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Drakestail also known as Quackling is a French folk tale about a duck, where repetition forms most of the logic behind the plot. The story is also similar to other folk tales where the hero picks up several allies (or sometimes items or skills) and uses them in the exact order found.
The original version of Draksetail was told in French as Bout-d’-Canard in the book Affenschwanz et Cetera by Charles Marelle in 1888, translated into English in the Red Fairy Book by Andrew Lang in 1890.
Drakestail initially finds a coin, but is immediately requested to donate it to the King (with the promise of a future repayment). When a certain length of time passes, he heads for the palace. Along the way, he sings:
In quick succession, Drakestail meets four friends, a fox, a ladder, a river, and a bees' nest. In each, the exchange is essentially the same:
(Various versions of the tale would phrase it differently, and some have Drakestail offering the ride instead of merely agreeing to it.)
When Drakestail reaches the palace, he asks to see the King. The King, having already spent the coin (along with several years' taxes) with nothing to show for it, says to throw Drakestail in the chicken
The Firebird and Princess Vasilisa is a Russian fairy tale collected by Alexander Afanasyev in Narodnye russkie skazki.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 531. Other tales of this type include Ferdinand the Faithful and Ferdinand the Unfaithful, Corvetto, King Fortunatus's Golden Wig, and The Mermaid and the Boy. Another, literary variant is Madame d'Aulnoy's La Belle aux cheveux d'or, or The Story of Pretty Goldilocks.
A royal huntsman found a feather of the firebird and, though his horse warned him against it, picked it up. The king demanded that he bring him the bird. The huntsman went to his horse, who told him to demand that measures of corn be spread over the fields. He did, and the firebird came to eat and was caught. He brought it to the king, who said that because he had done that, now he must bring him Princess Vasilisa to be his bride. The horse had him demand food and drink for the journey, and a tent with a golden top. With it, they set out to a lake where the princess was rowing. He set up the tent and set out the food. The princess came and ate, and drinking foreign wine, she became drunk and slept. He carried her off.
Princess Vasilisa refused to marry without her wedding
The Jackal and the Spring is an African fairy tale collected by E. Jacottet in Contes Populaires des Bassoutos. Andrew Lang included it in The Grey Fairy Book.
All the rivers and streams ran dry. The animals dug a well to keep from dying, but the jackal did not help. They set a guard to keep the jackal from drinking. The first, a rabbit, kept off the jackal until it bribed it with some honeycomb to let it tie it up; then the jackal drank its full. The second, a hare, met the same fate. The third, the tortoise, did not answer the jackal, so it thought it could kick it aside, but the tortoise grabbed its leg and never let it go. The jackal did not manage to free itself until the other animals appeared; then it managed to wrench itself free and flee without drinking.
Alphege, or the Green Monkey is a fairy tale. Andrew Lang collected it in The Yellow Fairy Book.
This tale makes use of fairies and shapeshifting in a manner similar to many précieuse writers, such as Madame d'Aulnoy.
How Geirald the Coward was Punished is an Icelandic fairy tale collected in Neuislandische Volksmärchen. Andrew Lang included it in The Brown Fairy Book.
A poor knight had many children. One day, the oldest, Rosald, made a friend named Geirald who persuaded him to come with him on travels; Geirald would pay for him, if he let the credit for any adventures they had fall to him. Rosald agreed. His mother warned him to always keep his promise to Geirald.
They heard that a band of twelve robbers were set to ambush them, and at Rosald's insistence, they climbed over them and rolled down rocks, carrying the robbers away. The captain got to them, and Rosald fought him and killed him, and took a ring from his hand. This made them famous.
They wanted to stay the winter in a kingdom, but the king would only permit it if they killed a giant. They went to its home, and when it roused in the morning, Rosald struck it to the ground with a blow, and cut off its head. He gave the head to Geirald, to present to the king.
A queen came to that country. She ruled her own country, but her subjects were dissatisfied with it: they wanted her to marry. She was impressed by the tales and asked the king,
"The Golden Bird" is a Brothers Grimm fairy tale, number 57, about the pursuit of a golden bird by a king's three sons.
A French version, collected by Paul Sébillot, is called The Golden Blackbird. Andrew Lang included that variant in The Green Fairy Book (1892).
It is Aarne-Thompson folktale type 550, "The Golden Bird", a Supernatural Helper. Other tales of this type include The Bird 'Grip', The Greek Princess and the Young Gardener, Tsarevitch Ivan, the Fire Bird and the Gray Wolf, How Ian Direach got the Blue Falcon, and The Nunda, Eater of People.
Every year, a king's apple tree is robbed of one golden apple during the night. He sets his sons to watch, and though the first two fall asleep, the youngest stays awake and sees that the thief is a golden bird. He tries to shoot it, but only knocks a feather off.
The feather is so valuable that the king decides he must have the bird. He sends his three sons, one after another, to capture the priceless golden bird. The sons each meet a talking fox, who gives them advice for their quest: to choose a bad inn over a brightly lit and merry one. The first two sons ignore the advice and, in the pleasant inn, abandon their quest.
The Jezinkas is a Bohemian fairy tale collected by A. H. Wratislaw in his Sixty Folk-Tales from Exclusively Slavonic Sources, number 5.
Parker Filmore included it, as "Grandfather's Eyes", in Czechoslovak Fairy Tales.
Ruth Manning-Sanders included, as "Johnny and the Witch-Maidens" in both A Book of Witches and A Choice of Magic.
A poor orphan named Johnny tried to get into service. He travelled far without finding a place. He came to an old man who had caverns in his head instead of eyes, and whose goats were bleating in their stall. The man took him as a goatherd but warned him against the hills; there, the Jezinkas would put him to sleep and tear out his eyes.
For two days, Johnny obeyed him, but on the third day, he decided the pasture was better there. He took three shoots of bramble and drove the goats to the hill. A beautiful young woman appeared, offering him an apple; he said he had eaten his fill of apples from his master's apple tree. Another appeared, with a rose, offering to let him smell it; he said he had smelled his fill of the more beautiful roses in his master's garden. A third one offered to comb his hair. He said nothing, but when she came close, he trapped her
Catskin is an English fairy tale collected by Joseph Jacobs, in More English Fairy Tales. Marian Roalfe Cox, in her pioneering study of Cinderella, identified as one of the basic types, the Unnatural Father, contrasting with Cinderella itself and Cap O' Rushes.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 510B, unnatural love. Others of this type include Little Cat Skin, Cap O' Rushes, Donkeyskin, Allerleirauh, The King who Wished to Marry His Daughter, The She-Bear, Mossycoat, Tattercoats, The Princess That Wore A Rabbit-Skin Dress, and The Bear. Indeed, some translators of Allerleirauh titled that story Catskin despite the differences between the German and English tales.
A lord has many fine estates and wishes to leave them to a son, and so, when a daughter is born to him, he will not even look at her.
When she is fifteen, her father is willing to marry her off to the first man who offers. When she hates the first man who offers, she goes to a hen-wife, who advises her to demand a coat of silver cloth before the wedding. When her father and suitor provide that, the hen-wife advises a coat of beaten gold, and then a coat made from feathers of all the birds, and then a little coat of catskin.
The Bird of Truth is a Spanish fairy tale collected by Cecilia Böhl de Faber in her Cuentos de encantamiento. Andrew Lang included it in The Orange Fairy Book.
A fisherman found two beautiful babies in a crystal cradle, a girl and a boy, floating in the river and brought them to his wife to raise as their own. As the babies grew up, their older brothers were cruel to them and the boy and the girl often ran away to the riverbank, where they would feed breadcrumbs to the birds. In gratitude, the birds taught them to speak their language.
One day the oldest boy taunted them with having no parents, and so the boy and girl went out into the world to seek their fortunes. When they stopped to rest along their journey, they heard birds gossiping, and one bird said that the king had married the youngest daughter of a tailor, over the opposition of the nobles. He was obliged to go to war, and when he returned, he was told that his wife had given birth to twins who had died. Missing her babies, the queen went mad, and had to be shut up in a tower in the mountains where the fresh air might restore her. In fact, the babies had not really died, but were taken to a gardener's cottage, and that
Blockhead Hans is a fairy tale from Andrew Lang's The Yellow Fairy Book. Lang gives no source for the tale.
The two educated sons of an old squire wanted to marry the princess, who said that she would marry the man who chose his words best. They studied hard to speak well to the princess, and their father gave them each a horse to ride to the King's hall. A third son (of a lesser mind) called Blockhead-Hans wanted to win the princess as well, but his father would not give him a horse, so he rode a goat, instead.
On the way to the King's hall, Blockhead-Hans picked up gifts to give to the princess: a dead crow, an old wooden shoe without the top, and mud. At the King's throne, three reporters and an editor stood by each window. They were writing down what words each suitor said, to publish later. The fireplace was very hot, as each suitor was failed before the princess. Both brothers stammered and failed to impress the princess with their words. Blockhead-Hans rode his goat into the royal hall, and remarked about the heat. The princess replied that she was roasting young chickens, meaning the suitors. "That's good!" replied Blockhead-Hans; "then can I roast a crow with them," taking
"Cap-o'-Rushes" is an English fairy tale published by Joseph Jacobs in English Fairy Tales.
Jacobs gives his source as "Contributed by Mrs. Walter-Thomas to "Suffolk Notes and Queries" of the Ipswich Journal, published by Mr. Lang in Longman's Magazine, vol. xiii., also in Folk-Lore September, 1890". In the latter journal, Andrew Lang notes the folktale was "discovered" in the Suffolk notes by Edward Clodd.
Marian Roalfe Cox, in her pioneering study of Cinderella, identified as one of the basic types, the King Lear decision, contrasting with Cinderella itself and Catskin.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 510B, unnatural love. Others of this type include Little Cat Skin, Donkeyskin, Catskin, Allerleirauh, The King who Wished to Marry His Daughter, The She-Bear, Mossycoat, Tattercoats, The Princess That Wore A Rabbit-Skin Dress, and The Bear.
It was the first story read on the BBC series Jackanory.
Once upon a time a rich man had three daughters and asked each one how much they loved him. The first said, as much as life; the second, as much as the world; the third, as much as meat needs salt. He declared to the third that she did not love him at all and that it was not enough, and hence
How Ian Direach got the Blue Falcon is a Scottish fairy tale, collected by John Francis Campbell in Popular Tales of the West Highlands. He recorded it from a quarryman in Knockderry, Roseneath, named Angus Campbell.
Andrew Lang included it in The Orange Fairy Book.
A king and a queen had a son, Ian. When Ian was almost grown to a man, his mother died, and his father remarried. One day Ian went hunting and shot at a blue falcon, knocking off a feather. His stepmother cursed him until he found her the falcon. He cursed her to stand with one foot on the great hall and the other on the castle, and always face the wind, until he returned, and left.
He met with Gille Mairtean the fox, who tells him that the blue falcon is kept by the Giant of the Five Heads, and the Five Necks, and the Five Humps, and to seek service there tending animals. If he, above all, treats the birds kindly, the giant will let him care for the blue falcon, and then he can steal it, if he does not let any of its feathers touch anything in the house. In time the giant trusted him, but the falcon started by the doorpost, and the feather touching the post made it scream and brought back the giant. The giant tells him
"Iron John" (aka Iron Hans or Der Eisenhans) is a German fairy tale found in the collections of the Brothers Grimm, tale number 136, about a wild man and a prince. (The original German title is Eisenhans, a compound of Eisen "iron" and Hans, like English John a common short form of the personal name Johannes) It represents Aarne-Thompson type 502, "The wild man as a helper".
Most people see the story as a parable about a boy maturing into adulthood. The story also became the basis for the book Iron John: A Book About Men by Robert Bly which spawned the Men's Movement in the early 1990s after spending 62 weeks on the The New York Times Best Seller list .
A king sends a huntsman into a forest nearby, and the huntsman never returns. The king sends more men into the forest, each meeting with the same fate. The king sends all his remaining huntsmen out as a group, but again, none return. The king proclaims the woods as dangerous and off-limits to all.
Some years later, a wandering explorer accompanied by a dog hears of these dangerous woods and asks permission to hunt in the forest, claiming that he might be able to discover the fate of the other hunters. The man and his dog are allowed
The Buried Moon or The Dead Moon is a fairy tale included by Joseph Jacobs in More English Fairy Tales. It is a striking unusual tale, with few variants, and often appearing more mythological than is common for fairy tales. It was collected by Mrs. Balfour from the North Lincolnshire Carrs in the Ancholme Valley; its unusual characteristics made many people doubt its origins as a fairy tale. However, when Mrs. Balfour published her notes, they were generally found reliable, and the Fens proved to have many other unusual legends. The story may be evidence of moon worship.
Once upon a time, the Carland was filled with bogs. When the moon shone, it was as safe to walk in as by day, but when she did not, evil things, such as bogies, came out.
One day the moon, hearing of this, pulled on a black cloak over her yellow hair and went to see for herself. She fell into a pool, and a snag bound her there. She saw a man coming toward the pool and fought to be free until the hood fell off; the light helped the man make his way to safety and scared off the evil creatures. She struggled to follow until the hood fell back over her hair, and all the evil things came out of the darkness, trapping
The Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish (Russian: Сказка о рыбаке и рыбке, Skazka o rybake i rybke) is a fairy tale in verse by Alexander Pushkin. Pushkin wrote the tale in autumn 1833 and it was first published in the literary magazine Biblioteka dlya chteniya in May 1835. The tale is about a fisherman who manages to catch a "Golden Fish" which promises to fulfill any wish of his in exchange for its freedom. The storyline is similar to the Russian fairy tale The Greedy Old Wife (according to Vladimir Propp) and the Brothers Grimm's tale The Fisherman and His Wife.
In Pushkin's poem, an old man and woman have been living poorly for many years. They have a small hut, and every day the man goes out to fish. One day, he throws in his net and pulls out seaweed two times in succession, but on the third time he pulls out a golden fish. The fish pleads for its life, promising any wish in return. However, the old man does not want anything, and lets the fish go. When he returns and tells his wife about the golden fish, she gets angry and tells her husband to go ask the fish for a new washboard, as theirs is broken, and the fish happily grants this small request. The next day, the wife asks
Geirlug The King's Daughter is an Icelandic fairy tale collected in Neuisländischen Volksmärchen. Andrew Lang included it in The Olive Fairy Book.
A king and a queen were in a garden with their baby son when a dragon carried off their son.
The dragon flew on, to a neighboring kingdom, where it tried to seize a baby princess, but there the king struck it such a blow that it dropped the prince. The king saw on the blankets that this was Grethari, son of Grethari the king, but since their kingdoms were on bad terms, he did not send word but raised the boy himself. Grethari and Geirlug were happy, but the queen died, and a few years later, the king remarried.
The new queen was a witch. She went to visit the prince and princess and when she left, their bed were empty. Then she sent guards to kill any animals within two miles (3 km) of the palace. They found only two black foals, and since they were so harmless, let them go, saying they had seen nothing. The queen found out that they had seen two foals
The king returned, and the queen sent him to kill any animals within two miles (3 km) of the palace. He heard two blue birds sing so sweetly that he forgot her command. When he returned
The Tale of the Hoodie is a Scottish fairy tale, collected by John Francis Campbell in his Popular Tales of the West Highlands. Andrew Lang included it, as The Hoodie-Crow, in The Lilac Fairy Book.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 425A, the search for the lost husband. Others of this type include The Black Bull of Norroway, The Brown Bear of Norway, The Daughter of the Skies, East of the Sun and West of the Moon, The Enchanted Pig, The King of Love, Master Semolina, The Enchanted Snake,The Sprig of Rosemary, and White-Bear-King-Valemon.
A farmer's three daughters are each wooed in turn by a hoodie crow. The older two repulse it because it is ugly, but the youngest accepts it, saying it is a pretty creature. After they marry, the crow asks whether she would rather have it be a crow by day and a man by night, or the other way around. She chooses a man by day, and during the day, he becomes a handsome man.
She has a son. One night, after music puts everyone to sleep, the baby is stolen. The next two years, it happens again, with two more babies. The hoodie crow takes her, with her sisters, to another house. He asks if she has forgotten anything. She has forgotten her coarse comb. The coach
Ali Baba (Arabic: علي بابا ʿAlī Bābā ) is a character from medieval Arabic literature. He is described in the adventure tale of Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves (علي بابا والأربعين حرامي).
This story has been used as a popular story pantomime plot such as in the pantomime/musical Chu Chin Chow (1916). Like many other folk tales frequently adapted for children, the original tale is darker and more violent than the more familiar bowdlerised versions. Popular perception of Ali Baba, and the way he is treated in popular media, sometimes implies that he was the leader of the "Forty Thieves": in the story he is actually an honest man whom fortune enables to take advantage of the thieves' robberies.
Some critics believe that this story was added to One Thousand and One Nights by one of its European translators, Antoine Galland, an 18th-century French orientalist who may have heard it in oral form from a Middle Eastern story-teller from Aleppo, in modern day Syria. In any case, the first known text of the story is Galland's French version. Richard F. Burton included it in the supplemental volumes, rather than the main collection of stories, of his edition of the Thousand and One Nights, and
Habogi is an Icelandic fairy tale collected in Neuislandische Volksmärchen. Andrew Lang included it in The Brown Fairy Book.
A couple had three daughters, and the youngest was the most beautiful and best tempered. One day, the father asked what names their prospective husbands had. The oldest wanted her husband to have the name Sigmund, which gave her many choices; the second, Sigurd, and there were seven in their own village; the youngest, Helga, at the urging of a voice, said, Habogi, and none of them had ever heard of a man named Habogi. Sigmunds and Sigurds came to woo the older two, and other men the youngest, but none of them were named Habogi. Finally, her sisters married, and a coarse old peasant came, saying he was Habogi and Helga must marry him. Helga agreed.
When her sisters' wedding was over, he brought her a beautiful horse, with a saddle of red and gold, and said she must see where she would live once she married him. They rode off, and he showed her a great meadow, with a large herd of sheep that were his, but the finest one, with golden bells on its horns, was to be hers. They rode on, to a fine herd of cow, but the finest one was to be hers; and then a herd of
The Boy Who Found Fear At Last is a Turkish fairy tale collected by Ignaz Kunos in Türkische Volksmärchen. Andrew Lang included it in The Olive Fairy Book
A woman had an only son. During a storm, she told him to shut the door because she felt frightened. He asked her what she meant. When she could not make him understand, he set out to find the fear she told him of.
He found robbers and sat with them by their fire. When they realized he did not fear them, they gave him the ingredients and sent him to a churchyard to cook them a cake. A hand from the grave asked for it, but the boy said that he did not give the food of the living to the dead, and rapped it with a spoon. Then they sent him to a pool. He found there a swing hanging over the pool with a child on it. A maiden told him that it was her brother and asked if she could climb on his shoulders to get him down; when he did, she started to strangle him with her feet. He threw her off, and she lost a bracelet that he took up.
He went on. An ogre demanded the bracelet, as it was his. They went before a judge, who decreed that neither of them had a right to it, and he would keep it until one of them brought him its partner. So the
"The Blue Light" is a Brothers Grimm fairy tale. Many of the features from Hans Christian Andersen's later work "The Tinder Box" and from the story of Aladdin and his magic lamp originate with this version.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 562, The Spirit in the Blue Light. Other tales of this type include "The Three Dogs" and "The Tinderbox".
A soldier has been discharged from the king's service because of his wounds. The soldier leaves the castle and as night falls he requires somewhere to stay. Encountering the cottage of a witch, he asks her for lodging.
She agrees if he will spade her garden the next day. This takes so long that he must stay another night, and in return she asks him to chop her wood. Once again, he must stay another night. The following day she requests that he go into a well and retrieve her blue light for her. He is in the process of doing so, but realizes he is being tricked and will be trapped in the well as soon as he gives it to her.
He keeps the light for himself, not knowing what it is, but she leaves him in the well. He decides to smoke one last time and lights his pipe with the blue light. A dwarf comes to grant him whatever he wishes. He first asks to be
The Dirty Shepherdess is a French fairy tale collected by Paul Sébillot. Andrew Lang included it in The Green Fairy Book
A king asked his two daughters how much they loved him. His older said as the apple of her eye. The younger said as much as the salt on her food. He ordered her out of the kingdom. She went, with her dresses and jewels. She made herself ugly, so that a farmwife would not be reluctant to hire her, and wore a beggar's clothing. Eventually, she was hired as a shepherdess. One day, she dressed herself in her fine gowns just to remember. The prince, hunting, saw her, and asked who the beautiful woman was who tended the sheep, garnering much ridicule. The prince fell ill with longing, and said that only a loaf of bread baked by the shepherdess would cure him. She made it, and her ring fell into the dough. When he ate it, he found the ring and declared he would marry only the woman whose finger it fitted. When every other woman had tried it, he insisted on the shepherdess as well, and the ring fit her. She dressed herself in her fine gowns, and the king agreed to the wedding.
