshone, the Comanche, the Pueblos, the Pimas, the Aztecs, and the Toltec. Yaquis roamed extensively in pre-Columbian times and sometimes settled among other native groups like the Zunis. After contact with non-Natives, the Yaquis came into an almost constant 400 year conflict with Spanish colonists and the later Mexican republic, a period known as the Yaqui
The Ponca (Páⁿka iyé: Páⁿka or Ppáⁿkka pronounced [pãŋꜜka]) are a Native American people of the Dhegihan branch of the Siouan-language group. There are two federally recognized Ponca tribes: the Ponca Tribe of Nebraska and the Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma. Their traditions and historical accounts suggest they originated as a tribe east of the Mississippi River in the Ohio River valley area and migrated west for game and as a result of Iroquois wars.
The term Ponca was the name of a clan among the Kansa, Osage, and Quapaws. The meaning of the name is unknown.
At first European contact, the Ponca lived around the mouth of the Niobrara River in northern Nebraska. According to tradition, they moved there from an area east of the Mississippi just before Columbus' arrival in the Americas. Siouan-speaking tribes such as the Omaha, Osage, Quapaw and Kaw also have traditions of having migrated to the West from east of the Mississippi River. The invasions of the Iroquois from their traditional base in the north pushed those tribes out of the Ohio River area. Scholars are not able to determine precisely when the Dhegian-Siouan tribes migrated west, but know the Iroquois also pushed
The Sac and Fox Nation is the largest of three federally recognized tribes of Sac and Meskwaki (Fox) Native Americans. They are located in Oklahoma and are predominantly Sac.
The other two Sac and Fox tribes are the Sac and Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa and the Sac and Fox Nation of Missouri in Kansas and Nebraska. The Sac and Fox tribes were always closely allied and speak very similar Algonquian languages, sometimes considered two dialects, instead of two languages. The Sac call themselves Thakiwaki or Sa ki wa ki, which means "people coming forth from the water."
The Sac and Fox Nation is headquartered in Stroud, Oklahoma, and their tribal jurisdictional area covers Lincoln, Payne, and Pottawatomie Counties. Their Principal Chief is George Thurman. Five elected officials, each elected for a four-year term, govern the tribe. Elections are held in odd-numbered years in August.
Of the 3,794 enrolled tribal members, 2,557 live in Oklahoma. Membership to the tribe requires a minimum 1/8 blood quantum.
The tribe's housing authority is located in Shawnee, Oklahoma. They issue their own tribal vehicle tags and operate eleven smoke shops and three casinos, the Sac and Fox Nation
The Squaxin Island Tribe (also Squaxin, Squaxon) is a Native American tribal government in western Washington state in the United States. The Squaxin Island Tribe is made up of several Lushootseed clans: the Noo-Seh-Chatl, Steh-Chass, Squi-Aitl, T'Peeksin, Sa-Heh-Wa-Mish, Squawksin, and S'Hotle-Ma-Mish. They live along several inlets of southern Puget Sound.
The Squaxin Island people speak the Lushootseed language. They moved onto their reservation in modern-day Mason County, Washington, in 1855. The Squaxin Island Tribe was one of the first Native American tribes in the U.S. to enter into the Self Governance Demonstration Project with the federal government.
The Squaxin Island Indian Reservation is in southeastern Mason County, Washington. Most of the main reservation is composed of Squaxin Island, but there is also a small part of 26.13 acres (105,700 m) at Kamilche, in addition to two parcels of off-reservation trust land near Kamilche, as well as a plot of 6.03 acres (24,400 m) across Pickering Passage from Squaxin Island and a plot of 35.93 acres (145,400 m) on Harstine Island, across Peale Passage. The total land area including off-reservation trust lands is 6.942 km² (2.68
The Taku are an Alaskan Native people, a ḵwáan or geographic subdivision of the Tlingit, known in their own language as the Tʼaaḵu Ḵwáan or "Geese Flood Upriver Tribe". The Taku lived along the northwestern coast of North America, in the area that is now the Alexander Archipelago of Alaska, and on the lower basin of the Taku River of the adjoining British Columbia mainland above that river's mouth.
The main village of the Taku people was located up the Taku River in what is now the Canadian province of British Columbia. From this main winter village they dispersed to their clan subsistence areas during the spring, summer, and fall. Having a keen appreciation of the advantages of their position for trade, the Taku held possession of the main river in the area that is now Juneau and compelled the natives of the interior territories to use them as middle-men, instead of allowing trade directly with the white settlers.