She insisted that they ask her father's permission and invite him to the wedding. She had his
Boots Who Ate a Match With the Troll is a Norwegian fairy tale collected by Asbjørnsen and Moe. The troll is, as they often are, not very intelligent while the boy is clever, winning an eating contest.
A farmer sent his sons to cut wood in a forest he owned, to pay off debts. A troll threatened them as they came, one by one; the two older ones allowed themselves to be chased off, but the youngest asked for food. When the troll threatened him, the boy pulled out some cheese, claiming it was a stone, and squeezed it until whey came out. When he threatened to deal with the troll as he had with the "stone", the troll offered to help him with the wood-cutting.
The troll suggested that he come home with him. Then he went to build up the fire and sent the boy for water. The boy realized he could not carry the huge buckets, so he declared they were too small, and he could just fetch the spring. The troll exchanged chores with him.
When the porridge was made, they had an eating match, but the boy put more into his scrip than into his stomach, and when it was full, he cut a hole in it. The troll said he could eat no more. The boy suggested that he cut a hole in his stomach, which would let
The Daughter Of King Under-Waves (Nighean Righ Fo Thuinn) is a Scottish fairy tale collected by John Francis Campbell in Popular Tales of the West Highlands. He listed as his source Roderick MacLean, a tailor of Ken Tangval, Barra, who reported hearing it from old men in South Uist, including Angus Macintyre, Bornish, who was about eighty. The text was written by H. MacLean, 1860.
It is a version of the tale of the loathly lady. This form of the tale appears in Hrólfr Kraki's saga and also in Child ballad 32, King Henry.
The Fhinn were on the side of Beinn Eudainn, during a wild night. An uncouth woman, with hair down to her heels, appeared to them. She appealed to Fionn for shelter and was rejected; she screamed and went to Oisean, who also rejected her; she screamed and went to Diarmaid, who sheltered her. She turned into the most beautiful woman they had ever seen. She asked Diarmaid where he would have the finest castle built, and he said above Beinn Eudainn. It appeared, and they lived there. Three times, she gave a grayhound pup to one of the Fhinn who asked for it, and Diarmaid angrily said that she would not have done it if she remembered what he had saved her from and then
Gabrielle-Suzanne Barbot de Villeneuve (c.1695 – 29 December 1755) was a French author influenced by Madame d'Aulnoy, Charles Perrault, and various précieuse writers.
Barbot de Villeneuve was born in La Rochelle. She is particularly noted for her La Belle et la Bête, which is the oldest known variant of the fairy tale Beauty and the Beast. First published in La jeune ameriquaine, et les contes marins, it is over a hundred pages long, containing many subplots, and involving a genuinely savage Beast, not merely a beastly facade. Her lengthy version was abridged, rewritten, and published by Jeanne-Marie Leprince de Beaumont, to produce the version most commonly retold.
In 1767 she wrote a novel La Jardinière de Vincennes. She was a close friend of the controversial writer Claude Jolyot de Crébillon. She died in Paris.
The Groac'h of the Isle of Lok is a Breton fairy tale collected by Émile Souvestre in Le Foyer Breton. Andrew Lang included it in The Lilac Fairy Book.
Ruth Manning-Sanders included it in A Book of Mermaids.
Two cousins, a young man named Houarn Pogamm and a girl called Bellah Postik, grew up together, and their mothers thought they would marry, but when they came of age, their mothers died, and being penniless, they both had to become servants. They lamented their poverty, dreaming of a little farm where they could live, until Houarn decided to go seek his fortune. Bellah gave him a bell that could be heard at any distance, but only rang to warn of danger, and a knife that broke spells with its touch. She kept a stick that could carry a person anywhere, so it could carry her to him in need.
He walked until he heard of the Groac'h of the island of Lok, a rich fairy; no one had gone after her treasure and ever come back. He hired a boatman to carry him to the lake. There he found a boat like a swan, even to having its head under its wing. He stepped on it to see it more clearly, and it swam off with him. He prepared to jump off and swim, but it dived and carried him to the lake
Asmund and Signy is an Icelandic fairy tale collected in Islandische Märchen. Andrew Lang included it in The Brown Fairy Book.
A king and queen had a son, Asmund, and a daughter, Signy. Asmund loved the outdoors. He persuaded his father to give him two giant oaks, and told Signy that he would hollow them out and live in them. Signy asked to live there, too, and Asmund agreed. They lived there a time, when their father had to go to war, and their mother died.
Nearby, a king had a son, Prince Ring, who had heard of Signy's beauty and was determined to marry her. When setting out in search for her, he met a beautiful woman who told him she was Signy and explained her being alone on the way as stemming from her grief at her mother's death; she was, in fact, a gigantic witch. He told her he wished to marry her. She agreed but said she had to go into the woods and would join him at the ship. In the woods, she tore up the two oaks and carried them with her. Ring carried her home, where she was made welcome, and the oaks were planted outside her windows.
The prince asked her when they could marry, she agreed to a date, and he brought her fine cloth to make her wedding gown. As soon as he
Biancabella and the Snake is an Italian literary fairy tale written by Giovanni Francesco Straparola in The Facetious Nights of Straparola.
Italo Calvino included a Piedmontese variant The Snake, with some elements from a Tuscan version, while noting the vast alternations between the style of Straparola's story beside the simplicity of the folktale.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 706, the girl without hands. Other variants of this tale include The Girl Without Hands, Penta of the Chopped-off Hands, The Armless Maiden, and The One-Handed Girl.
A marquis had no children. One day, his wife slept in the garden, and a grass snake slithered into her womb. Soon afterwards, she became pregnant and gave birth to a girl with a snake wrapped about her neck; the midwives were frightened, but the snake slithered off into the garden without harming anyone.
The girl was named Biancabella. When she turned ten, the snake spoke to her in the garden, telling her that she was her sister, Samaritana, and that if Biancabella obeyed her, she would be happy but miserable if she did not. The snake then ordered her to bring two buckets, one of milk and one of rosewater. When Biancabella returned to the house,
Diamonds and Toads or Toads and Diamonds is a French fairy tale by Charles Perrault, and titled by him "Les Fées" or "The Fairies." Andrew Lang included it in The Blue Fairy Book.
In his source, as in Mother Hulda, the kind girl was the stepdaughter, not the other daughter. The change was apparently to decrease the similarity to Cinderella.
It is Aarne-Thompson tale 480, the kind and the unkind girls. Others of this type include Shita-kiri Suzume, Mother Hulda, The Three Heads in the Well, Father Frost, The Three Little Men in the Wood, The Enchanted Wreath, The Old Witch, and The Two Caskets. Literary variants include The Three Fairies and Aurore and Aimée.
A bad-tempered old widow had two daughters, her older daughter was disagreeable and proud but looked and behaved like her mother, and therefore was her favourite child. She and her eldest daughter badly mistreated the woman's younger daughter, who was sweet, courteous, and beautiful, but resembled her late father.
One day while drawing water from the well, an old woman asked for a drink of water. The girl politely consented and after giving it, she found that the woman was a fairy, who had taken the guise of a crone to test the
Fairer-than-a-Fairy is a French literary fairy tale written by Charlotte-Rose de Caumont La Force. Andrew Lang included it in The Yellow Fairy Book. James Planché included it in Four and twenty tales, selected from those of Perrault and other popular writers.
After many childless years, a king had a daughter so beautiful that he named her "Fairer-than-a-Fairy." This enraged the fairies, who resolved to kidnap her. They entrusted this to the oldest fairy, Lagree, who had only one eye and one tooth left and could preserve those only by soaking them in a magical liquid at night. She kidnapped the seven-year-old princess, whose cat and dog followed her, and brought her to a castle, where she had a pretty room but was charged to never let a fire go out and to take care of two glass bottles.
One day, while she wandered in the garden, sunlight struck a fountain, and she heard a voice telling her that he was a prince held prisoner here, and he had fallen in love with her; he could speak only in the form of a rainbow, when sunlight shone on that fountain. They talked when they could, which one day led to her allowing the fire to go out. Lagree, delighted, ordered Fairer-than-a-Fairy to get
The Dove is an Italian literary fairy tale written by Giambattista Basile in his 1634 work, the Pentamerone.
Although there is no evidence of direct influence, this tale combines many motifs in a manner similar to the Grimms' The Two Kings' Children.
A poor old woman had to beg hard to get a pot full of beans. A prince and his friends rode by and broke the pot in a game. She cursed him to fall in love with an ogress's daughter. Within hours, he became lost in a wood and lost his attendants, and found a girl mocking snails. He fell in love at sight, and the girl, Filadoro, also fell in love with him. He was too tongue-tied to woo, and the ogress caught him. He tried to strike her, but could not move. She ordered him to dig an acre of land and sow it by evening. Filadoro comforted him. When he heard she had magic, he asked why they could not leave; she answered a conjunction of the stars prevented it, but would go. When the ogress returned in the evening, calling Filadoro to throw down her hair so that she could climb it, the land was ready. The next day, she set him to split seven stacks of wood, and Filadoro did it again.
The third day, the ogress suspected Filadoro and set the
The Glass Mountain (Aarne–Thompson type 530) is a Polish fairy tale collected by Hermann Kletke. Andrew Lang included it in The Yellow Fairy Book.
The name also appears as a mythical location in a different story, Old Rinkrank, one of the original Brothers Grimm fairytales. ("Glassberg" or "Glasberg" in the original German.)
The Polish story begins with: On a glass mountain grew a tree with golden apples. An apple would let the picker into the golden castle where an enchanted princess lived. Many knights had tried and failed, so that many bodies lay about the mountain.
A knight in golden armor tried. One day, he made it halfway up and calmly went down again. The second day, he tried for the top, and was climbing steadily when an eagle attacked him. He and his horse fell to their deaths.
A schoolboy killed a lynx and climbed with its claws attached to his feet and hands. Weary, he rested on the slope. The eagle thought he was carrion and flew down to eat him. The boy grabbed it, and it, trying to shake him off, carried him the rest of the way. He cut off its feet and fell into the apple tree. The peels of the apples cured his wounds, and he picked more, to let him into the castle.
The Devil With the Three Golden Hairs is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm, tale number 29. It falls under Aarne-Thompson classification types 461, "three hairs from the devil", and 930, "prophecy that a poor boy will marry a rich girl."
The story was first translated into English as "The Giant and the Three Golden Hairs", to avoid offense, but the devil in the story does indeed act like a folklore giant. Ruth Manning-Sanders included it, as "The Three Golden Hairs of the King of the Cave Giants", in A Book of Giants.
A poor woman gave birth to a son with a caul, which was interpreted to mean that he would marry the king's daughter at fourteen years of age. The wicked king, hearing of it, visited the family and persuaded them to allow him to bring the boy back and raise him in the castle. Instead, he put the boy in a box and threw the box into the water, so that he would not grow up to marry his daughter. Rather than sink, it drifted down to a mill, where it was found by the miller and his wife. The two decided to raise the boy on their own.
Fourteen years later, the king happened to visit the mill inadvertently. Upon seeing the boy, the king asked the miller if
The Story of Bensurdatu is an Italian fairy tale collected by Laura Gonzenbach in Sicilianische Märchen. Andrew Lang included it in The Grey Fairy Book.
A king and queen had three daughters, and did everything to make them happy. One day, the princesses asked to go on a picnic, and so they did. When they were done eating, the princesses wandered about the garden, but when they stepped across a fence, a dark cloud enveloped them. After a time, the King and Queen called for them, and then searched for them when the girls did not answer their calls. The king proclaimed that whoever brought the princesses back could marry one, and would become the next king. Two generals set out in search, but having spent all their money without finding the princesses, were forced to work as servants to repay an innkeeper for the food and drink he had given them.
A royal servant, Bensurdatu, set out, despite the king's unwillingness to lose a faithful servant as well as his daughters and his generals. He found the inn with the generals and paid their debt. The three of them traveled together. In the wilderness, they found a house and begged for a place to stay for the night. The old woman there told
"Hop-o'-My-Thumb", also known as "Little Thumbling" (French: Le Petit Poucet), was first published by Charles Perrault in Histoires ou contes du temps passé in 1697. It is Aarne-Thompson type 327B, the small boy defeats the ogre. This type of fairy tale, in the French oral tradition, is often combined with motifs from the type 327A, similar to Hansel and Gretel; one such tale is The Lost Children.
Hop-o'-My-Thumb (Le Petit Poucet) is the youngest of seven children in a poor woodcutter's family. His greater wisdom compensates for his smallness of size. When the children are abandoned by their parents, he finds a variety of means to save his life and the lives of his brothers. After being threatened and pursued by a giant, Poucet steals the magic "seven-league boots" from the sleeping giant.
How the Beggar Boy turned into Count Piro is an Italian fairy tale collected by Laura Gonzenbach in Sicilianische Märchen. Andrew Lang included it in The Crimson Fairy Book.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 545B, the Cat as Helper. Other tales of this type include Don Joseph Pear, Puss in Boots, and Lord Peter.
An idler was left a cottage and a pear tree by his father, but he still did not work, only eating the pears, because that pear tree bore pears year round. One day, a fox persuaded him to give it the pears, because it would bring him luck. It brought the basket to the king, who was astounded that anyone had pears. The next day, it did the same, and asked for the princess's hand in marriage for his master, Count Piro, saying he was so rich he would ask for no dowry. The fox tricked a tailor into providing him a fine suit, saying it would be paid for the next day.
The boy went to the castle and said very little, but the fox explained it was his great concerns that kept him quiet.
Then the fox took a third basket of pears and arranged for the wedding. Once they were married, the king and princess set out with the boy. The fox told a shepherd for an ogre that if he told the men that the
Jack and His Golden Snuff-Box is a Gypsy fairy tale collected by Joseph Jacobs in English Fairy Tales. He listed as his source Francis Hindes Groome's In Gypsy Tents.
Ruth Manning-Sanders included it in The Red King and the Witch: Gypsy Folk and Fairy Tales.
Jack lived with his parents in the forest, never seeing anyone else. He decided to leave one day, and his mother offered him a big cake with her curse or a little one with her blessing. He took the big one. He met his father on the way, and his father gave him a golden snuff-box, to open only when he was in danger of death.
He came to a house and asked for some food and a place to stay. The servant told the master, who asked him what he could do; he said, anything, meaning any bit of work about the house, but the master demanded a great lake and a man-of-war on it, ready to fire a salute, or Jack would forfeit his life. Jack opened the snuff-box, and three little red men hopped out. He told them what was needed, and they told him to go to sleep. In the morning, there was a lake and a man-of-war.
The master said that with two more tasks, he could marry his daughter. He felled all the trees about, and built the master a castle
The Elves and the Cobbler or The Shoemaker and the Elves is an often copied and re-made 1806 story about a poor shoemaker who receives much-needed help from elves.
The original story is the first of three fairy tales, contained as entry 39 in the German Grimm's Fairy Tales under the common title "Die Wichtelmänner". In her translation of 1884 Margaret Hunt chose The Elves as title for these three stories.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 503*: Helpful Elves. It is also a migratory legend, type 7015.
There are variations depending on the rendition of the story.
A poor shoemaker and his wife need money to pay the rent. He gives away the last pair of shoes he has to a needy lady. He has leather to make one more pair of shoes. Elves come in the night and make a pair of shoes which he sells for more than his asking price the next day. He uses that money to pay the rent, buy food and more shoe leather. He feeds a poor traveller.
The elves come the next night and make 2 pairs of shoes with the additional leather. He gives away one pair to a needy person and sells the other pair to a referral from the first customer who is immensely satisfied.
He buys leather for 3 shoes, and stays up to find the
Beauty and Pock Face is a Chinese fairy tale collected by Wolfram Eberhard in Chinese Fairy Tales and Folk Tales.
It is classified as Cinderella, Aarne-Thompson type 510A, the persecuted heroine; others of this type include The Sharp Grey Sheep; The Golden Slipper; The Story of Tam and Cam; Rushen Coatie; The Wonderful Birch; Fair, Brown and Trembling and Katie Woodencloak. Indeed, it is sometimes titled Cinderella in English translation.
Once upon a time, a man married two wives, and each bore a baby girl. The child of the first wife was beautiful and was called Beauty, but her younger sister, born a year after her, the child of the second wife, had a pocked face and was called Pock Face. The wicked stepmother was jealous of her stepdaughter's loveliness so she abused Beauty and made her do all of the dirty tasks in the house. Beauty's mother, who died of childbirth, returned in the shape of a yellow cow. The yellow cow did all of the work for her, but the stepmother found out and had the cow killed. Beauty collected the bones and put them in a pot.
One day, there was a festival in town. Her stepmother clothed Pock Face nicely, but refused to take the poor Beauty along with her.
"Jack the Giant Killer" is a Cornish fairy tale about a plucky lad who slays a number of giants during King Arthur's reign. The tale is characterized by violence, gore, and blood-letting. Giants are prominent in Cornish folklore and Welsh Bardic lore. Some parallels to elements and incidents in Norse mythology have been detected in the tale, and the trappings of Jack's last adventure with the giant Galigantus suggest parallels with French and Breton fairy tales. Jack's belt is similar to the belt in "The Valiant Little Tailor", and his magical sword, shoes, cap, and cloak are similar to those owned by Tom Thumb or those found in Welsh and Norse mythology.
Neither Jack or his tale are referenced in English literature prior to the eighteenth century, and his story did not appear in print until 1711. It is probable an enterprising publisher assembled a number of anecdotes about giants to form the 1711 tale. One scholar speculates the public had grown weary of King Arthur – the greatest of all giant killers – and Jack was created to fill his shoes. Henry Fielding, John Newbery, Dr. Johnson, Boswell, and William Cowper were familiar with the tale.
In 1962, a feature-length film based on
The Donkey is a German fairy tale collected by Brothers Grimm by Grimm's Fairy Tales.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 430, The Donkey Bridegroom.
A king and queen long lamented their childlessness until the queen gave birth to a son who was a donkey. The queen was grieved, but the king had him raised as a prince. He was very fond of music and insisted on learning to play the lute, at which he grew skilled. One day, he saw his own reflection in a pool and grew so disturbed that he wandered the world. He tried to stay at the castle of a king with a single daughter. When they would not let him in, he played outside until the king heard his music and let him in. He insisted that his proper seat was with the king. After a time, he grew sad. The king questioned him about this until he learned that the donkey wished to marry his daughter. The king agreed, they married, and in the night, the king set a servant to watch the couple, to ensure the donkey would behave well. When the donkey went in the bedroom, he took off his donkeyskin and became a handsome youth. Even though he put on his skin again in the morning, the daughter assured her father that she was well pleased with her bridegroom. The
The Enchanted Canary is a French fairy tale collected by Charles Deulin. Andrew Lang included it in The Red Fairy Book.
A lord was the fattest lord in Flanders. He loved his son dearly. One day, the young man told him he did not find the women in Flanders beautiful; he did not wish to marry a woman who was pink and white, because he did not find them beautiful. Then, they received a basket of oranges, which they had never seen before, and ate them. The son dreamed of an orchard with trees of such "golden apples", which held a princess with golden skin. He set out to find it and marry her. At night, he stopped at a little hut. There, an old man told him that in a nearby forest was a park, which held a castle, and the orange grove behind it. A witch lived in the castle. He should oil the hinges, feed the dog a loaf of bread, give a baking woman a brush, and take the cord out of a well. Then he should get three oranges and return without touching the oranges until he reached water. Then, each one would be a princess and he could marry whichever one he loved. But having made his choice, he must never leave her.
He obeyed. He heard the witch calling after him, to the things to kill him,
The Fisher-Girl and the Crab is an Indian fairy tale collected by Verrier Elwin in Folk-Tales of Mahakoshal; it comes from the Kurukh, a people living in Chitrakoot, Bastar State.
A Kurukh couple had no children. They found a gourd by their rice field and started to eat it, but it begged them to cut gently. They found a crab inside it. The woman tied a basket to her belly, pretended to be pregnant, and then pretended to have given birth to the crab. In time, they married him off, but the girl did not like being married to a crab. She sneaked off when the parents and crab were asleep, but the crab sneaked ahead of her. He asked a banyan tree whose it was; it said it was his; he ordered it to fall down. He took out a human shape from inside it and put it on, putting his crab shape in the tree. The girl met him at a dance and gave him her ornaments. He went back before her and took on his crab shape again, and gave her her ornaments, which frightened her. She went to sneak out again but watched the crab. When he had put on the human shape, she asked the trees whose it was; it said it was hers; she ordered it to fall down and burned the crab shape. When her husband could not find her
The Gold-Children is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm, tale number 85. It is Aarne-Thompson type 555, the fisherman and his wife, followed by type 303, blood brothers.
A fisherman caught a golden fish, who gave him and his wife a rich castle on the condition that he will not tell anyone how he had gotten it. His wife badgered the knowledge from him, but he caught the fish again and regained the castle, and when she badgered the truth out of him again, he caught the fish a third time. The fish saw it was fated to fall into the fisherman's hand and told him to take it home and cut it into six pieces, giving two to his wife and two to his horse. He had to bury the last two pieces in the ground. When he did, his wife gave birth to twins of gold, the horse gave birth to two foals of gold, and two golden lilies sprouted from the earth.
When they were grown, the gold children left home, telling their father that the lilies would wither if they were ill and die if they were dead. People mocked them because of their golden appearance, and one child went back to his father, but the other went on, through a forest filled with robbers. He covered himself with bearskins to
Gertrude's Bird (in Norwegian: Gjertrudsfuglen) is a Norwegian fairy tale collected by Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe in their Norske Folkeeventyr. It is also an old name for the Black woodpecker in Norway.
Jesus and St. Peter came begging one day to a house where a woman named Gertrude lived. She took a tiny piece of dough to make them a bannock, but it covered the whole griddle just the same, and she thought it too large to give to beggars. She tried twice more, each time with less dough, but could not make a bannock small enough. So she refused to give them anything. Jesus turned her into a woodpecker, to seek her food on trees and never drink except when it rains.
The Hurds or Odds and Ends is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm in Grimm's Fairy Tales.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 1451, a suitor chooses the thrifty girl.
A lazy girl tore out handfuls of flax when she found a knot while spinning. Her industrious servant gathered them and made a gown. The lazy girl was to marry, but told her bridegroom that the servant was wearing a dress of her "hurds" or "odds and ends", and the bridegroom married the servant instead.
The Glass Coffin is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm, tale number 163. Andrew Lang included it in The Green Fairy Book as The Crystal Coffin.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 410, Sleeping Beauty. Another variant is The Young Slave.
A tailor's apprentice became lost in a forest. When night came, he saw a light shining and followed it to a hut. An old man lived there and, after the tailor begged, allowed him to stay for the night. In the morning, the tailor awoke to witness a fight between a great stag and a bull. After the stag won, it bounded up to him and carried him off in its antlers. It set him down before a wall of stone and pushed him against a door in it, which then opened. Inside the door, he was told to stand on a stone, which would bring him good fortune. He did so, and it sank down into a great hall, where the voice directed him to look into a glass chest. The chest contained a beautiful maiden, who asked him to open the chest and free her, and he did so.
The maiden told him her story: She was the daughter of a rich count, and after the death of her parents, she had been raised by her brother. One day, a traveler stayed the night and used magic to get to her
Donkeyskin (French: Peau d'Âne) is a French literary fairytale written in verse by Charles Perrault. It was first published in 1695 in a small volume and republished in 1697 in Perrault's Histoires ou contes du temps passé. Andrew Lang included it, somewhat euphemized, in The Grey Fairy Book.
It is similar in style to folktales of Aarne-Thompson type 510B, unnatural love. Others of this type include Catskin, Little Catskin, Cap O' Rushes, Allerleirauh, The King Who Wished to Marry His Daughter, The She-Bear, Mossycoat, Tattercoats, The Princess That Wore A Rabbit-Skin Dress, and The Bear.
A king had a beautiful wife and a rich castle, including a marvelous donkey whose droppings were gold. One day his wife died, after making him promise not to marry except to a woman whose beauty and attributes equaled hers. The king grieved, but was, in time, persuaded to seek another wife. It became clear that the only woman who would fit the promise was his own daughter.
She went to her fairy godmother who advised her to make impossible demands as a condition of her consent: a dress the color of the sky, a dress the color of the moon, a dress as bright as the sun, and finally, the hide of his
Beauty and the Beast (French: La Belle et la Bête) is a traditional fairy tale. The first published version of the fairy tale was a rendition by Gabrielle-Suzanne Barbot de Villeneuve, published in La jeune américaine, et les contes marins in 1740. The best-known written version was an abridgement of her work published in 1756 by Jeanne-Marie Le Prince de Beaumont, in Magasin des enfants, ou dialogues entre une sage gouvernante et plusieurs de ses élèves; an English translation appeared in 1757.
Variants of the tale are known across Europe. In France, for example, Zémire et Azor is an operatic version of the story of Beauty and the Beast written by Marmontel and composed by Grétry in 1771. It had enormous success well into the 19th century. It is based on the second version of the tale.
Amour pour amour, by Nivelle de la Chaussée, is a 1742 play based on Villeneuve's version.
A wealthy merchant lived in a mansion with his three daughters, all of whom were very beautiful, but only the youngest, at fourteen, is named Belle for being lovely and pure of heart; her sisters, in contrast, are wicked and selfish. The merchant eventually loses all of his wealth in a tempest at sea, and he
The Black Thief and Knight of the Glen is an Irish fairy tale collected in Hibernian Tales. Andrew Lang included it in The Red Fairy Book.
A dying queen made her husband promise to hide her sons from the new queen by raising them in an island on a lake. When the king remarried, a henwife told the stepmother she knew a secret, and when the queen paid her richly, told her of her stepsons, and demanded that they be brought to court. The henwife gave the queen cards and told her to play with the stepsons for a geasa. The queen defeated her older two stepsons, but the youngest won. She set a geasa that the older two must steal: the Knight of the Glen's wild Steed of Bells. The youngest said that he will go with his brother, and set a geasa that she stand on a tower with her face to the wind, with a sheaf of corn to eat and water to drink, until they returned.
The princes met the Black Thief of Sloan, who warned them of the danger but came with them. When they tried to steal the horse, it rang the bells so that it warned the Knight and they were caught.
The knight took them to a furnace, to boil them, from the oldest to the youngest of the princes, and then the Black Thief. The Black
The Brown Bear of the Green Glen is a Scottish fairy tale collected by John Francis Campbell in Popular Tales of the West Highlands, listing his informant as John MacDonald, a "Traveling Tinker." He also noted the parallels with The Water of Life.
A king was losing his sight and his ability to walk. His oldest two set out for water to cure him. The youngest son, John, known as a fool, set out too, and found his brothers in the first town. He went on. He climbed a tree to spend the night, but a bear with an ember in its mouth came and got him down by threatening to climb up. The bear caught a deer and fed him the cooked meat. In the morning, it had him ride it. Every night, it had him stay with a giant by saying that the brown bear of the green glen had sent him, but the third giant wrestled with him. As the bear had directed, when the giant had him down, he said that if the brown bear of the green glen were there, it would not go well with him; the bear appeared.
The giant ordered a sheep carcass laid before the door. He told John that an eagle would eat it, and he was to cut the wart from its ear without drawing a drop of blood. The prince did so and the eagle carried him off to
"The Flying Trunk" (Den flyvende Kuffert) is a fairy tale by the Danish poet and author Hans Christian Andersen about a young man who has a flying trunk that carries him to Turkey where he visits the Sultan's daughter. The tale was first published 1839.
A young man squanders his inheritance until he has nothing left but a few shillings, a pair of slippers, and an old dressing-gown. A friend sends him a trunk with directions to pack up and be off. Having nothing to pack, he gets into the trunk himself. The trunk is enchanted and carries him to the land of the Turks. He uses the trunk to visit the sultan's daughter, who is kept in a tower because of a prophecy that her marriage would be unhappy. He persuades her to marry him. When her father and mother visit her tower, he tells them a story. They are impressed and consent to the marriage. To celebrate his upcoming marriage, the young man buys fireworks and flies over the land setting them off. Returning to the earth, a spark incinerates the trunk, and the young man can no longer visit the princess in the tower. Instead, he wanders the world telling stories.
The trunk suggests the flying carpets of "The Arabian Nights", a collection
"Cinderella", or "The Little Glass Slipper", (French: Cendrillon, ou La petite Pantoufle de Verre, Italian: Cenerentola, German: Aschenputtel, Dutch: Assepoester) is a folk tale embodying a myth-element of unjust oppression/triumphant reward. Thousands of variants are known throughout the world. The title character is a young woman living in unfortunate circumstances that are suddenly changed to remarkable fortune. The story was first published by Charles Perrault in Histoires ou contes du temps passé in 1697.
Although both the story's title and the character's name change in different languages, in English-language folklore "Cinderella" is the archetypal name. The word "cinderella" has, by analogy, come to mean one whose attributes were unrecognized, or one who unexpectedly achieves recognition or success after a period of obscurity and neglect. The still-popular story of "Cinderella" continues to influence popular culture internationally, lending plot elements, allusions, and tropes to a wide variety of media.
The Cinderella theme may well have originated in classical antiquity. The Ancient Greek historian Strabo (Geographica Book 17, 1.33) recorded in the 1st century BC the tale
Bearskin is a fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm, as tale no. 101. A variant from Sicily, Don Giovanni de la Fortuna, was collected by Laura Gonzenbach in Sicilianische Märchen and included by Andrew Lang in The Pink Fairy Book. Italo Calvino included another Italian version, The Devil's Breeches from Bologna, in his Italian Folktales.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 361, Bearskin, in which a man gains a fortune and a beautiful bride by entering into a pact with the devil.
A man was a soldier, but when war ended, his parents were dead, and his brothers had no place for him.
A green-coated man with a cloven hoof appeared to him and offered to make him rich if he would for seven years not cut his hair, clip his nails, bathe, or pray, and wear a coat and cloak that he would give him. At the end, if he survived, he would be rich and free; if he died during the time, the devil would have him. The desperate soldier agreed, and the devil gave him the green coat, telling him he would find its pockets always full of limitless money, and then a bearskin, telling him that he had to sleep in it and would be known as Bearskin because of it.
Bearskin set out, and gave much money to the poor
France (English /ˈfræns/ FRANSS or /ˈfrɑːns/ FRAHNSS; French: [fʁɑ̃s] ( listen)), officially the French Republic (French: République française French pronunciation: [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands. Metropolitan France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is often referred to as l’Hexagone ("The Hexagon") because of the geometric shape of its territory.
France is the largest country in Western Europe and the third-largest in Europe as a whole, and it possesses the second-largest exclusive economic zone in the world. France has its main ideals expressed in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. Over the past 500 years, France has been a major power with strong cultural, economic, military and political influence in Europe and around the world. From the 17th to the early 20th century, France built the second largest colonial empire of the time, including large portions of North, West and Central Africa, Southeast Asia, and many Caribbean and Pacific Islands.
France is a developed country, it
Russia /ˈrʌʃə/ or /ˈrʊʃə/ (Russian: Россия, tr. Rossiya; IPA: [rɐˈsʲijə] ( listen)), also officially known as the Russian Federation (Russian: Российская Федерация, tr. Rossiyskaya Federatsiya; IPA: [rɐˈsʲijskəjə fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨjə] ( listen)), is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both via Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea. It also has maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. At 17,075,400 square kilometres (6,592,800 sq mi), Russia is the largest country in the world, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area. Russia is also the world's ninth most populous nation with 143 million people as of 2012. Extending across the whole of northern Asia, Russia spans nine time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. Russia has the world's largest reserves of mineral and energy resources and is the largest producer of oil and natural
The Fish and the Ring is an English fairy tale collected by Joseph Jacobs in English Fairy Tales. This tale has several parallels in the literature and folklore of various cultures.
A baron who was a magician learned that his son was fated to marry a girl just born to a poor peasant. He went to that peasant and, when he lamented that he could not feed six children, offered to take the littlest one. He threw her into the river, and she floated to a fisherman's house, and the fisherman raised her. She was beautiful, and one day when the baron was hunting, he saw her and a his companion asked who she would marry. To cast her horoscope, he asked when she was born, and she told her story. He sent her to his brother, with a letter telling his brother to kill her. She fell among robbers, who altered the letter to say she should be married to his son, and his brother didn't like it.
The baron came and learned this, and took his daughter-in-law for a walk along the cliff. She begged for her life, and he did not push her in, but he threw a golden ring into the sea and told her that she should never show him or his son her face again without the ring. She went off and got work in a kitchen.
Boots and His Brothers is a Norwegian fairy tale collected by Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe in their Norske Folkeeventyr.
A king had his castle shadowed by a great oak tree, and had no well that held water year round. He declared that whoever cut down the oak and dug the well would have the princess and half the kingdom.
Three brothers, who had set out because their father was too poor to give them anything, were going to his palace. The youngest son heard something hewing, and went off. He found an axe that was hewing by itself, and it said that it had been waiting for him. He took it and went back, telling his brother that it had been an axe, and endured their ridicule. Again, he heard something digging, found a shovel digging by itself, and took it as well; then he wondered where a brook came from, and found not a spring but a walnut, which he stopped up with moss.
When they reached the king, he had decreed that whoever tried and failed would have his ears clipped off and be put on a deserted island. The two older tried, failed, and suffered the punishment. The youngest set the axe to cut down the tree, the spade to dig the well, and the nut to fill it.
The story says
Cupid and Psyche (/ˈsaɪkiː/, Greek: Ψυχή), also known as The Tale of Amour and Psyche and The Tale of Eros and Psyche, is a myth that first appeared as a digressionary story told by an old woman in Lucius Apuleius' novel, The Golden Ass, written in the 2nd century AD. Apuleius likely used an earlier tale as the basis for his story, modifying it to suit the thematic needs of his novel.
It has since been interpreted as a Märchen, an allegory and a myth. Considered as a fairy tale, it is neither an allegory nor a myth, but the folkloric tradition tends to blend these.
Envious and jealous of the beauty of a mortal girl named Psyche, Venus asks her son Cupid (known to the Greeks as Eros) to use his golden arrows while Psyche sleeps, so that when she awakens, Venus (Aphrodite in the Greek tradition) would place a vile creature for her to fall in love with. Cupid finally agrees to her commands after a long debate. As he flies to Psyche's room at night, he becomes invisible so no one can see him fly in through her window. He takes pity on her, for she was born too beautiful for her own safety. As he slowly approaches, careful not to make a sound, he readies one of his golden arrows. He
Fitcher's Bird is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm, tale number 46.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 311, the heroine rescues herself and her sisters. Another tale of this type is How the Devil Married Three Sisters. It is closely related to the tale Bluebeard. The Brothers Grimm also noted its connection to the forbidden door of Mary's Child, and its similarity to the Norwegian The Old Dame and Her Hen.
Some European variants of the ballad Lady Isabel and the Elf Knight, Child ballad 4, closely resemble this tale.
A sorcerer took the form of a beggar and carried off young women. He carried off an oldest sister and assured her she would be happy with him. Then, he went off and forbade her to enter one room; he also gave her an egg and told her to carry it everywhere and be careful with it. She went into the forbidden room, found hacked-up bodies and a basin of blood, and dropped the egg into it. The sorcerer returned and demanded the egg. Then he said that since she had gone in against his will, she would go in against her own, and killed her there. He carried off the second sister, and it went with her as with the first.
Then he carried off the youngest. She put aside
Jack and the Beanstalk is an English folktale. The tale is closely associated with the tale of Jack the Giant-killer, and is known under a number of versions. Benjamin Tabart's moralized version of 1807 is the first appearance in print, but "Felix Summerly" (Henry Cole) popularized it in The Home Treasury (1842), and Joseph Jacobs rewrote it in English Fairy Tales (1890). Jacobs's version is most commonly reprinted today and is believed to more closely adhere to the oral versions than Tabart's, because it lacks the moralizing of that version.
In the Jacobs version of the story Jack is a young lad living with his widowed mother. Their only means of income is a cow. When this cow stops giving milk one morning, Jack is sent to the market to sell it. On the way to the market he meets an old man who offers to give him "magic" beans in exchange for the cow.
Jack takes the beans but when he arrives home without money, his mother becomes furious and throws the beans out the window and sends Jack to bed without supper.
As Jack sleeps, the beans grow into a gigantic beanstalk. Jack climbs the beanstalk and arrives in a land high up in the sky where he follows a road to a house, which is the
The Green Knight is a Danish fairy tale, collected by Evald Tang Kristensen in "Eventyr fra Jylland" and by Svend Grundtvig in Danish Fairy Tales.
This tale combines Aarne-Thompson type 510A with type 425N, the bird husband, and type 432, the prince as bird. Others of the first type include Cinderella, The Sharp Grey Sheep, The Golden Slipper, The Story of Tam and Cam, Rushen Coatie, Fair, Brown and Trembling and Katie Woodencloak; of the second two, The Feather of Finist the Falcon, The Blue Bird, and The Greenish Bird.
Andrew Lang included a translation of Kristensen's version in The Olive Fairy Book.
A dying queen asked her husband to do whatever their daughter asked of him, whatever it was, and the king promised. The widow of a count and her daughter did everything to make themselves the princess's favorites (in some variants persuading the princess to have them stay at the castle), and then the widow told her that they could not stay unless the king married her. The princess implored the king to do it, and when his objections could not convince her, he married the woman.
As soon as she was her stepmother, the woman began to maltreat the princess. The king, seeing this, sent
The Griffin is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm in Grimm's Fairy Tales.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 610, Fruit to Cure the Princess; and type 461, Three Hairs from the Devil. The Brothers Grimm noted its similarity to The Devil With the Three Golden Hairs.
The opening type is seldom a stand-alone tale; it combines with others, such as type 461, as in this, or type 570, the Rabbit Herd, as in The Three May Peaches, to form a complete tale. The opening also features in Jesper Who Herded the Hares.
A king's daughter was ill, and it was foretold she would be made well by eating an apple. The king declared that whoever brought the apple to cure her would marry her. A peasant with three sons sent the oldest, Uele, with a basket of apples. He met a little iron man who asked him what was in the basket and said "Frogs' legs." The man said that so it was, and when he reached the king, it did contain frogs' legs. The king drove him out. The peasant sent his second son, Seame, who answered "Hogs' bristles", made the same discovery and received the same reception.
The youngest son, Hans, who was rather a fool, begged to go too, until his father let him. When he met the
The Ridiculous Wishes or The Three Ridiculous Wishes is a French literary fairy tale by Charles Perrault published in 1697 in the volume titled Histoires ou contes du temps passé. It is Aarne-Thompson type 750A.
A woodcutter complained of his poor lot. Jupiter (or, alternatively, a tree spirit) granted him three wishes. The woodcutter went home, and his wife persuaded him to put off the wishing until the next day, after he had thought, but while sitting by the fire, he wished for sausages. His wife taxed him for his folly, and angry, he wished the sausages on her nose. Finally, they agreed to use the last wish to take the sausages off her nose, leaving them no better off than before.
Conall Cra Bhuidhe or Conall Yellowclaw is a Scottish fairy tale collected by John Francis Campbell in Popular Tales of the West Highlands, listing his informant as James Wilson, blind fiddler in Islay. Joseph Jacobs included it in Celtic Fairy Tales, softening one episode and noting it occurred as The Black Thief and Knight of the Glen in Ireland. A version of the tale also appears in A Book of Giants by Ruth Manning-Sanders.
Conall Cra Bhuidhe was a royal tenant and had four (or three) sons. One day, his sons and the king's fought, and the king's big son was killed. The king told Conall that he could save his sons if he stole the brown horse of the king of Lochlann. Conall told him that he would steal the horse to please the king, even if his sons were in no danger. His wife lamented that he had not rather let the king kill his sons than endanger himself.
Conall went with his sons to Lochlann, and there he told them to seek out the king's miller. They stayed with him, and Conall bribed the miller to put him and his sons in the sacks of bran he delivered to the king. In the stables, Conall had his sons make hiding holes before they tried to steal the horse. When they tried, it
Fortunée or Felicia and the Pot of Pinks is a French literary fairy tale, written by Madame d'Aulnoy. Andrew Lang included it in The Blue Fairy Book.
A poor labourer, dying, wished to divide his goods between his son and daughter. Once, a great lady had visited him, and gave him a pot of pinks and a silver ring for his daughter; he left them to her, and two stools, a straw mattress, and a hen, for her brother. Soon after he died, the brother forbad his sister to sit on his stool and ate the eggs the hen laid, giving her only the shells. She went to her own room, which she found filled with a delicious scent from the pinks. She realized they were dry and watered them at the stream. There, she saw a great lady. The queen saw and summoned her. The girl told her that she did not fear robbers because she had nothing to steal; the queen asked whether they could steal her heart; the girl said that without her heart, she would die, which she did fear. The queen fed her. Then she said she had to water her pinks, and found that her pitcher had been turned to gold. The queen told her to remember that the Queen of the Woods was her friend. The girl offered her the pinks as half of what she
Foundling-Bird is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm, number 51.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 313A, the girl helps the hero flee, and revolves about a transformation chase. Others of the type include The Master Maid, The Water Nixie, Nix Nought Nothing, and The Two Kings' Children.
A forester found a baby in a bird's nest and brought him back to be raised with his daughter Lenchen. They called the child Fundevogel or Foundling-Bird, and he and Lenchen loved each other.