In the early 1840s, the Hudson's Bay Company established a trading post called Fort Durham in Taku Harbor. This fort was built to take advantage of the trade route up and down the Taku River. With the establishment of the fort, the Taku people abandoned their traditional
The Nehalem or Tillamook are a Native American tribe from Oregon of the Salish linguistic group. The name "Tillamook" is a Chinook term meaning "people of Nekelim (or Nehalem)" and is also spelled Calamox, Gillamooks and Killamook.
The Tillamook initially spoke Tillamook, a Salishan language, but gradually began to use English in greater amounts. The last fluent speaker of Tillamook died in 1970, rendering the language extinct. However, between 1965 and 1972, in an effort to revitalize the language, a group of researchers from the University of Hawaii interviewed the few remaining Tillamook and created a 120-page dictionary.
According to anthropological and archaeological research, the first ancestors of the Tillamook settled in that area in the 15th century, living in an area ranging from Cape Lookout to Cape Meares.. NAHDB calculations estimate the population at about 2200 in at the beginning of the 18th century.
The first documented western encounter with the Tillamook was in 1788 by Robert Haswell, second mate on Robert Gray's ship. A second encounter was in late 1805 by the Lewis and Clark Expedition while wintering at Fort Clatsop. A whale was washed ashore near Necost, and
The Winnemem Wintu ("middle river people" or "middle water people") are a band of the Native American Wintu tribe originally located along the lower McCloud River, above Shasta Dam near Redding, California.
The Winnemem are one of what anthropologists have hypothesised to be nine total bands of Wintu. They are not a federally recognized tribe, although they are working toward federal recognition. Some Winnemem Wintu feel that it is by government error rather than termination that the Bureau of Indian Affairs does not recognize them. And some Wintu representatives, of Winnemem heritage, have been informed by Interior Officials that it was "Bureaucratic Oversight" that resulted in the entire Wintu being omitted from the list of federally recognised tribes as early as the 1940s.
The Winnemem Wintu relate that forty-two Winnemem men, women and children were killed by white settlers at Kaibai Creek, California, in 1854. This action is known as the Kaibai Creek Massacre.
Around the late 19th century and early 20th century, local militias were awarded $5 for proof of every Native American person killed.
Since 1945, portions of the lower McCloud River have been flooded by Shasta Lake. The
The Wiyot people (Chetco-Tolowa: wee-’at Yurok: weyet ) are an indigenous people of California living near the Humboldt Bay, California and surrounding environs. They are culturally similar to the Yurok people. Today, there are approximately 450 Wiyot people. They are enrolled in several federally recognized tribes, such as the Wiyot Tribe (formerly known as the Table Bluff Reservation—Wiyot Tribe), Bear River Band of the Rohnerville Rancheria, Blue Lake Rancheria, and the Cher-Ae Heights Indian Community of the Trinidad Rancheria.
The Wiyot and Yurok are the farthest southwest people whose language has Algic roots. Wiyot and Yurok are distantly related to the Algonquian languages. Their traditional homeland ranged from Mad River through Humboldt Bay (including the present cities of Eureka and Arcata) to the lower Eel River basin. Inland, their territory was heavily forested in ancient redwood. Their stretch of shoreland was mostly sandy, dunes and tidal marsh.
The Wiyots were among the last natives in the United States to encounter white settlers. Spanish missions extended only as far north as San Francisco Bay. The Russian fur traders, whose 18th-century invasion in search of
The Yokuts (previously known as Mariposans) are an ethnic group of Native Americans native to central California. Prior to European contact, the Yokuts consisted of up to 60 separate tribes speaking the same language.
Some of their descendants prefer to refer to themselves by their respective tribal names and reject the name Yokuts with the claim that it is an exonym invented by English speaking settlers and historians. "Yokuts" means "People." Conventional sub-groupings include the Foothill Yokuts, Northern Valley Yokuts, and Southern Valley Yokuts.
Yokuts tribes populated the San Joaquin Valley, from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta ("the delta") south to Bakersfield and also the adjacent foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountain range, which lies to the east. In the northern half of the Yokuts region, there were some tribes inhabiting the foothills of the Coast Range, which lies to the west. There is evidence of Yokuts also inhabiting the Carrizo Plain and creating rock art in the Painted Rock area.
Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially (See Population of Native California). Alfred L. Kroeber in 1925 put the