One day Lenchen saw the cook carrying many buckets of water to the house and asked what she was doing. The cook told her that the next day, she would boil Fundevogel in it. Lenchen went and told Fundevogel, and they fled.
The cook, afraid of what the forester would say about his lost daughter, sent servants after them. Fundevogel transformed into a rosebush and Lenchen a rose on it, and the servants went back empty-handed. When they told the cook they had seen nothing but the rosebush and the rose, she scolded them for not bringing back the rose. They went again, and Fundevogel became a church, and Lenchen a chandelier in it. They returned and told the cook what they had seen, and she scolded them for
The Battle of the Birds is a Scottish fairy tale collected by John Francis Campbell in his Popular Tales of the West Highlands. He recorded it from a fisherman near Inverary, John Mackenzie. Joseph Jacobs took it from there for his Celtic Fairy Tales and added some additional elements.
Also included in The Lilac Fairy Book by Andrew Lang and A Book Of British Fairy Tales by Alan Garner
A king's son set out to see a battle, where every animal fought; he promised to bring back to his father the news of who would be the king of the animals that year. He arrived when the fight was almost over, but a snake and a raven still fought. He cut off the head of the snake. The raven, in gratitude, flew him to a castle where his sister lived, and the prince spent the night there. The raven then flew to another castle, where he also spent the night, but the next morning he met a handsome youth, who had been the enchanted raven. The youth gave him a bundle and warned him not to open it until he was in the place where he most wanted to be.
When he was nearing his father's house, he opened the bundle. A great castle sprang up, and an irate giant demanded to know why he had put it there. It offered
Fortune and the Wood-Cutter is a fairy tale collected in Traditions Populaires de l'Asie Mineure. Andrew Lang included it in The Brown Fairy Book.
A woodcutter, sick of working and always being poor, took to his bed instead of working. He told his wife he had had enough of Fortune's tricks and would not chase after her.
A neighbor borrowed their mules to secretly take some treasure he had found, though he knew it belonged to the sultan. When he saw soldiers, he hid, and the mules went back to their master. The wood-cutter and wife exclaimed on how chasing after Fortune made her flee, and doing nothing made her come.
Belle-Belle ou Le Chevalier Fortuné is a French literary fairy tale, written by Madame d'Aulnoy.
A king, driven from his capital by an emperor, was forming an army and demanded that one person from every noble household become a soldier or, face a heavy fine. An impoverished nobleman, too old to serve himself, with three daughters was distressed by this news. His oldest daughter offered to go and was equipped. She told a shepherdess whose sheep were in the ditch, that she pitied her. The shepherdess thanked the daughter calling her a "beautiful girl." Ashamed that she could be recognized so easily, the oldest daughter went home. The second daughter also set out. She scorned the shepherdess for her folly, but the shepherdess bid farewell to the "lovely girl." The second daughter also returned home.
The youngest, Belle-Belle, set out. She helped the shepherdess. The shepherdess, a fairy, told her that she had punished her sisters for their lack of helpfulness and stopped them from their mission. She gave Belle-Belle a new horse and equipment, including a magical chest that would appear and disappear. The horse would be able to advise her. The fairy told the girl to call herself
Bushy Bride is a Norwegian fairy tale collected by Asbjørnsen and Moe. It is Aarne-Thompson type 403, the black and the white bride.
A widower with a son and a daughter married a widow with a daughter, and the stepmother maltreated the children until the boy left home. The stepmother sent the stepdaughter to the pool for water one day, and three heads popped up to demand, in turn, that she wash, brush, and kiss them. When she did this, they talked among themselves and decreed that she would be the most beautiful woman in the world, that gold would drop from her hair when she brushed it, and from her mouth when she spoke. When her stepsister saw this, she wanted to go as well, but she was rude to the three heads, and they decreed that her nose would be four ells long, she would have a snout three ells long and a pine-bush in her forehead, and ashes would drop from her mouth when she spoke.
Meanwhile, the stepson worked as a groom for the king. Everyday, he took out a picture of his sister and prayed for her. The other grooms told the king, who insisted on seeing, and declared that no woman could be so beautiful. The king resolved to marry her. The brother came to fetch her, and the
Cannetella is an Italian literary fairy tale told by Giambattista Basile in his 1634 work, the Pentamerone. Andrew Lang included it in The Grey Fairy Book, as collected by Hermann Kletke.
Another version of this tale is told in A Book of Wizards, by Ruth Manning-Sanders
A king longed for a child, and a daughter was born to him, whom he named Cannetella. When she was grown, he wanted to marry her off; she did not want to, but at last consented if her husband would have no like in the world. He presented candidates, and when she found fault with them, concluded she did not want to marry at all. Cannetella said she would marry a man with golden hair and golden teeth.
Fioravante, a mortal enemy of the king's and a magician, turned himself into a man with golden hair and golden teeth. The king agreed to their marriage, but Fioravante insisted on carrying off the princess with no attendants or baggage. When they reached a stable, he left her there with strict orders not to leave it or be seen, and to eat only what the horses left. One day, looking through a hole, she saw a garden filled with lemons, flowers, citrons, and vines. A desire for a bunch of grapes seized her, and she stole it.
Charles Perrault (12 January 1628 – 16 May 1703) was a French author and member of the Académie française. He laid the foundations for a new literary genre, the fairy tale, with his works derived from pre-existing folk tales. The best known of his tales include Le Petit Chaperon rouge (Little Red Riding Hood), Cendrillon (Cinderella), Le Chat Botté (Puss in Boots) and La Barbe bleue (Bluebeard). Many of Perrault's stories were rewritten by the Brothers Grimm, continue to be printed and have been adapted to opera, ballet (such as Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty), theatre, and film (Disney). Perrault was an influential figure in the 17th century French literary scene, and was the leader of the Modern faction during the Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns.
Charles Perrault was born in Paris to a wealthy bourgeois family, the seventh child of Pierre Perrault and Paquette Le Clerc. He attended good schools and studied law before embarking on a career in government service, following in the footsteps of his father and older brother Jean.
He took part in the creation of the Academy of Sciences as well as the restoration of the Academy of Painting. In 1654, he moved in with his
Frau Trude is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm, tale number 43.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 334, at the witch's house.
A willful little girl will not obey her parents and, having taken it into her head that she wants to see Frau Trude, goes in spite of all their warnings. She arrives terrified, and Frau Trude questions her. She tells of seeing a black man on her steps (a collier, says Frau Trude), a green man (a huntsman), a red man (a butcher), and, looking through her window, the devil instead of Frau Trude.
Frau Trude says she saw the witch in her proper attire, and that she had been waiting for the girl. She turned her into a block of wood and threw her onto the fire, and then warmed herself by it, commenting on how bright the block made the fire.
The tale is unusual in that the evil witch triumphs in the end; the child is defeated. However, a common theme in Grimm tales is that children who don't obey their parents are punished, making it a signature Grimm story.
I know what I have learned is a Danish fairy tale, collected by Svendt Grundtvig in Gamle Danske Minder i Folkemunde. Andrew Lang included it in The Pink Fairy Book.
A man's three daughters were all married to trolls. One day he visited the youngest. Her husband knocked pieces from his head, so they could make broth, and gave him a sack of gold. He remembered he had a cow about to calf and left the gold to get back quicker, but a thief stole the gold, and the man stubbornly said that he had learned something.
He visited the second daughter, and instead of candles, her husband lit his fingers. He lost two bags of gold to a thief.
He visited the oldest daughter, and her husband went fishing out in a dough trough. He asked his wife whether his eyes were green yet, and when they were, he jumped in and fished. The father lost three bags of gold this time.
His wife was angry with him, but he tried to knock pieces from his head for broth and had to take his bed. Then he tried lighting his fingers for candles, and again had to take to bed. Finally, he tried to fish, asking his wife whether his eyes were green; she claimed they were, he jumped in, and she rowed off and left him.
"The Angel" (Danish: Engelen) is a literary fairy tale by Hans Christian Andersen about an angel and a dead child gathering flowers to carry to Heaven. The tale was first published with three others in New Fairy Tales by C.A. Reitzel in November 1843. The four tales were received by the Danish critics with great acclaim. A print depicting the angel and child became very popular.
When the tale opens, a child has died, and an angel is escorting him to Heaven. They wander over the earth for a while, visiting well-known places. Along the way they gather flowers to transplant into the gardens of Heaven. The angel takes the child to a poverty-stricken area where a dead field lily lies in a trash heap. The angel salvages the flower explaining that it had cheered a crippled boy before he died. The angel then reveals he was the boy.
Jens Andersen, author of Hans Christian Andersen: A New Life (2005) describes God as "one of Andersen's most beloved ghosts" and notes that God in "The Angel" is a "pleasant and helpful traveling companion [...] There are few figures in his works to whom he returns more often or examines from so many different childish angles." The poet had an unshakable faith
The Boy Who Cried Wolf is one of Aesop's Fables, numbered 210 in the Perry Index. From it is derived the English idiom "to cry wolf", meaning to give a false alarm.
The tale concerns a shepherd boy who repeatedly tricks nearby villagers into thinking a wolf is attacking his flock. When a wolf actually does appear, the villagers do not believe the boy's cries for help, and the flock is destroyed. The moral at the end of the story shows that this is how liars are not rewarded: even if they tell the truth, no one believes them." This echoes a statement attributed to Aristotle by Diogenes Laërtius in his The Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers, where the sage was asked what those who tell lies gain by it and he answered "that when they speak truth they are not believed". William Caxton similarly closes his version with the remark that "men bileve not lyghtly hym whiche is knowen for a lyer".
The story dates from Classical times but, since it was recorded only in Greek and not translated into Latin until the 15th century, it only began to gain currency after it appeared in Heinrich Steinhowel's collection of the fables and so spread through the rest of Europe. For this reason,
"The Emperor's New Clothes" (Danish: Kejserens nye Klæder) is a short tale by Hans Christian Andersen about two weavers who promise an Emperor a new suit of clothes that is invisible to those unfit for their positions, stupid, or incompetent. When the Emperor parades before his subjects in his new clothes, a child cries out, "But he isn't wearing anything at all!" The tale has been translated into over a hundred languages.
"The Emperor’s New Clothes" was first published with "The Little Mermaid" in Copenhagen by C. A. Reitzel on 7 April 1837 as the third and final installment of Andersen's Fairy Tales Told for Children. The tale has been adapted to various media, including the musical stage and animated film.
A vain Emperor who cares for nothing hires two swindlers who promise him the finest, best suit of clothes from a fabric invisible to anyone who is unfit for his position or "hopelessly stupid". The Emperor cannot see the clothing himself, but pretends that he can for fear of appearing unfit for his position; his ministers do the same. When the swindlers report that the suit is finished, they mime dressing him and the Emperor marches in procession before his subjects, who play
The Goat's Ears of the Emperor Trojan is a Serbian fairy tale. Andrew Lang included it in The Violet Fairy Book.
The incident appears as part of the legends of Midas in classical times, but not all of the legend appears in the fairy tale.
The emperor Trojan had goat's ears, but kept this fact a secret from the populace. Every day, he had a new barber whom he would ask if he noticed anything strange; when the man answered that he had goat's ears, he was put to death. One day, an apprentice went, and said that he saw nothing strange, so he remained as the emperor's barber. The apprentice found his secret troubling him. His master advised him to tell him, the master, or his pastor, or to whisper it into a hole in the ground.
The apprentice dug a hole, whispered into it that the emperor had goat's ears, and filled it up again. An elder tree grew there, someone cut a branch and made a flute, but the only thing the flute would play was "The Emperor Trojan has goat's ears."
The news spread, and the emperor discovered it and wormed the secret out of the apprentice. He had the last branch cut and found the flute made from it was the same. He spared the apprentice's life but did not keep him
The Gold-bearded Man is an Hungarian fairy tale collected in Ungarische Mahrchen. Andrew Lang included it in The Crimson Fairy Book.
A dying king asked of his queen that she would never remarry, but rather devote the rest of her life to caring for their only son. She promised to do as he requested, but no sooner was her husband dead than she remarried and had her new husband made king instead of her son. The stepfather was a wicked man and treated his stepson very cruelly.
By the castle, there was a brook that was of milk rather than water, which had plenty for everyone, but the new king forbade anyone to take the milk. The guards noticed a gold-bearded man taking buckets of milk in the morning and then strangely vanishing. The king came to see. He wondered if he could ever capture such a man, and many attempts failed. One day, an old soldier told him to leave bread, bacon, and drugged wine for the man; he would eat, drink, and fall asleep. Then they could catch him. The plan succeeded, and the king put the man in a cage. After a month had passed, the king had to go to war. He told his stepson to feed the man but not free him, or his fate would be terrible.
The prince accidentally
"The Hazel-nut Child" is a Bukowinaer fairy tale collected by the Polish-German scholar Heinrich von Wlislocki (1856-1907) in Märchen Und Sagen Der Bukowinaer Und Siebenbûrger Armenier (1891, Hamburg: Verlagsanstalt und Druckerei Actien-Gesellschaft). Andrew Lang included it in The Yellow Fairy Book (1894) and Ruth Manning-Sanders included it in A Book of Dwarfs (1964).
A childless couple prayed for a child, though he were no bigger than a hazel nut, and then they had such a son. He never grew, but he was very clever. When he was fifteen, he said he wanted to be a messenger. His mother sent him to get a comb from his aunt. He climbed on a horse that a man was riding by, and poked and pinched it until it galloped to the village. There he got the comb, and took another horse the same way. This convinced his mother.
One day, his father left him in the fields with a horse while he went back home. A robber tried to steal the horse. The hazel-nut child jumped on the horse and pricked it until it ignored the robber and galloped home. The robber was jailed.
When he was twenty, the hazel-nut child left home, promising to return when he was rich. He climbed on a stork as the storks were
Aesop's Fables or the Aesopica is a collection of fables credited to Aesop, a slave and story-teller believed to have lived in ancient Greece between 620 and 560 BC.
Apollonius of Tyana, a 1st century AD philosopher, is recorded as having said about Aesop:
The Greek historian Herodotus mentions in passing that "Aesop the fable writer" was a slave who lived in Ancient Greece during the 5th century BC. Among references in other writers, Aristophanes, in his comedy The Wasps, represented the protagonist Philocleon as having learnt the "absurdities" of Aesop from conversation at banquets; Plato wrote in Phaedo that Socrates whiled away his jail time turning some of Aesop's fables "which he knew" into verses. Nonetheless, for two main reasons - because numerous morals within Aesop's attributed fables contradict each other, and because ancient accounts of Aesop's life contradict each other - the modern view is that Aesop probably did not solely compose all those fables attributed to him, if he even existed at all. Modern scholarship reveals fables and proverbs of "Aesopic" form existing in both ancient Sumer and Akkad, as early as the third millennium BC.
Aesop's fables and the Indian
Almondseed and Almondella is a Greek fairy tale collected by Georgios A. Megas in Folktales of Greece.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 1641 Doctor Know-All. Other tales of this type are Doctor Know-all and The Charcoal Burner.
A poor man sees a black hen, tied to the weaver's, and hears a woman calling for help because her black hen has been stolen. He pretends to learn where it is by reading in a book, and she gives him two piastres. He decides to become a seer. One day, the king's servants come, asking whether the queen will have a boy or a girl; the seer reads through his book, muttering "Boy, girl, boy, girl..." until they tire of it and leave. The queen has twins, a boy and a girl, and the servants tell the king. The king, whose coffer has been stolen, sends for the seer to learn about the theft. In a room, he asks for almonds; the first night, he says, "This is the first", meaning the first night, but one of three thieves is eavesdropping and thinks it means him. He runs to his confederates. The second one arrives the next night, and when the seer says, "The second has come", meaning the night, the thief takes it to mean him. When the third thief hears him the third night, they beg
Doctor Know-all (German: Doktor Allwissend) is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm, tale number 98 in Grimm's Fairy Tales. It is Aarne-Thompson type 1641 about being in the right place at the right time. Another tale of this type is Almondseed and Almondella.
A peasant named Crabbe saw how well a doctor ate and asked him how to become one. The doctor told him to buy an ABC book with a rooster up front, sell his oxen and cart to buy doctor's equipment and clothing, and advertise himself as "Doctor Know-all."
Shortly after he set himself up, a nobleman asked him to find stolen money. He insisted on bringing his wife. When they sat to eat, he nudged his wife at each course, saying "That's one," "That's two," and "That's three" — meaning three courses, but the servants bringing in the dishes, the thieves, thought he was identifying them. The fourth one brought in a covered tray of crabs, and the nobleman asked him to guess. Pitying himself, he said, "Poor Crabbe!" and the noble was impressed.
The servants offered to give him the money and a reward as well if he would not betray them. He agreed, and told the nobleman he had to check his book. He was looking for the
Fairy Ointment or The Fairy Nurse is an English fairy tale collected by Joseph Jacobs in his English Fairy Tales. It has been told in many variants. Andrew Lang included one in The Lilac Fairy Book.
The ointment itself, as a substance allowing a human to see fairies, occasionally appears in fantasy literature. Folk-tales about such an ointment are found in Scandinavia, France and the British Isles
A midwife is summoned to attend a childbed. The baby is born, and she is given an ointment to rub in its eyes. Accidentally, or through curiosity, she rubs one or both her own eyes with it. This enables her to see the actual house to which she has been summoned. Sometimes a simple cottage becomes a castle, but most often, a grand castle becomes a wretched cave.
In the variant Andrew Lang included, the woman saw a neighbor of hers, kept prisoner as a nurse, and was able to tell her husband how to rescue her, pulling her down from riding fairies as in Tam Lin.
Soon, the midwife sees a fairy and admits it. The fairy invariably blinds her in the eye that can see him, or both if she put the ointment in both eyes.
Fairy ointment also appears in many other fairy tales and books of fantasy,
Children's and Household Tales (German: Kinder- und Hausmärchen) is a collection of German folk tales first published in 1812 by the Grimm brothers, Jacob and Wilhelm. The collection is commonly known today as Grimms' Fairy Tales (German: Grimms Märchen).
On December 20, 1812, the first volume of the first edition was published, containing 86 stories; the second volume of 70 stories followed in 1814. For the second edition, two volumes were issued in 1819 and a third in 1822, totalling 170 tales. The third edition appeared in 1837; fourth edition, 1840; fifth edition, 1843; sixth edition, 1850; seventh edition, 1857. Stories were added, and also subtracted, from one edition to the next, until the seventh held 211 tales. All editions were extensively illustrated, first by Philipp Grot Johann and, after his death in 1892, by Robert Leinweber.
The first volumes were much criticized because, although they were called "Children's Tales", they were not regarded as suitable for children, both for the scholarly information included and the subject matter. Many changes through the editions – such as turning the wicked mother of the first edition in Snow White and Hansel and Gretel to a
Jackal or Tiger? is an Indian fairy tale. Andrew Lang included it in The Olive Fairy Book.
A king and queen, abed at night, heard a howl. The king thought it was a tiger, and the queen a jackal. They argued. The king said that if it were a jackal, he would leave the kingdom to her; if it were a tiger, he would send her away and marry another woman. Then he summoned the guards to settle it. The guards decided they had to agree with the king or get in trouble, so they said it was a tiger.
The king abandoned the queen in the forest. A farmer gave her shelter, and she gave birth to a son, Ameer Ali. When he was eighteen, Ameer Ali set out to have adventures. He shot at a pigeon and broke an old woman's pot, so he gave her the brass pot he carried, and fetched water for her. He briefly saw a beautiful young woman in her hut. In the morning, she told him that if he ever needed aid, to call the fairy of the forest. He thought only of the beautiful young woman.
He went to the king's palace and entered his service. One stormy night, a woman was heard wailing outside. The king ordered a servant to find out what it was, but the servant begged to be let off. Ameer Ali offered to go. He found a
"The Boy Who Drew Cats" is a Japanese fairy tale translated by Lafcadio Hearn that was published in 1898 as number 23 of Hasegawa Takejirō's Japanese Fairy Tale Series. It was later included in Hearn's Japanese Fairy Tales.
A farmer and his wife had many children; the youngest son was too small and weak, and spent all his time drawing cats instead of doing his chores. So, they took him to the temple to become a priest. He learned quickly, but he drew cats everywhere. The old priest finally said he could not be a priest, though he might be an artist, and sent him away with the advice to avoid large places at night, and keep to small ones. He decided to go to a big temple nearby and ask them to take him on.
The temple had been deserted, because a goblin-rat had driven the priests away, and warriors who went against it were never seen again. A light burned at the temple at night, so when the boy arrived, he went in. He saw some big white screens and painted cats on them. Then he went to sleep, but, since the temple was large, he found a little cabinet to sleep in since he had remembered the priest's advice. In the night, he heard sounds of fighting, and in the morning, the goblin-rat
The Dancing Water, the Singing Apple, and the Speaking Bird is an Italian fairy tale collected by Thomas Frederick Crane in Italian Popular Tales. Joseph Jacobs included it in European Folk and Fairy Tales.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 707, which is named after it: the dancing water, the singing apple, and the speaking bird.
A king walking the streets heard three poor sisters talk. The oldest said that if she married the royal butler, she would give the entire court a drink out of one glass, with water left over. The second said that if she married the keeper of the royal wardrobe, she would dress the entire court in one piece of cloth, and have some left over. The youngest said that if she married the king, she would bear two sons with apples in their hands, and a daughter with a star on her forehead.
The next morning, the king ordered the older two sisters to do as they said, and then married them to the butler and the keeper of the royal wardrobe, and the youngest to himself. The queen became pregnant, and the king had to go to war, leaving behind news that he was to hear of the birth of his children. The queen gave birth to the children she had promised, but her sisters put three
The Death of Abu Nowas and of his Wife is a Tunisian fairy tale collected in Tunisische Märchen und Gedichte. Andrew Lang included it in The Crimson Fairy Book.
Abu Nowas was a favorite of the Sultan's. When his wife died, the Sultan told the Sultana they must find him another. The Sultana had a suitable maiden, and the marriage was arranged. Abu Nowas and his wife freely spent the wedding gifts and found themselves poor.
He wanted to send his wife to the Sultana but she was afraid; he went to the Sultan and told him his wife was dead, and he had no money to bury her. The Sultan gave him money. Then his wife went to the Sultana and told her that her husband was dead, and she had no money to bury him. The Sultana gave her money.
The Sultan and Sultana met and quarreled about who had died. The Sultan sent his door-keeper, and Abu Nowas had his wife lie down and covered her with a sheet. The man came back and told the Sultan that it was the wife. The Sultana sent her chamberlain, and Abu Nowas lay down and had his wife cover him. The chamberlain reported that it was Abu Nowas. The Sultan went himself, with the Sultana, and found both Abu Nowas and his wife lying covered. The Sultan
The Flying Ship or The Fool of the World and the Flying Ship is a Russian fairy tale. Andrew Lang included it in The Yellow Fairy Book and Arthur Ransome in Old Peter's Russian Tales.
Uri Shulevitz illustrated a version of Ransome's tale, The Fool of the World and the Flying Ship, for which he won the Caldecott Medal in 1969. Also, a made-for-TV stop motion-animated film with the same name was released in the UK in 1990. It aired as part of WGBH's children's series, Long Ago and Far Away. Rabbit Ears Productions has also made an audiotape version, featuring Robin Williams, which was released on Showtime in 1991. It aired as part of Rabbit Ears's We All Have Tales series. In addition, Terry Gilliam's 1988 film The Adventures of Baron Munchausen contains several elements inspired by this story, particularly the opening sequence set at the court of the Grand Turk.
A couple had three sons, and the youngest was a fool. One day, the Tsar declared that whoever made him a ship that could sail through the air would marry his daughter. The older two set out, with everything their parents could give them; then the youngest set out as well, despite their ridicule and being given less fine
The Gold-spinners (Estonian: Kullaketrajad) is an Estonian fairy tale collected by Dr. Friedrich Kreutzwald in Eestirahwa Ennemuistesed jutud. W. F. Kirby included it in The Hero of Esthonia, and Andrew Lang, under the title The Water-lily. The Gold Spinners, in The Blue Fairy Book.
In a hut hidden deep in a forest, three beautiful maidens spend each waking moment weaving gold flax into yarn. An old woman supervises them, collecting every finished thread. She leaves them only for short journeys - always leaving a full slate of work along with the warning to keep their eyes on their work, and to speak to no man; otherwise the gold will lose its shine and great misfortunes will follow.
During one of her absences, a Prince is separated from his hunting party, and wandering in the forest, comes across the hut. The elder maidens hide from him, but the youngest seeks out his company. Days later, when the King's search party finds the hut, the Prince and maiden sit before it lost in conversation. The Prince promises to return for the maiden, who sits to work her neglected wheel. Sure enough, the bright thread is dull now, just as the old woman had predicted. Terrified, she is convinced
The Golden Lion is an Italian fairy tale collected by Laura Gonzenbach in Sicilianische Märchen. Andrew Lang included it in The Pink Fairy Book.
A merchant had three sons. The oldest set out and found a city where the king had proclaimed that whoever found his daughter within eight days would marry her, but anyone who tried and failed would lose his head. The son tried and failed. His second brother followed and also failed.
The youngest son, following his brothers, discovered their fates and rebuffed an old woman who sought alms from him. She asked if he was in trouble, and the son explained the situation. She told him that he should purchase a statue of a golden lion that played music, so that he could hide inside it. After the statue was completed, the man hid inside. The old woman showed the lion to the king. When he wanted it, she told him she could only lend it to him overnight. He brought it down a secret stairway to twelve identical women. During the night, the youth implored the princess to help him, and she told him she would wear a white sash when he came hunting for her so he could identify her.
The old woman took the lion away. The youth came out of hiding and went to
The Grateful Prince (Estonian: Tänulik Kuninga poeg) is an Estonian fairy tale, collected by Dr. Friedrich Kreutzwald in Eestirahwa Ennemuistesed jutud. W. F. Kirby included in The Hero of Esthonia. Andrew Lang included it in The Violet Fairy Book; he listed his source as Ehstnische Märchen, which was the German translation of Kreutzwald's work, by F. Löwe.
A king got lost in a forest. An old man offered to lead him out in exchange for the first thing that came out of the king's house. The king did not want to relinquish a dog, but he must needs get home and so was forced to agree; however, the first thing he possessed which emerged from the house upon his return was his infant son, in the arms of the nurse. To deceive the old man, he exchanged his own son for a peasant's daughter, raising the daughter as his princess. A year later, the stranger came and took the girl, but the king did not dare claim his son, for fear his duplicity would be revealed.
The king's son grew up as a peasant, but while his foster parents, being rewarded, were content, the prince himself had learned of the girl for whom he had been exchanged and was distraught he would become king at such a cost to
"Bluebeard" (French: La Barbe bleue) is a French literary folktale, the most famous version remaining that written by Charles Perrault and first published by Barbin in Paris in January 1697 in Histoires ou Contes du temps passé. The tale tells the story of a violent nobleman in the habit of murdering his wives and the attempts of one wife to avoid the fate of her predecessors. Gilles de Rais, a 15th-century aristocrat and prolific serial killer, has been suggested as the source for the character of Bluebeard, as has Conomor the Accursed, an early Breton king. "The White Dove", "Mister Fox" and "Fitcher's Bird" are tales similar to "Bluebeard".
Bluebeard is an immensely wealthy aristocrat, feared and shunned because of his "frightfully ugly" blue beard. He has been married several times, but no one knows what became of his wives. He is therefore avoided by the local girls. When Bluebeard visits one of his neighbours and asks to marry one of her two daughters, the girls are terrified, and each tries to pass him on to the other. Eventually he persuades the younger daughter to visit him, and after hosting a wonderful banquet, he convinces her to marry him. After the ceremony she goes
The Dolphin is a French literary fairy tale by Madame d'Aulnoy.
Another literary tale of this type is Giambattista Basile's older Peruonto. A folk variant is the French Half-Man.
A king and queen had several children, but loved them only if they were good and beautiful. One, Alidor, being ugly, in time left his parents secretly. More distressed over their reputation than his fate, they sent after him, but he had chosen his path with care and vanished. He met a young man in service to the King of the Woods and heard of his beautiful daughter Livorette, and so resolved to go there. Once there, Livorette and all her ladies laughed at his ugliness. The queen, however, drew him aside and inquired after him. He soon became a favorite at the court because of his intelligence and courtesy, but Livorette still laughed at him, and being madly in love with her, Alidor soon became melancholy. Trying to distract himself, he fished, but he caught nothing, and Livorette mocked him for it. One day, he caught a dolphin. The dolphin asked him to put it back, promising to help him, and reasoned with him about the princess. When he freed it, he despaired, but it came back and gave him an abundance of
The Flea is an Italian literary fairy tale written by Giambattista Basile in his 1634 work, the Pentamerone.
A king raised a flea until it was the size of a sheep. Then he had it skinned and promised his daughter in marriage to whoever could guess what the skin came from. An ogre guessed, and the king had to marry his daughter to him. The ogre took her to his house, decorated by the bones of men he had eaten, and brought her back men's bodies to eat. She wept by the window and told an old woman her plight. The old woman told her that she had seven marvelous sons who could help her. The next day, the old woman and her sons came and carried her off.
The oldest son heard the ogre whenever he approached, and each of his brothers put up an obstacle: one washed his hands and produced a sea of soapsuds, one transformed a piece of iron into a field of razors, one turned a little stick into a forest, and one turned a little water into a river. The last one turned a pebble into a tower where they could take refuge, but they were trapped there, and the ogre came with a ladder. The youngest son shot his eye out and cut his head off.
The sons brought her to her father and were richly rewarded.
Ancilotto, King of Provino is an Italian literary fairy tale written by Giovanni Francesco Straparola in The Facetious Nights of Straparola.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 707: the dancing water, the singing apple, and the speaking bird. It is the oldest known variant of this tale, and influenced Madame d'Aulnoy's Princess Belle-Etoile. A variant of this tale appears in Antoine Galland's Arabian Nights collection, but no Arab manuscript exists, and Galland, reporting an oral source, may also have been influenced by this version. It spread to appear as The Three Little Birds in the Brothers Grimm's collection.
Ancilotto, the king, heard three sisters talking: Brunora, the eldest sister, said if she married the king's majordomo, she could give the entire court a drink from one glass of water; Lionella, the second, said if she married the king's chamberlain, she could turn one spindle of linen to give fine shifts to the entire court; Chiaretta, the youngest said if she married the king, she would give him triplets who would have fine hair with gold, a gold necklace, and a star on their forehead. The king married them off as they had said. The queen mother was angry to have such a
The Brothers Grimm (German: Brüder Grimm or Die Gebrüder Grimm), Jacob (1785–1863) and Wilhelm Grimm (1786–1859), were German academics, linguists, cultural researchers, and authors who together collected folklore. They are among the most well-known storytellers of European folk tales, and their work popularized such stories as "Cinderella", "The Frog Prince" (Der Froschkönig), "Hansel and Gretel" (Hänsel und Gretel), "Rapunzel", "Rumpelstiltskin" (Rumpelstilzchen), and "Snow White" (Schneewittchen). Their first collection of folk tales, Children's and Household Tales (Kinder- und Hausmärchen), was published in 1812.
The brothers spent their formative years first in the German town of Hanau and then in Steinau. Their father's death in 1796, about a decade into their lives, caused great poverty for the family and affected the brothers for many years. They attended the University of Marburg where historian and jurist Friedrich von Savigny spurred their interest in philology and Germanic studies—a field in which they are now considered pioneers—and at the same time developed a curiosity for folklore, which grew into a lifelong dedication to collecting German folk tales.
The rise of
Fair, Brown and Trembling is an Irish fairy tale collected by Jeremiah Curtin in Myths and Folk-lore of Ireland and Joseph Jacobs in his Celtic Fairy Tales.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 510A. Other tales of this type include Cinderella, Finette Cendron, The Golden Slipper, Katie Woodencloak, Rushen Coatie, The Sharp Grey Sheep, The Story of Tam and Cam, and The Wonderful Birch.
King Hugh Cùrucha had three daughters: Fair, Brown, and Trembling. Since Trembling was the most beautiful, her older sisters made her stay at home, for fear that she would marry before them. After seven years, the son of the king of Emania fell in love with Fair. A henwife told Trembling she should go to church; when she objected that she had no suitable dress, the henwife gave her one, a horse, a honey-finger, and a honey-bird and told her to leave as soon as Mass was done. She obeyed, and got away before any man came near her. After two more times, the son of the king of Emania forgot Fair for the woman who had come to church and ran after her, managing to get her shoe when she rode off.
The king's son looked for the woman whose foot the shoe fit, although the other king's sons warned him that he would have
How the Dragon was Tricked is a Greek fairy tale collected by J. G. von Hahn in Griechische und Albanesische Märchen. Andrew Lang included it in The Pink Fairy Book. It is Aarne-Thompson type 328, the boy steals the giant's treasures.
An older brother was jealous of his younger brother and one day tied him to a tree to be rid of him. An old, humpbacked shepherd saw him and asked him why; the younger brother said it was to straighten out his back, and persuaded the shepherd to be tied there in his place. Then he drove off the sheep. He persuaded a horse boy and a driver of oxen to come with him. He played many tricks and became famous.
The king captured him, said he had earned death, and promised to spare him if he brought him the dragon's flying horse. He went and tried three times to steal the horse. Each time it neighed, alerting the dragon, but the third time the dragon, annoyed at being awoken, beat the horse. The fourth time, the horse did not neigh, the boy led him out, and once out, he mounted and rode off, taunting the dragon.
The king then demanded the dragon's bedcoverings. The boy went and tried to hook the blanket during the night, but the dragon said his wife was
The Hairy Man is a Russian fairy tale. Andrew Lang included it in The Crimson Fairy Book.
Two ricks of a king's rapeseed fields are found burned every night. Finally, a shepherd with dogs keeps watch, and catches the "hairy man" who is responsible. The king puts him in a cage. The hairy man pleads with the king's son so earnestly, that it really was an evil demon who blew on his camp fire, causing all the damage, that the young prince frees him. For this, the king orders that his son be taken to the forest, and killed, and that his lungs and liver be brought back as proof. The man who takes him can not do it, and kills an old, sick dog instead. The boy wanders the forest until he comes upon a cottage, where an old man, who was once the same hairy man, lives. There he stays for seven years, working hard, like a peasant, but never complaining, until he is old enough to travel on. Before he leaves, the hairy man gives the boy a golden apple, which magically contains a golden staff and a golden-maned horse; a silver apple, which contains a silver staff, and an army of hussar cavalry; and a copper apple, which contains a copper staff, and an army of foot soldiers. The boy uses the first
Corvetto is an Italian literary fairy tale written by Giambattista Basile in his 1634 work, the Pentamerone.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 531. Other tales of this type include The Firebird and Princess Vasilisa, Ferdinand the Faithful and Ferdinand the Unfaithful, King Fortunatus's Golden Wig, and The Mermaid and the Boy. Another, literary variant is Madame d'Aulnoy's La Belle aux cheveux d'or, or The Story of Pretty Goldilocks.
Corvetto served a king loyally and was favored by him. Envious fellow servants tried to slander him, but failed. An ogre lived nearby, with a magnificent horse, and finally the servants said that the king should send Corvetto to steal it. Corvetto went, and jumped on the horse. It shouted to its master, who chased after with wild animals, but Corvetto rode it off. The king was even more pleased, and the other servants told him to send Corvetto after the ogre's tapestry. Corvetto went, hid under the ogres' bed, and in the night stole both the tapestries and the counterpane from the bed (causing the ogre and ogress to argue about who hogged them). He dropped them from a window and fled back to the king.
The servants then persuaded him to send Corvetto for the
Saam is a Russian fairy tale collected by Alexander Afanasyev in Narodnye russkie skazki (1855-63). Andrew Lang included it, as "The Story of King Frost", in The Yellow Fairy Book (1894).
It is Aarne-Thompson type 480, The Kind and the Unkind Girls. Others of this type include Shita-kiri Suzume, Diamonds and Toads, Mother Hulda, The Three Heads in the Well, The Three Little Men in the Wood, The Enchanted Wreath, The Old Witch, and The Two Caskets. Literary variants include The Three Fairies and Aurore and Aimée.
A woman had a stepdaughter and a daughter of her own, and she hated her stepdaughter. One day, she orders her husband to take her stepdaughter out into the winter fields and leave her there, and he obeys. Father Frost finds her there, and she is polite and kind to him, so he gives her a chest full of beautiful things and fine garments. When her stepmother sends her father to bring back her body to be buried, he goes to fulfill his task. After a while, the family dog says that the stepdaughter is coming back beautiful and happy.
When the stepmother sees what her stepdaughter had brought back, she orders her husband to bring her own daughter out into the fields. The girl is
Little Red Riding Hood, also known as Little Red Cap or simply Red Riding Hood, is a European fairy tale about a young girl and a Big Bad Wolf. The story has been changed considerably in its history and subject to numerous modern adaptations and readings. The story was first published by Charles Perrault in Histoires ou contes du temps passé in 1697.
This story is number 333 in the Aarne-Thompson classification system for folktales.
The story revolves around a girl called Little Red Riding Hood, after the red hooded cape/cloak (in Perrault's fairytale) or simple cap (in the Grimms' version) she wears. The girl walks through the woods to deliver food to her sick grandmother.
A mean wolf wants to eat the girl but is afraid to do so in public. He approaches Little Red Riding Hood and she naïvely tells him where she is going. He suggests the girl pick some flowers, which she does. In the meantime, he goes to the grandmother's house and gains entry by pretending to be the girl. He swallows the grandmother whole, (In some stories, he locks her in the closet), and waits for the girl, disguised as the grandma.
When the girl arrives, she notices that her grandmother looks very strange.
The Daughter of Buk Ettemsuch is a fairy tale from northern Africa, collected by Hans von Stumme in Märchen und Gedichte aus der Stadt Tripolis. Andrew Lang included it in The Grey Fairy Book.
A man left his seven daughters with instructions not to leave the house, because they had provisions for three years. One day, the third year, the oldest suggested that they leave; the youngest tried to dissuade them, and all her sisters attacked her. They left the door open when they returned, and a witch got in and ate them all, except the youngest, who ran away. She hid in an ogre's castle. He returned and persuaded her to come out; because she was young, he took her as his daughter and had her look after the house for him, keeping six of the keys, but reserving the seventh for himself.
One day, she asked for the key; when he refused it, she stole it. He learned this when he woke, but decided not to wake her to take it back. She opened the door and saw an ox, drawing up water to water a garden. It claimed the ogre was feeding her up to eat her. She cried. The ogre told her what to tell the ox, and she did, making it fall to the earth for seven days and nights. The prince, whose garden it
The Enchanted Maiden is a Portuguese fairy tale collected by Consiglieri Pedroso in Portuguese Folk-Tales.
A man had three daughters. To announce that the first one was ready for marriage, he hung up a golden ball; every man passing by believed the family to be too rich for him, until a prince came and asked for her hand in marriage. The same thing happened to the second, but when it was the turn of the youngest, the man could not afford a golden ball. He hung up a silver one instead; and another prince passed but as it was too poor for him, another man came instead to marry her. As a result, the youngest daughter's sisters refused to associate with her. One day, as she was giving birth, fairies asked for shelter; she tried to plead that she was not well, but the fairies continued pleading, and she let them stay. When she gave birth to a daughter, the fairies blessed the baby with beauty, riches, and having flowers fall from her mouth when she spoke. This reconciled the sisters who married princes with their youngest sister.
When the enchanted maiden had grown up, a prince who was betrothed to a daughter of her aunt fell in love with her and wanted nothing to do with his betrothed.
The Jogi's Punishment is an Indian fairy tale, a Punjabi story collected by Major Campbell in Feroshepore. Andrew Lang included it in The Lilac Fairy Book.
A rajah made a jogi welcome in his city, building a house where he might receive guests. The rajah's only child was a beautiful daughter, who was betrothed to a neighboring prince. One day this daughter visited the jogi, who was instantly attracted to her. She guessed his intention and fled, and the jogi threw a lance after her, wounding her in the leg.
The next day, the jogi claimed to have been visited by a demon, which came disguised as a beautiful young woman but transformed into a hideous monster. The rajah had to find a beautiful young woman with a lance wound. When he did so, and realized it was his daughter, the jogi declared that his true daughter had been replaced in infancy by this evil spirit. The king made a chest, and they put the daughter in it and threw it in the river.
The next morning, her betrothed was hunting by the river and found the chest. He freed her and found that she was his betrothed. They married on the spot. The prince had a great monkey put in the chest in the princess's place, and the chest put
Aladdin (Arabic: علاء الدين, ʻAlāʼ ad-Dīn, IPA: [ʕalaːʔ adˈdiːn]; meaning, "glory of religion") is a Middle Eastern folk tale. It is one of the tales in The Book of One Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights), and one of the most famous, although it was actually added to the collection by Antoine Galland (see sources and setting).
Aladdin is an impoverished young ne'er-do-well in a Chinese town, who is recruited by a sorcerer from the Maghreb, who passes himself off as the brother of Aladdin's late father Qaseem, convincing Aladdin and his mother of his goodwill by apparently making arrangements to set up the lad as a wealthy merchant. The sorcerer's real motive is to persuade young Aladdin to retrieve a wonderful oil lamp from a booby-trapped magic cave of wonder. After the sorcerer attempts to double-cross him, Aladdin finds himself trapped in the cave. Fortunately, Aladdin retains a magic ring lent to him by the sorcerer. When he rubs his hands in despair, he inadvertently rubs the ring, and a jinni, or "genie", appears, who takes him home to his mother. Aladdin is still carrying the lamp, and when his mother tries to clean it, a second, far more powerful genie appears, who is
The Frog Princess is a fairy tale that exists in many versions from several countries.
Russian variants include the Frog Princess or Tsarevna Frog (Царевна Лягушка, Tsarevna Lyagushka) and also Vasilisa the Wise (Василиса Премудрая, Vasilisa Premudraya); Alexander Afanasyev collected variants in his Narodnye russkie skazki. Andrew Lang included an Italian variant titled The Frog in The Violet Fairy Book. Italo Calvino included another Italian variant, from Piedmont, The Prince Who Married a Frog, in Italian Folktales; he noted that the tale was common throughout Europe. Georgios A. Megas included a Greek variant, The Enchanted Lake, in Folktales of Greece.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 402, the Mouse (Cat, Frog, etc.) as bride. Another tale of this type is Doll i' the Grass.
The king (or an old peasant woman, in Lang's version) sets his three sons to marry, and tests their chosen brides. The king tells them to shoot arrows and find their brides where the arrows land, and the youngest prince's arrow is picked up by a frog. The two older sons may already have girls picked out, but the youngest son -- Ivan Tsarevich in the Russian version—is at a loss until a friend offers to marry him.
Bella Venezia is an Italian fairy tale collected by Italo Calvino in his Italian Folktales. Calvino selected this variant, where the heroine meets robbers, rather than others that contain dwarfs, because he believed the dwarfs were probably an importation from Germany.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 709, Snow White. Others of this type include Gold-Tree and Silver-Tree, Nourie Hadig, and Myrsina.
An innkeeper named Bella Venezia asked her customers whether they had ever seen a more beautiful woman than herself. When they said they had not, she cut the price for their stay in half, but one day, a traveller said that he had seen such a woman: her own daughter. Bella Venezia doubled the price of his stay instead of halving it, and had her daughter shut up in a tower with a single window. Then one day Bella asked again whether her customers had seen a woman more beautiful than herself, and a traveller said that he had seen a more beautiful woman, looking from a tower. Bella Venezia asked the kitchen boy if he would marry her, and promised to do so if he killed her daughter. The kitchen boy led her daughter into the forest and killed a lamb in her place.
The daughter wandered until she saw
Don Joseph Pear is an Italian fairy tale collected by Thomas Frederick Crane in his Italian Popular Tales.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 545B.
Three brothers owned a pear tree and lived on the pears. One day, all the pears were stolen, and the brothers decided to watch it during the night. The older two fell asleep on their turns, but the youngest, Don Joseph, stayed awake, and when a fox came to steal, threatened to shoot him. The fox promised that if he let him go, he would marry the king's daughter. He did not believe it, but let the fox go.
Twice, the fox hunted all manner of game and presented it to the king, as a gift from Don Joseph Pear. He then went to an ogress and convinced her it was time to divide the gold and silver. He went to the king to get a measure for Don Joseph Pear to divide the gold and silver, which convinced the king that Don Joseph was rich.
The fox then dressed Don Joseph well and set him off to travel with the king and his daughter. He the fox went ahead and when peasants threw rocks at him, threatened to have them killed if they did not describe the land and flocks as Don Joseph's. Then he got to the ogress's castle, told her the horsemen were coming to
Go I Know Not Whither and Fetch I Know Not What (Russian: Пойди туда, не знаю куда, принеси то, не знаю что, translit. Poydi tuda, ne znayu kuda, prinesi to, ne znayu chto) is a Russian fairy tale collected by Alexander Afanasyev in Narodnye russkie skazki.
A royal hunter shot a bird; wounded, it begged him not to kill it but to take it home, and when it went to sleep, strike its head. He did so, and the bird became a beautiful woman. She proposed that they marry, and they did. After the marriage, she saw how hard he had to hunt, and told him to borrow one or two hundred rubles. He did so, and then bought silks with them. She conjured two spirits and set them to make a marvelous carpet. Then she gave the carpet to her husband and told him to accept whatever price he was given. The merchants did not know how much to pay for it, and finally the king's steward bought it for ten thousand rubles. The king saw it and gave the steward twenty-five thousand for it.
The steward went to the hunter's house to get another, and saw his wife. He fell madly in love with her, and the king saw it. The steward told him why, and the king went himself and saw the hunter's wife. He decided that he
Jesper Who Herded the Hares is a Scandinavian fairy tale. Andrew Lang included it in The Violet Fairy Book.
The motif of herding hares is a common fairy tale theme. Another tale featuring it is The Three May Peaches. This tale, and The Griffin, also feature the test of truthfully telling what the character is carrying.
A king of a kingdom so small he could see every border from the towers on his castle, still was proud of it. Having a single daughter, he wished her to marry a man fit to be king. He declared that whoever brought him twelve of the finest pearls (to ensure the wooer was rich) and could perform certain tasks would marry her. Many princes and merchants brought the pearls but failed the tasks, and many tried false pearls and were turned away more quickly.
A fisherman had three sons: Peter, Paul, and Jesper. One day he caught three dozen oysters, each of which had a fine pearl. It was decided that each son would have his chance to win the princess. On the way, Peter met the King of the Ants, who was battling the King of the Beetles and had been worsted; he asked for Peter's help, and Peter said he was too busy. Then he met an old woman, who asked what he was carrying; he
The Benevolent Frog or The Frog and the Lion Fairy is a French literary fairy tale, written by Madame d'Aulnoy. Andrew Lang included it in The Orange Fairy Book.
A king's capital was besieged, and he sent the queen to safety. She found it very dreary and resolved to return, despite her guards. She had a carriage made for herself, and took advantage of a distraction to escape, but the horses bolted past her power to control and she was thrown and injured.
A gigantic woman, wearing a lion skin, was there when she regained consciousness. She said she was the Fairy Lioness, and took the queen to her home, a frightful cave peopled with ravens and owls, having a lake with monsters, but with little and poor food. There, she told the queen to build herself a house. The queen pleaded with her, and the fairy said that the only way to appease her was fly pasties, which the queen could not make. The queen lamented that the king would never know what became of her. She saw a raven eating a frog and rescued the frog. The frog told her that all the creatures in the lake were once human and had been turned to these forms for their wickedness, which seldom improved them. The frog also explained
The Bold Knight, the Apples of Youth, and the Water of Life is a Russian fairy tale collected by Alexander Afanasyev in Narodnye russkie skazki.
An old king whose sight was failing heard of a garden with apples that would make a man grow young, and water that would restore his sight. His oldest son set out; he came to a pillar that said on one road, his horse would be full and he hungry, on the second, he would lose his life, and on the third, he would be full and his horse hungry. He took the third. He came to a house where a widow made him welcome and offered to let him spend the night with her daughter Dunia. He accepted, and Dunia made him fall into the cellar.
His second son set out and met the same fate. Finally the youngest son set out, over his father's reluctance. When he received the same offer from the widow, he said he must go to the bathhouse first; Dunia led him to it, and he beat her until she revealed his brothers. He freed them, but they were ashamed to go home.
He rode on and found a pretty maiden weaving. She could not direct him to the garden but sent him on to her second sister. She bade him leave his horse with her and go on a two-winged horse to their third
The Cottager and his Cat is an Icelandic fairy tale collected in Islandische Marchen. Andrew Lang included it in The Crimson Fairy Book.
A man lived with his wife and son in a wretched hovel; he was secretly rich, but so great a miser that he could not spend the money. One day, however, he spent too little on food and died. A man appeared to his son in a dream and said that his mother would die soon; half the wealth, being ill-gotten, was to be given to the poor, and he should throw the other half into the sea, and catch whatever swam by.
He was troubled by the prospect because he had thought he could now be comfortable, but in the end, he obeyed. A tiny scrap of paper floated by when he had sunk the money; it contained six shillings.
He worked in the garden for a few weeks, supporting himself and his mother on the vegetables; then his mother died. He wandered off into the woods. There he found a hut, where he stayed the night. He saw a strange creature there; they told him it was a cat; he bought it for the six shillings, so that it would be company for him.
He traveled and found another hut, where he stayed the night. Everyone was much taken with the cat. The old man there
Doll i' the Grass is a Norwegian fairy tale collected by Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe in their Norske Folkeeventyr.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 402, Animal Brides. Another tale of this type is The Frog Princess.
A king sent his twelve sons out to find brides, laying on them the condition that their brides could spin, weave, and sew a shirt in a day, and giving them each a mail coat and a horse. When they had gone a distance, they refused to let the youngest go with them, because he was useless. A little girl asked him to come see Doll i' the Grass, and he went. Doll i' the Grass asked him his troubles, and he told her but said she was so lovely, though small, he would be happy if she consented to be his wife.
She made him a shirt in a day, but it was tiny. They set out, he on his horse, she in a silver spoon drawn by two white mice, leaving him afraid he would trample her. They came to a body of water, his horse shied, and Doll i' the Grass was thrown in. He was horror-struck, but a merman brought her out again, and now she was of normal size.
His brothers had brought home ugly wives who had fought all the way home, and they wore hats with tar and soot, so that the rain
Guerrino and the Savage Man is an Italian literary fairy tale written by Giovanni Francesco Straparola in The Facetious Nights of Straparola.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 502, and the oldest known written variant of it. Other tales of this type include Iron John and Georgic and Merlin.
A king, Filippomaria, had an only son, Guerrino. One day, while hunting, the king captured a wild man. Imprisoning him, he gave the keys to the queen. He set out hunting again, and Guerrino wanted to see the wild man. The wild man stole an arrow he carried and promised to give it back if Guerrino freed him. Guerrino did so and warned him to flee; the wild man told him that he would and left. (The wild man in fact had been a handsome youth who had despaired of the love of a lady and so took to the wild.)
The queen woke and questioned everyone. Guerrino told her that no one would be punished but him, because he did it. The queen took two faithful servants, gave them money, and sent Guerrino away. The king returned and found the wild man gone. The queen told that Guerrino had done it, and then that she had sent Guerrino away, which enraged him even more, that she should think he would hold his son in less
Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm (also Karl; 4 January 1785 – 20 September 1863) was a German philologist, jurist and mythologist. He is best known as the discoverer of Grimm's Law, the author (with his brother) of the monumental Deutsches Wörterbuch, the author of Deutsche Mythologie and, more popularly, as one of the Brothers Grimm, as the editor of Grimm's Fairy Tales.
Grimm was born in Hanau, in Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel). His father, who was a lawyer, died while he was a child, and his mother was left with very small means; but her sister, who was lady of the chamber to the Landgravine of Hesse, helped to support and educate her numerous family. Jacob, with his younger brother Wilhelm (born on 24 February 1786), were sent in 1798 to the public school at Kassel.
In 1802 he proceeded to the University of Marburg, where he studied law, a profession for which he had been destined by his father. His brother joined him at Marburg a year later, having just recovered from a long and severe illness, and likewise began the study of law.
Up to this time Jacob Grimm had been actuated only by a general thirst for knowledge and his energies had not found any aim beyond the practical one of
The Adventures of Covan the Brown-haired is a Celtic fairy tale translated by Dr. Macleod Clarke. Andrew Lang included it in The Orange Fairy Book.
A goat herder and his wife had three sons and a daughter. One day, the daughter vanished while tending the kids. The kids came home, but they could not find her.
Ardan, the eldest son, declared he would set out in search of his sister. His mother reproved him for not asking his father first. But since he had made a vow, she made two cakes, a large one and a little one, and asked which one he wanted, the big one without her blessing or the little one with it. He picked the large cake. When a raven asked him for some, he refused it. Then he came to an old man in a cottage, with a young woman combing her hair of gold. The old man offered to let him watch his three cows for a year. The young woman warned against it, but he refused her advice rudely and took the service anyway.
The old man told him to follow the cows, because they knew good pasture, and to never leave them. But the first day watching the cows, he saw a golden cock and a silver hen, and let them distract him, and also a staff of gold and a staff of silver. When he brought
"The Blue Bird" is a French literary fairy tale by Madame d'Aulnoy, published in 1697. An English translation was included in The Green Fairy Book, 1892, collected by Andrew Lang.
The tale is Aarne-Thompson type 432, The Prince as Bird. Others of this type include The Feather of Finist the Falcon, The Green Knight, and The Greenish Bird.
Overwhelmed by grief, a wealthy king was unable to do anything but mourn the untimely loss of his wife. A lady came to him, telling tale that she too had lost her just husband. Together, through sharing loss and loss shared, their lamentation salved into consolation. In time they talked of other things, fell in love and cherishing one another, wed.
The king had a daughter named Florine whom he loved dearly. The queen too had a daughter from a prior marriage named Truitonne. Truitonne though, was less lovely by far than Florine. One day the king turned to the timely matter of his daughters' well-being and to matters of state and the arranging of marriages. The queen insisted that her daughter be the first to wed as she was the elder and, in her estimate, the far more charming. The king acquiesced. Soon, Prince Charming visited the kingdom. The queen
The False Prince and the True is a Portuguese fairy tale. Andrew Lang included it in The Lilac Fairy Book.
A king received word that his son, the prince, and a gentleman had argued over tennis until the other man struck the prince. The prince, though armed, had not returned the attack but only cried.
The king was displeased with the prince's cowardice, but decreed that the young man would be brought to court for having attacked the heir to the throne, for which he was likely to die. He let him go wherever he wished in the city, under guard, for the fourteen days before his case was heard.
The young man tried to get advice, but no one could advise him on how to escape, because he had struck the heir to the throne. An old woman told him she could save him if he would marry her. He rejected her offer, but on consideration, chased after her and agreed. She had him swear before a priest to marry her and then told him what to say.
In court, the young man tells the king that the queen had, while he was away, taken the son of a quarryman and passed him off as her own son. Then, after her death, the king had met a woman and married her in secret, leaving her tokens, but one day he went off
The Golden-Headed Fish is an Armenian fairy tale. Andrew Lang included it in The Olive Fairy Book.
A king was going blind. A traveller said that if a golden-headed fish, found in the Great Sea, was brought to him within a hundred days, he would prepare an ointment from its blood to save the king's sight, but he had to leave in a hundred days. The prince took men and fished for it. He finally caught it, too late to bring it back. He intended to bring it back to show his father what he had done, and decided not to, because the doctors would try to make the ointment and so kill the fish uselessly.
The king refused to believe he had tried, and ordered his execution. Servants warned the queen who gave her son common clothing and gold and sent him off to a distant island with a warning to take no man in his service who wanted to be paid every month. At the island, he bought a house and rejected many servants, who wanted to be paid by the month, and finally took on an Arab who wished to be paid every year.
On this island, a monster left half of it a wasteland, and whoever went to fight it fell asleep. The Arab asked the governor what he would give for killing it, and the governor offered
"The Hedley Kow" is a Northumbrian English fairy tale, particular to the village known as Hedley, or Hedley on the Hill. It was collected by Joseph Jacobs in More English Fairy Tales in 1894.
A poor woman finds a pot on the road. She thinks it must have a hole for it to be discarded, but optimistically decides she might find a use for it as a flowerpot. Looking inside she discovers it is full of gold pieces, and decides to drag it home in her shawl. She drags it for a while, but when she looks back, the pot has become a lump of silver. She decides this is better than gold, as it is less likely to be stolen, and goes on. After a time she turns back again, to find the silver has turned into a chunk of iron. She observes this will be easier to sell, and that the penny pieces it will bring would be safer than either gold or silver. She goes on again, and when she turns back a third time, the iron has become a rock. She exclaims how convenient this will be as a doorstop, and happily goes home.
When she reaches her home, the rock transforms again, revealing itself to be the Hedley Kow, a mischievous shapeshifting creature. The creature trots off laughing, leaving the woman staring after
The Imp Prince (known as Le Prince Lutin in French) is a French fairy tale written by Marie Catherine d'Aulnoy and published in her book Fairy Tales (Les Contes des Fees) in 1697.
The word used, Lutin, in French can have several translations and meanings, in this case and implies: A lutin was like an imp or hobgoblin in the mythology of Normandy, similar to house-spirits of Germany and Scandinavia. Notably, the story gives a description of the Lutin:
The story is about the life of Léandre, a handsome prince who was a human but turned into a lutin (imp) after the ruling prince forced his retreat from court into the countryside.
There was once a king and queen who had a malformed son named Furibon. He was as large as the largest man and small as smallest dwarf, he had an ugly face, deformed body and mean spirit, but the queen was insane and thought Furibon was the most beautiful child in the world. Furibon's governor was a rival prince, who had claims to the throne. This governor (a rival prince) brought with him his own son named prince Léandre.
Léandre was very well liked in court, the ladies loved him, thought him very handsome, and called him the "beautiful indifferent one"
"The Story of the Three Bears" (sometimes known as "The Three Bears", "Goldilocks and the Three Bears" or, simply, "Goldilocks") is a fairy tale first recorded in narrative form by British author and poet Robert Southey, and first published anonymously in a volume of his writings in 1837. The same year, British writer George Nicol published a version in rhyme based upon Southey's prose tale, with Southey approving the attempt to bring the story more exposure. Both versions tell of three bears and an old woman who trespasses upon their property.
"The Story of the Three Bears" was in circulation before the publication of Southey's 1837 version. In 1831, for example, Eleanor Mure fashioned a handmade booklet about the three bears for her nephew's birthday, and, in 1813, Southey was telling the story to friends. In 1894, "Scrapefoot", a tale with a fox as antagonist which bears striking similarities to Southey's story, was uncovered by the folklorist Joseph Jacobs and may predate Southey's version in the oral tradition. Southey possibly heard "Scrapefoot", and confused its "vixen" with a synonym for a crafty old woman. Some maintain however that the old woman was Southey's
The Bronze Ring is the first story in The Blue Fairy Book by Andrew Lang. According to Lang's preface, this version of this fairy tale from the Middle East or Central Asia was translated and adapted from Traditions Populaires de l'Asie Mineure by Carnoy et Nicolaides. (Paris:Maison-neuve, 1889.)
Unlike the great majority of the stories that follow it in Lang's work, this fairy tale is not well known.
The king despairs because his castle is surrounded by wasteland, instead of a fruitful garden. Advised that the remedy is a head gardener “whose forefathers were also gardeners”, he finds such a man. Under this gardener’s care the land does flourish, but a new problem arises.
The princess loves the gardener’s son – and will marry no one else. After she refuses her father’s choice of a husband (the prime minister’s son), he contrives a contest to settle the matter: the two men must go to a far destination and the first to return shall marry the princess. They do not go off on an equal footing. The Minister’s son is equipped with a fine horse and gold, while the gardener’s son is given a lame horse and copper.
Traveling swiftly, the minister’s son encounters a woman in rags. Weak and
The Four Skillful Brothers is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm, tale number 129. It is Aarne-Thompson type 653.
A poor old father sent his sons out to learn trades. Each one met a man and was persuaded to learn the trade of the man whom he had met. In this manner, the oldest son became a thief, the second an astronomer, the third a huntsman, the fourth a tailor. When they returned, their father put them to the test. He asked his second son how many eggs there were in a nest, high on the tree, and the second used his telescope to tell him five. Then the eldest went up and stole them without the bird's being aware; the third shot all of them with one shot; the fourth sewed both the chicks and the eggs back up, so that when the eldest put them back without the mother bird's noticing, they hatched, the only sign being some red thread about their necks.
Not long after, the king's daughter was stolen by a dragon. The brothers set out to rescue her. The astronomer used his telescope to find her and asked for a ship to reach where she was being held captive. The huntsman did not dare shoot the dragon for fear of killing her as well. The thief, however, stole her, and
Donkey Cabbages or The Donkey Cabbage is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm, tale number 122. Andrew Lang included it in The Yellow Fairy Book.
Ruth Manning-Sanders included it, as "The Donkey Lettuce", in A Book of Witches. In 1988, the story was also animated by Japan's Nippon Animation studio for its Grimm's Fairy Tale Classics series; the title of the episode in the English version produced by Saban Entertainment is The Magic Heart.
A huntsman gave an old woman alms. She told him to go to a tree where nine birds fought for a cloak; if he shot among them, one would die and they would drop the cloak, which was a wishing cloak. Furthermore, if he swallowed the heart of the dead bird, he would find a gold coin by his pillow every morning.
He went out into the world and came to a castle where an old witch lived with her beautiful daughter. The witch knew about the bird's heart and told her daughter what she must do to steal it. She gave the man a drink, and the bird's heart came up. The daughter swallowed it herself. Then the witch told her that she had to steal the wishing cloak as well, and how to do it. The daughter looked at the Garnet Mountain and told the
Samuil Yakovlevich Marshak (Russian: Самуи́л Я́ковлевич Марша́к; November 3 [O.S. October 22] 1887 – June 4, 1964) was a Russian and Soviet writer, translator and children's poet. Among his Russian translations are William Shakespeare's sonnets, poems by William Blake and Robert Burns, and Rudyard Kipling's stories. Maxim Gorky proclaimed Marshak to be "the founder of Russia's (Soviet) children's literature."
Marshak was born on November 3, 1887 in Voronezh. His father was a foreman at a soap-making plant. He got a good home education and later studied at the gymnasium (secondary school) of Ostrogozhsk, a suburb of Voronezh. Samuil started to write poetry during his childhood years in Voronezh. His brother Ilya (who wrote under the pseudonym M. Ilin) (1896—1953) and sister Liya (who wrote as Elena Ilina) (1901—1964) both became Soviet authors as well.
In 1902, the Marshak family moved to Saint Petersburg. There was a complication: as a Jew, Marshak could not legally live outside the Pale of Settlement, thus he could not attend school while living in the city. Philanthropist and scholar Baron David Gunzburg took an interest in [Marshak] and introduced him to the influential critic,
Killing The Goose That Laid the Golden Eggs is among the best known of Aesop's Fables (Perry 87) and use of the phrase has become idiomatic of an unprofitable action motivated by greed.
Avianus and Caxton tell different stories of a goose that lays a golden egg, where other versions have a hen, as in Townsend: "A cottager and his wife had a Hen that laid a golden egg every day. They supposed that the Hen must contain a great lump of gold in its inside, and in order to get the gold they killed it. Having done so, they found to their surprise that the Hen differed in no respect from their other hens. The foolish pair, thus hoping to become rich all at once, deprived themselves of the gain of which they were assured day by day."
In early tellings, there is sometimes a commentary warning against greed rather than a pithy moral. This is so in Jean de La Fontaine's fable of La Poule aux oeufs d'or (Fables V.13), which begins with the sentiment that 'Greed loses all by striving all to gain' and comments at the end that the story can be applied to those who become poor by trying to outreach themselves. It is only later that the morals most often quoted today began to appear. These are
Hans My Hedgehog, or Hans the Hedgehog, is a Brothers Grimm fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm. Since the second edition published in 1819, it has been recorded as Tale no. 108.
A wealthy but childless merchant wishes he had a child, even a hedgehog, and comes home to find that his wife has given birth to a baby boy that is a hedgehog from the waist up.
After eight years, the merchant goes to a fair and asks everyone in the household what they want. Hans My Hedgehog asks for bagpipes, and when he receives them, asks his father to have the cock shod so he can ride off to seek his fortune.
When he gets them, he goes off into the woods and watches over his donkeys and pigs. A king, lost in the woods, hears him playing the bagpipes, and Hans My Hedgehog promises to show him the way home in return for whatever first meets him when he returns. The king promises, but, realizing that Hans My Hedgehog cannot read, writes down instead that Hans My Hedgehog should receive nothing, which he is glad of when he returns and it is his daughter; she is glad of it, too. A second king is also lost, and he does write down the promise, and his daughter, on hearing of it, gives her promise that
The Middle East (Arabic الشرق الأوسط Persian خاورمیانه Turkish Orta Doğu or Mideast) is a region that encompasses Western Asia and all of or part of North Africa, depending on the context. The term is considered to be Eurocentric and used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East. The corresponding adjective is Middle-Eastern and the derived noun is Middle-Easterner. The largest ethnic group in the middle east are Arabs.
The history of the Middle East dates back to ancient times, and throughout its history, the Middle East has been a major centre of world affairs. When discussing ancient history, however, the term Near East is more commonly used. The Middle East is also the historical origin of major religions such as Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The Middle East generally has an arid and hot climate, with several major rivers providing for irrigation to support agriculture in limited areas. Many countries located around the Persian Gulf have large quantities of crude oil which has resulted in much wealth particularly for nations in the Arabian peninsula. In modern times the Middle East remains a strategically, economically, politically, culturally and religiously
The Cunning Shoemaker is an Italian fairy tale collected by Laura Gonzenbach in Sicilianische Mahrchen. Andrew Lang included it in The Pink Fairy Book.
A shoemaker left his home and went to another town to make money. He earned enough to buy a donkey and headed home, but on the way, he saw robbers. He tried to hide his money in the donkey's mane so that it would not be stolen. When the donkey shook its head and let the money drop, the shoemaker claimed that the donkey could produce money from nowhere. The thieves bought the donkey for fifty gold pieces, and the shoemaker told them that they must each keep it one night apiece, to avoid quarrels over the money. One by one, the robbers learned they had been tricked but said nothing, so the others would be fooled, too. Finally, they all spoke to each other and decided to get revenge on the shoemaker.
The shoemaker saw them coming and had his wife put a bladder of blood around her neck. When the thieves arrived, he told them he would give them the money and told his wife to get it. When she lagged, he stabbed the bladder, and she fell down as if dead. Then he played the guitar and she got up, and the robbers bought the guitar for forty
The Horse Gullfaxi and the Sword Gunnfoder is an Icelandic fairy tale from Islandische Märchen. Andrew Lang included it in The Crimson Fairy Book.
Ruth Manning-Sanders included it, as "Sigurd the King's Son", in A Book of Ogres and Trolls.
A king and queen had a son, Sigurd. One day, when Sigurd was ten, the queen died.
In Lang's variant, the king lamented her long, and one day met at her grave a woman, Ingiborg. Ingiborg told him she had lost her husband and in time, the king married her.
In Manning-Sanders's, the king met a woman in the wood who warned him that she was a troll's daughter; nevertheless, he had fallen in love at sight and insisted on marrying her.
One day, the king went hunting, and Ingiborg told Sigurd to go with him. Sigurd refused. A giantess came; Ingiborg hid Sigurd, and denied he was there. Twice more, Sigurd refused, and Ingiborg hid him, but the third time, the giantess cursed him to be half scorched and half withered and have no rest until he found her. Ingiborg took Sigurd from his hiding place, told him this showed what his stubbornness meant, but gave him a string and three rings. If he threw down the string, it would lead him to a giantess, and though
A Christmas Carol is a novella by English author Charles Dickens, first published by Chapman & Hall on 19 December 1843. The story tells of sour and stingy Ebenezer Scrooge's ideological, ethical, and emotional transformation after the supernatural visits of Jacob Marley and the Ghosts of Christmas Past, Present, and Yet to Come. The novella met with instant success and critical acclaim.
The book was written and published in early Victorian era Britain when it was experiencing a nostalgic interest in its forgotten Christmas traditions, and at the time when new customs such as the Christmas tree and greeting cards were being introduced. Dickens' sources for the tale appear to be many and varied but are principally the humiliating experiences of his childhood, his sympathy for the poor, and various Christmas stories and fairy tales.
The tale has been viewed by critics as an indictment of 19th-century industrial capitalism. It has been credited with restoring the holiday to one of merriment and festivity in Britain and America after a period of sobriety and sombreness. A Christmas Carol remains popular, has never been out of print, and has been adapted to film, stage, opera, and other
Boots and the Troll is a Norwegian fairy tale collected by Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe in Norwegian Folktales.
An old man died. His three sons set out to seek their fortune. The two older would have nothing to do with the youngest son, whom they said was fit for nothing but to sit and poke about in ashes. The youngest brought a kneading-trough, the only thing their parents had left behind, which his brothers had not bothered with. His brothers got places under the coachman and gardener at the royal castle, and he got one in the kitchen.
He did so much better than they did that they became envious and told the coachman that he had said he could get for the king seven silver ducks that belonged to a troll, and which the king had long desired. The coachman told the king. When the king insisted that he do it, he demanded wheat and rye, rowed over the lake, in the kneading trough, to the troll's place, and lured the ducks into the trough using the grain.
Then his brothers told the coachman he had said he could steal the troll's bed-quilt, and the coachman again told the king. He demanded three days, and when he saw the bed-quilt being hung out to air, he stole it. This
The Golden Goose (German: Die goldene Gans) is a fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm (Tale 64).
The hero is the youngest of three brothers, given the nickname Simpleton. His eldest brother is sent into the forest to chop wood, fortified with a rich cake and a bottle of wine. He meets a little gray man who begs a morsel to eat and a swallow of ale but is rebuffed. The eldest brother meets an accident and is taken home. The second brother meets a similar fate. Simpleton, sent out with a biscuit cooked in the ashes of the hearth and soured beer, is generous with the little old man and is rewarded with a golden goose. The goose has been discovered within the roots of the tree chosen by the little gray man and felled by Simpleton.
With the goose under his arm, Simpleton heads for an inn, where, as soon as his back is turned, the innkeeper's daughter attempts to pluck just one of the feathers of pure gold, and is stuck fast. Her sister, coming to help her, is stuck fast too. And the youngest, determined not to be left out of the riches, is stuck to the second. Simpleton makes his way to the castle, and each person who attempts to interfere is joined to the unwilling parade ranging
How the Hermit helped to win the King's Daughter is an Italian fairy tale, collected by Laura Gonzenbach in Sicilianische Märchen. Andrew Lang included it in The Pink Fairy Book.
A rich man divided his property among his three sons when he died.
The king offered his daughter to whoever built a ship that traveled over both land and sea. The oldest son tried, and when old men came to beg for work, sent them all away. He spent all his money on it, and a squall destroyed it. The second son tried after him, but ended up the same.
The youngest thought to try as well, because he was not rich enough to support all three of them. He hired everyone, included a little old man with a white beard whom his brothers had rejected but whom he appointed as overseer. This old man was a holy hermit. When the ship was done, he told the youngest son to lay claim to the princess. The youngest son asked him to stay with him, and the hermit asked him for half of everything he got. The son agreed.
As they traveled, they came across a man putting fog in a sack, and at the hermit's suggestion, the son asked him to come with them, and so with a man tearing up trees, a man drinking a stream dry, a man shooting
The Death of Koschei the Deathless or Marya Morevna is a Russian fairy tale collected by Alexander Afanasyev in Narodnye russkie skazki and included by Andrew Lang in The Red Fairy Book. The character Koschei is an evil, immortal man who menaces young women with his magic.
After his parents die and sisters get married, Ivan Tsarevitch leaves his home. He meets Marya Morevna, the beautiful warrior princess, and gets married to her. After a while she announces she is going to go to war and tells Ivan not to open the door of the dungeon in the castle they live in while she will be away. Overcome by the desire to know what the dungeon holds, he opens the door soon after her departure and finds Koschei, chained and emaciated. Koschei asks Ivan to bring him some water; Ivan does so. After Koschei drinks twelve buckets of water, his magic powers return to him, he tears his chains and disappears. Soon after Ivan finds out that Koschei took Marya Morevna away, and chases him. When he gets him for the first time, Koschei tells Ivan he lets him go, but Ivan doesn't give in, and Koschei kills him, puts his remains into a barrel and throws it into the sea. Ivan is revived by his sisters'
"The Goblin and the Grocer" (Danish: Nissen hos Spekhøkeren) is a fairy tale by Danish poet and author Hans Christian Andersen about a goblin who must choose between poetry or a Christmas treat from a grocer. The tale was first published November 30, 1852, and republished several times during the author's lifetime. Andrew Lang included it in The Pink Fairy Book (1897). The title is sometimes mistakenly translated into English as "The Goblin and the Huckster".
Once, a student lived in an attic while a grocer lived on the first floor. Because the grocer gave him a lump of jam and butter at Christmas, the goblin belonged to the grocer. One day, the student came to buy cheese and candles; then he realized that his cheese was wrapped in a page from a poetry book, so he bought the book instead of the cheese, and spoke rudely of the grocer's ability to understand poetry. The goblin, offended, used magic to make everything in the room speak and they all agreed that poetry was useless. The goblin went to tell the student, but he saw a light and a marvelous tree in the room. He kept going back, but could not give up the jam. One day there was a fire. The goblin ran to save the poetry book
Aesop (pronounced /ˈiːsɒp/ EE-sop, Ancient Greek: Αἴσωπος, Aisōpos, c. 620–564 BC) was a fabulist or story teller credited with a number of fables now collectively known as Aesop's Fables. Although his existence remains uncertain and (if they ever existed) no writings by him survive, numerous tales credited to him were gathered across the centuries and in many languages in a storytelling tradition that continues to this day. In many of the tales, animals speak and have human characteristics.
Scattered details of Aesop's life can be found in ancient sources, including Aristotle, Herodotus, and Plutarch. An ancient literary work called The Aesop Romance tells an episodic, probably highly fictional version of his life, including the traditional description of him as a strikingly ugly slave (δοῦλος) who by his cleverness acquires freedom and becomes an adviser to kings and city-states. Older spellings of his name have included Esop(e) and Isope. A later tradition (dating from the Middle Ages) depicts Aesop as a black Ethiopian. Depictions of Aesop in popular culture over the last 2500 years have included several works of art and his appearance as a character in numerous books, films,
Clever Maria is a Portuguese fairy tale. Andrew Lang included it in The Crimson Fairy Book.
A merchant had three daughters, and the youngest, Maria, was the most beautiful. The king gave each daughter a pot of basil and forbade them to receive visitors. One day, the king came with two friends. Maria said she and her sisters would get wine from the cellar. The king said they were not thirsty. The sisters said they would not go. Maria said she would go just the same. Then she ran to a neighbour's and stayed there the night. The king was angry, but her basil did not wither, as her sisters' did.
The daughters looked over at the king's garden, and the oldest daughter asked Maria to climb down a rope and steal some fruit for her. A gardener caught her, but she escaped. The next day, the second daughter asked her to steal a fruit basket for her, but this time the king caught her. He questioned her, she denied nothing, and he told her to follow him to the house. Though he turned to make sure she followed him, she managed to escape. He fell ill.
Meanwhile, her two sisters had married the king's friends and had babies. Maria took the babies to show the king. Maria went about, calling for
Ferdinand the Faithful and Ferdinand the Unfaithful is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm, tale number 126.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 531. Other tales of this type include The Firebird and Princess Vasilisa, Corvetto, King Fortunatus's Golden Wig, and The Mermaid and the Boy. Another, literary variant is Madame d'Aulnoy's La Belle aux cheveux d'or, or The Story of Pretty Goldilocks.
A couple had no children while they were rich, but when they became poor, they had a son, and the father could find no one for a godfather except a beggar. The beggar named the boy Ferdinand the Faithful, gave him nothing, and took nothing, but he gave the nurse a key and said that when the boy was fourteen, he should go to a castle on the heath and unlock it. Then all it contained would be his.
When the boy was seven, all the other boys boasted of what their godfathers had given them. Ferdinand went to his father for his gift and heard of the key, but there was no castle on the heath. When he was fourteen, he went again, and found a castle. Inside there was nothing but a white horse, but he took the horse home and decided to travel. He saw a pen on the road, passed it, but heard a
The Bee and the Orange Tree is a French literary fairy tale by Madame d'Aulnoy.
After many childless years, a king and queen had a daughter, whom they named Aimée. Unfortunately, a ship she was on, wrecked. As fate would have it, she drifted ashore in her cradle. There, an ogre couple found her, and the ogress resolved to raise Aimee, instead of eating her, resolving that the infant would make a good wife for her son when she grew up. The ogress summoned a hind from the woods to nurse the baby. After fifteen years, the king and queen gave up hope of locating the princess and the king told his brother to send his best son to be the heir to the throne. The brother chose his second son.
Meanwhile Aimee grew up among the ogres. A little ogre had fallen in love with her, but the thought of marrying him revolted her. She regularly walked along the shore after storms, to protect things swept ashore from the ogres, and one day she found a man. She saved the man, who happened to be her cousin, although neither of them knew the truth or could speak each other's language. She managed to make him understand that he had to hide in a cave. After some time hiding and feeding him, she wished to
Dapplegrim is a Norwegian fairy tale collected by Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe in their Norske Folkeeventyr. Andrew Lang included it in The Red Fairy Book.
The youngest of twelve sons goes off to serve the king for a year. The king's daughter had been carried off by trolls, but no one can discover anything about where she is, although the king has offered half the kingdom and the princess's hand in marriage to anyone who can bring her back.
When he returns home, his parents had died, and his brothers had already split up the entire estate except twelve mares, and they give them to him as his portion. When he goes to see them, they each have a foal, and there is, in addition, a dapple-gray colt. It persuades him to kill all the foals so that it can suckle from all twelve mares all year. The effects are so amazing that the colt persuades him to do it two more years. At the end of the third year, the youth trades with his brothers, the twelve mares and their new foals for equipment for his horse, Dapplegrim, and the youth rides off to rejoin the king's household.
The rest of the king's men grow envious of him, and tell the king he had said he could rescue the king's
Father Roquelaure is a French fairy tale collected by Achille Millien.
It is a type 516 tale in the Aarne-Thompson classification system. Others of this type are Trusty John and The Raven.
A widowed queen urges her son, Emilien, to marry, but he does not. She dies. One day, he sees a portrait of the Princess Emilienne and falls in love. The portrait painter tells him that the princess is kept confined in a tower by a fairy. Emilien confides in a trusted servant, Jean, and after Jean makes secret preparations, they set out to find the princess. They take turns keeping watch at night.
While the prince sleeps, Jean hears voices talking. One is of Father Roquelaure, who tells how Prince Emilien's task of finding the princess will be hard. He will have to rub the wheels with moss to cross a river with no bridge, which will create a bridge; he will have to offer the fairy a distaff with diamonds and then give her a sleeping potion; when he takes the princess, his horses will refuse to go on, and he will have to refuse offers from coachmen with horses and carriages and instead dash them to pieces; when the princess becomes thirsty and vendors offer to sell her drinks, the drinks will be
Costanza / Costanzo is an Italian literary fairy tale written by Giovanni Francesco Straparola in The Facetious Nights of Straparola.
A king married to have heirs, and his wife bore three daughters. In time, he realized that his wife had come to an age where she would have no more children, and his three daughters were ready for marriage. He married them off and split his kingdom between them, keeping only enough land to support his court. A few years later, the queen gave birth to a fourth daughter, Costanza. Costanza was raised well and became a gracious, educated and accomplished princess. When she was old enough to marry, they proposed that she marry the son of a Marquis, because her dowry would not be enough for a match equal to her birth. Costanza refused to marry below her station, dressed as a man, and left, calling herself Costanzo. She entered a king's service, where the queen desired her as a lover, but Costanza rejected her. The king had long wished to have as a captive one of the satyrs that did great damage in his land; the queen suggested to him that so good a servant as Costanza could catch one. The king proposed it to Costanza, who agreed to please him. She asked
The Goose Girl is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm. Since the second edition published in 1819, The Goose Girl has been recorded as Tale no. 89.
It was first published in 1815 as no. 3 in vol. 2 of the first edition of their Kinder- und Hausmärchen (Children's and Household Tales—Grimms' Fairy Tales). It was translated into English by Margaret Hunt in 1884. Andrew Lang included it in The Blue Fairy Book.
A queen sends her daughter - who is betrothed to a prince in a far-off land - to her bridegroom. She sends her with a trousseau, a waiting-maid, and a horse for each of them; the princess's horse is named Falada and has the ability to speak. The queen takes a small knife and cuts herself, putting three drops of her blood onto a white handkerchief and bids her daughter to keep it with her, as it will aid her on her journey.
The princess and her waiting-maid travel for a time, then the princess grows thirsty. She asks the maid to go and fetch her some water, but the girl refuses, so the princess goes and drinks water from the stream from her goblet. The princess sighs and the drops of blood - hidden in the princess's bodice - reply, "If your mother only knew, her
The Heart of a Monkey is a Swahili fairy tale collected by Edward Steere in Swahili Tales. Andrew Lang included it in The Lilac Fairy Book. It is Aarne-Thompson 91.
A monkey and a crocodile struck up a friendship. After a time, the crocodile said if the monkey would only come home with him, he would give him a gift, and offered to carry him. The monkey accepted, but half way there, the crocodile told him that the sultan of his country was deathly ill and needed a monkey's heart to cure him. The monkey said it was a pity, because if he had known, he could have brought his heart, but as it was, he had left it behind. The crocodile, deceived, brought him back to get it. The monkey instantly jumped up into the tree and was not to be lured back down. He told the crocodile a story of a washerman's donkey, which was twice persuaded to meet with a lion, and so lost its life the second time — and that the monkey was not a washerman's donkey.
J. R. R. Tolkien in his On Fairy-Stories cites this tale as an example of not a true fairy tale, because while the detached heart is a common fairy-tale motif, it appears in it only as a ploy.
Anthousa, Xanthousa, Chrisomalousa or Anthousa the Fair with Golden Hair is a Greek fairy tale collected by Georgios A. Megas in Folktales of Greece. Other variants were collected by Michalis Meraklis and Anna Angelopoulou.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 310, the Maiden in the Tower. Other fairy tales of this type include The Canary Prince, Petrosinella, Prunella, and Rapunzel. The Greek variant was first recorded in 1890 in eastern Thrace. Unlike most such tales, it does not open with the scene in the garden where the baby is traded to the ogress. The ogress' chase particularly resembles that of Petrosinella. This chase, in fact, is another folktale type, Aarne-Thompson type 313, The Girl Helps the Hero Flee; others of this type include The Water Nixie, Foundling-Bird, Nix Nought Nothing, and The Master Maid. In these tales, the girl is the daughter of the evil from which the hero flees, and some folklorists have interpreted it mean that in the Rapunzel tale, the heroine's being the adopted daughter of the ogress or witch is an adaption of an original where she is the daughter.
An old woman tried for many years to make lentil soup, but every time she was out of one ingredient or
Georgic and Merlin is a French fairy tale collected by François Cadic in "La Paroisse bretonne".
It is Aarne-Thompson type 502. The oldest known tale of this type is Guerrino and the Savage Man. Another variant is Iron John.
In the woods near a rich lord's castle, a mysterious bird sang. Fascinated, the lord had it captured. It ceased to sing, but he threatened with death anyone who freed it. One day, it pleaded with his son Georgic, who freed it; it told him to call on it, Merlin, in need and then flew off. His mother feared that her husband would kill Georgic. A salt-vendor offered to take him away, and his mother gave him money to do it. He took the money and at the next castle, offered the boy as a shepherd, despite the warnings of wolves that threatened. When the salt-vendor went to leave him, Georgic demanded the money and when it was refused, he called on the bird; it appeared, and a club wielded by an invisible hand struck the man until he gave the money. Then he called on the bird to give him a whistle to summon the wolves and muzzles to keep them from biting, and so he kept the sheep safe.
In the same region, there was a dragon with seven heads that had to receive a
Half-Man is a French fairy tale collected by Achille Millien and Paul Delarue.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 675, a type of tale found throughout Europe. Another variant is Peruonto.
A farmer and his wife had three sons, but the youngest was only half a man: one arm, one leg, etc. One day, the mother sent the sons for wood. The older two got ahead of Half-Man and came to a river. An old woman asked for help across, but they said they did not have time. Half-Man came and helped her. She gave him a magic wand. He used it to get wood, and then to turn himself into a bourgeois. He went to speak to his father, who told him that he was poor, and that one of his sons was only half a man but he liked him better than the others. Half-Man took back his normal form and filled the pantry with things to eat.
He went for a walk and saw the king's daughter. He used the wand to make her magically pregnant with a son who would walk and talk at birth and say that Half-Man was his father. She gave birth nine months later, and the boy said he could recognize his father. The king made all the men pass before the boy, who recognized Half-Man. Angry, the king sent all three of the sons away. As soon as they
How the Devil Married Three Sisters is an Italian fairy tale collected by Thomas Frederick Crane in Italian Popular Tales.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 311, the heroine rescues herself and her sisters. Another tale of this type is Fitcher's Bird.
Italo Calvino included a variant Silver Nose in his Italian Folktales, a Piedmont version that was the only one to include the silver nose, but added elements from variants from Bologna and Venice.
Once, the devil decided to marry. He prepared a house, disguised himself as a fine gentleman, and wooed in a family with three daughters.The oldest agreed to marry him. When he took her home, he forbade her to look in a door, but as soon as he left, she did so, and hellfire in the door singed the flowers she wore. She could not hide what had happened, so the devil said her curiosity would be satisfied, and threw her into hell. A few months later, he wooed the second daughter, but the same fate befell her as her sister.
When he came to woo the youngest daughter she thought he had murdered her sisters, but the match was so good, she would try to do better. She put her flowers in water before she opened the door, and realized that she was married to
"Rapunzel" (/rəˈpʌnzəl/; German pronunciation: [ʁaˈpʊnt͡səl]) is a German fairy tale in the collection assembled by the Brothers Grimm, and first published in 1812 as part of Children's and Household Tales. The Grimm Brothers' story is an adaptation of the fairy tale Persinette by Charlotte-Rose de Caumont de La Force originally published in 1698. Its plot has been used and parodied in various media and its best known line ("Rapunzel, Rapunzel, let down your golden hair") is an idiom of popular culture.
In the Aarne–Thompson classification system for folktales it is type 310, "The Maiden in The Tower".
Andrew Lang included it in The Red Fairy Book. Other versions of the tale also appear in A Book of Witches by Ruth Manning-Sanders and in Paul O. Zelinsky's 1998 Caldecott Medal-winning picture book, Rapunzel and the Disney movie Tangled.
Rapunzel's story has striking similarities to the 10th century AD Persian tale of Rudāba, included in the epic poem Shahnameh by Ferdowsi. Rudāba offers to let down her hair from her tower so that her lover Zāl can climb up to her. Some elements of the fairy tale might also have originally been based upon the tale of Saint Barbara, who was said to
The Enchanted Snake or The Snake is an Italian fairy tale. Giambattista Basile wrote a variant in the Pentamerone. Andrew Lang drew upon this variant, for inclusion in The Green Fairy Book.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 425A, the search for the lost husband. Others of this type include The Black Bull of Norroway, The Brown Bear of Norway, The Daughter of the Skies, The King of Love, The Enchanted Pig, The Tale of the Hoodie, Master Semolina, The Sprig of Rosemary, East of the Sun and West of the Moon, and White-Bear-King-Valemon.
A poor woman longed for a child. One day, she saw a little snake and said that even snakes had children; the little snake offered to be hers. The woman and her husband raised the snake. When it was grown, it wanted to marry, and not to another snake but to the king's daughter. The father went to ask, and the king said that the snake should have her if he could turn all the fruit in the orchard into gold. The snake told his father to gather up all the pits he could find and sow them in the orchard; when they sprang up, all the fruits were gold.
The king then demanded that the walls and paths of his palace be turned to precious stones; the snake had his father
The Goat Girl is a Greek fairy tale known in many variants, collected by Anna Angelopoulou, Johann Gottfried von Hahn, and Georgios Ioannou. It bears many similarities to the French Donkeyskin.
A couple had no children; the wife prayed for any child, no matter what. One day, she gave birth to a baby goat. She grew up as playful as any child. Her mother wished that her father could have a jug of water, and the goat said she could carry it, if her mother tied it to her horns. She carried it to her father, and when she was coming back, she took off her skin in the woods to clean it. A prince saw her and fell in love. Though his parents and her parents were opposed, he grew sick with his love, and the queen insisted on the match, so her parents gave the goat to the queen, and the prince grew well again.
The prince and his parents went to a wedding. The goat girl changed into a golden gown and went to the wedding herself; after the dancing, she threw a golden apple among the guests to confuse them and fled, and the king and queen admired her beauty. On the second day, the same thing happened. On the third day, the prince ordered an oven heated in the bakery and told his parents he would
The Grateful Beasts is a Hungarian fairy tale collected by Hermann Kletke. Andrew Lang included it in The Yellow Fairy Book.
Three sons set out to seek their fortune. The youngest, Ferko, was so beautiful that his older brothers thought he would be preferred, so they ate his bread while he slept, and refused to share theirs until he let them put out his eyes and break his legs. When they had blinded and crippled him, they left him.
Ferko crawled on and, in the heat of the day, rested under what he thought was a tree, but was a gallows. Two crows talked together, and one told the other that the lake below them would heal any injury, and the dew on the hillside would restore eyesight. As soon as evening came, he washed his face in the dew, and crawled down to the lake and was whole again. He took a flask of the water and went on. On the way, he met and healed an injured wolf, mouse, and queen bee.
Ferko found a kingdom and sought service with the king. His two brothers worked for the same king and were afraid he would reveal their wickedness. They accused him of being a wicked magician who had come to kidnap the king's daughter. The king summoned Ferko, told him the accusation, and
Bawang Putih Bawang Merah is one of the more famous of old Malay archipelago folktales, passed down orally through the generations. Like most Malay folktales, the story is laden with lessons regarding familial values, patience in the face of adversity, and that ultimately good will be rewarded and the evil will be punished.
The story centers on a pair of half-sisters named Bawang Putih and Bawang Merah. Bawang Putih is the Malay name for garlic, while Bawang Merah is the Malay name for onion or shallot. This naming convention is in the same vein as the Western fairy tale sisters Snow White and Rose Red although the previous do not get along as well. The use of these names for the female protagonist and her antagonist is symbolic of their physical similarity (both girls are beautiful) but have completely different personalities. Since the original folktale was passed on orally, different variations of the story exist. In some versions, Bawang Putih is the good and kind daughter, while Bawang Merah is the cruel and vindictive one. While in the original 1959 black and white Malay movie, it is the other way around, the shallot being waterly bringing tears to the eyes and garlic being
Brewery of Eggshells is a Welsh fairy tale collected by Joseph Jacobs in his Celtic Fairy Tales.
A woman had to leave her twin babies alone for a time. When she returned, she saw two elves in blue petticoats cross her path. The babies looked the same, but would not grow. She and her husband argued about whether the children were theirs. A wise man told her to make pottage in an eggshell, as if she intended to feed the entire troop of harvesters with it. When she did, the children exclaimed on it as something they had never seen, though they were older than acorns grown into oaks. She threw them into the water, which made their own parents take them back and give back the twins.
"Hansel and Gretel" ( /ˈhænsəl/ or /ˈhɑːnsəl/, and /ˈɡrɛtəl/; German: Hänsel und Gretel, diminutives of Johannes and Margaret) is a well-known fairy tale of German origin, recorded by the Brothers Grimm and published in 1812. Hansel and Gretel are a young brother and sister threatened by a cannibalistic witch living deep in the forest in a house constructed of cake and confectionery. The two children save their lives by outwitting her. The tale has been adapted to various media, most notably the opera Hänsel und Gretel (1893) by Engelbert Humperdinck and a stop-motion animated feature film made in the 1950s based on the opera. Under the Aarne–Thompson classification system, "Hansel and Gretel" is classified under Class 327.
(The following summary is based on an 1853 anonymous translation by Iona and Peter Opie in 1972.)
Hansel and Gretel are the young children of a poor woodcutter. When a great famine settles over the land, the woodcutter's second, abusive wife decides to take the children into the woods and leave them there to fend for themselves, so that she and her husband do not starve to death. The woodcutter opposes the plan but finally, and reluctantly, submits to his wife's
The Boys with the Golden Stars ("Doi Feti cu Stea in Frunte") is a Romanian fairy tale collected in Rumanische Märchen. Andrew Lang included it in The Violet Fairy Book.
A herdsman had three daughters, and the youngest was the most beautiful. One day, the emperor rode by with attendants. The oldest said that if one married her, she would bake him a loaf of bread that would make him young and brave forever; the second, if one married her, she would make him a shirt that would protect him from any fight, even with a dragon, and against heat and water; the youngest, that she would bear twin sons with stars on their foreheads. The emperor married the youngest, and two of his friends the other two.
The emperor's stepmother had wanted him to marry her daughter and so hated his new wife. She got her brother to declare war on him, to get him away from her, and when the empress gave birth in his absence, took away the twins and killed them, then buried them in the corner of the garden and put puppies in their place. The emperor had to punish his wife to show what happened to those who deceived the emperor.
Two aspens grew from the grave, putting on years' growth in hours. The stepmother
The Flower Queen's Daughter is a Bukovinan fairy tale collected by Dr Heinrich von Wlislocki in Märchen Und Sagen Der Bukowinaer Und Siebenbûrger Armenier. Andrew Lang included it in The Yellow Fairy Book.
A prince helped an old woman who was caught in a ditch. She told him that the most beautiful woman in the world was the daughter of the Flower Queen, who had been kidnapped by dragons. He could save her and marry her. To help, she gave him a bell: to ring it once would bring the King of the Eagles; twice, the King of the Foxes; and thrice, King of the Fishes.
He told his father he meant to rescue the daughter and set out. After a year, he met a very old man, who did not know where the dragon was, but if he traveled a year, the prince might meet his father who might know. At the end, the father could not tell him, but directed him on to his father. That man told him that the dragon had just gone to sleep -- it slept one year and woke the next -- but the princess was held by his mother in the next mountain, and the Mother Dragon held a ball every night, at which the daughter would be.
He entered the Mother Dragon's service, saying that he had heard of her beauty and goodness. She
The Golden Key is a fairy tale written by George MacDonald. It was published in Dealings with the Fairies (1867).
It is particularly noted for the intensity of the suggestive imagery, which implies a spiritual meaning to the story without providing a transparent allegory for the events in it.
A woman tells her great-nephew of a golden key found at the end of a rainbow. One day, he sees a rainbow and sets out to find the end. The sun sets, but as the forest is in Fairyland, the rainbow only glows the brighter, and he finds the key, and it dawns on him that he does not know where the lock is.
Also on the borders of this forest, a merchant's daughter is being cared for by servants, who are such poor housekeepers that they disgust the local fairies, who resolve to get them sent away by frightening off the child. Their first attempts, by animating the furniture in her room, make her laugh, but as she has been reading Silverhair, when they make her think three bears are coming into her bedroom, she flees into the woods.
A tree traps her there, but an air fish frees her and leads her to a lady. A pot is boiling there, and the air fish flies into it. The lady asks her name; the girl says
The Elf Maiden is a Lapp fairy tale, collected by J. C. Poestion in Lapplandische Märchen. Andrew Lang included it in The Brown Fairy Book.
Two men fell in love with the same maiden. One day, on a fishing expedition, one of them noticed she favored the other. He tricked him into staying behind on the island.
The stranded man survived there until Christmas, when he saw a company coming. It included two young women who were better dressed than the others. They saw him sitting by a bundle of sticks, and one of them, to find out what he was made of, pinched him. Her fingers caught a pin, and it drew blood. The rest of the company fled, leaving behind the maiden and a ring of keys. She told him that he had drawn her blood and must marry her. He objected that they could not survive on this island, and she promised to provide. He married her, and she did provide, though he never saw how.
When his people were going to return to fish, they went to the other side of the island. His wife told him not to stir during the night, whatever he heard. A great clatter, like carpentry, arose, and he nearly jumped up before he remembered. But in the morning, a fine house had been built for them. She
Aurore and Aimée is a French literary fairy tale written by Jeanne-Marie Le Prince de Beaumont. Like her better known tale Beauty and the Beast, it is among the first fairy tales deliberately written for children.
It draws on traditional fairy tale motifs from the Aarne-Thompson tale type 480, the kind and the unkind girls; as is common in those tales, the abused daughter finds herself in a new place, where, after a test, a kindly woman rewards her. Folk tales of this type include Diamonds and Toads, Shita-kiri Suzume, Mother Hulda, The Three Heads in the Well, Father Frost, The Three Little Men in the Wood, The Enchanted Wreath, The Old Witch, and The Two Caskets. Another literary variant is The Three Fairies.
A lady had two daughters. Both were beautiful; Aurore, the older, had a good character, but Aimée, the younger, was malevolent. When Aurore was sixteen and Aimée was twelve, the lady began to lose her looks. She moved to another city, sent Aurore to the country, and claimed that Aimée was only ten and that she had been fifteen when she had given birth to her. Fearing that someone would discover the deception, she sent Aurore to another country, but the person she sent with
"Riquet with the Tuft" (French: Riquet à la Houppe), also known as "Ricky of the Tuft", is a French literary fairy tale was first published by Charles Perrault in Histoires ou contes du temps passé in 1697.
In the version by Charles Perrault, a fairy gives an ugly prince named Ricky the gift of conferring wit upon the one he loves the best. Prince Ricky of the Tuft comes to a kingdom with two princesses. The elder one is beautiful but unintelligent and the younger one is intelligent but ugly. The elder princess is saddened that her ugly but smart sister receives more attention than her. One day as the elder princess was going for a walk in the forest to ease her sorrow, she is approached by Ricky who had fallen in love with her after seeing portraits of her that circulated. Ricky asks how a person so beautiful as she can be so sad, to which she responds that she is sad because she is beautiful but lacks intelligence. Ricky then bestows the gift of intelligence on the elder princess for a promise of marriage. A year later, Ricky comes to marry her. She refuses on grounds that he cannot hold her to a promise made before she gained her wisdom. The princess then tells him that she was
The Blue Belt is a Norwegian fairy tale collected by Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe in Norske Folkeeventyr. It is Aarne-Thompson type 590.
A beggar woman and her son were returning home when he saw a blue belt. She forbade him to pick it up, but after a time, he sneaked away from her and got it; it made him feel as strong as a giant. When she had to rest, he climbed a crag and saw light; he came down to his mother to suggest they seek shelter there. When she could go no further, he carried her, but she saw that the house was that of trolls. He insisted, and she fainted. A 20-foot-tall (6.1 m) old man was within; the boy called him "grandfather" and he said he had been sitting there three hundred years without anyone calling grandfather. They talked, and the old man prepared supper for them by killing an oxen with one hand.
At night, the boy got the cradle, and the old man gave his mother the bed. The old man told the mother that if they got rid of her son, they could live happily together; he promised to crush the boy under rocks at the quarry. The boy went with him, the next day, but the boy was unhurt and rolled a stone on the troll that crushed his leg. The troll told
Catherine and her Destiny is an Italian fairy tale collected by Thomas Frederick Crane in Italian Popular Tales, and included by Andrew Lang in The Pink Fairy Book.
Catherine was a rich merchant's beautiful daughter. One day a woman appeared to her and asked whether she would rather be happy in her youth or in her old age. Catherine decided on old age, and the woman, who was Catherine's Destiny, vanished. Shortly, Catherine's father lost his wealth and died. Catherine attempted to enter into service, but whenever someone hired her, her Destiny appeared and tore the home to pieces when Catherine there alone, she fled from fear that she would be blamed.
After seven years, her Destiny stopped, and she became the servant of a woman who had her bring loaves of bread every day to the woman's Destiny . One day, the woman asked her why she wept so often, and Catherine told her story. The woman told her, the next time, to ask her Destiny to ask Catherine's to stop these persecutions. The next day after she asked, the woman's Destiny brought her to her own, who gave her a skein of silk.
One day, the young king was to be married. His wedding garment was rich, but when the tailor was almost
How to find out a True Friend is an Italian fairy tale collected by Laura Gonzenbach in Sicilianische Märchen. Andrew Lang included it in The Crimson Fairy Book.
A childless king and queen pledged to St. James that if they had a son, he would make a pilgrimage on his eighteenth birthday. They had a son. When he was twelve, his father died. When his eighteenth birthday grew near, the queen grieved over the thought of not seeing him for a year; she tried to put her son off, but when his consolations for her pretended causes did not work, she had to reveal the truth. He assured her that he would return.
The queen gave him apples and told him that he needed a companion, but he should invite any prospect to eat with him, and then he should cut an apple into two unequal parts and reject anyone who did not take the smaller. He met three young men, each of whom also claimed to be going on a pilgrimage to the shrine of St. James, but the first two wanted the larger part, and the prince feigned illness to be rid of them. The third took the smaller, and they traveled together, having pledged that if one died, the other would bring his body. It took them a year to reach the shrine. At one
The Dragon and his Grandmother or The Devil and His Grandmother is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm, number 125.
Andrew Lang included it in The Yellow Fairy Book.
A version of this tale also appears in A Book of Dragons by Ruth Manning-Sanders.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 812, the devil's riddle.
Three soldiers could not live on their pay, and so attempted to desert by hiding in a cornfield but, when the army did not march on, were soon caught between starving there or emerging to execution. A dragon/Beelzebul flew by, offered to save them if they served it for seven years, and when they agreed, carried them off. It was, however, the devil; he gave them a whip with which they could make money, but said at the end of seven years, they were his, unless they could guess a riddle, in which case they would be free and could have the whip.
At the end of the seven years, two of the soldiers were morose at the thought of their fate. An old woman advised them to go down to a cottage for help. The third soldier, who had not feared the riddle, went down and met the devil's grandmother. She was pleased with his manner and hid him in the cellar. When the demon came, she
The Fair Fiorita is an Italian fairy tale collected by Thomas Frederick Crane in Italian Popular Tales. Italo Calvino included a variant of it, The Princesses Wed to the First Passer-By, in his Italian Folktales.
A king with three daughters and a son married his daughters to the first men to pass before the castle at noon: a swineherd, a huntsman, and a grave-digger. His son did not go to the wedding, but walked in the garden, where he heard a voice saying that the man was happy who was kissed by the fair Fiorita. He set out in search of her.
Three years later, he saw a palace with a fountain in front of it, and a child playing in the fountain. He approached, and the child cried for his mother, who proved to be his oldest sister. He was glad at her good fortune, stemming from the enchantments of a magician on her husband, as on his other brothers-in-law. They told him to go toward the sunrise, which was the way both to his other two sisters and to Fiorita, and gave him hogs' bristles to throw to the ground if he were in great need.
He went toward the sunrise, and found his other two sisters. The middle one gave him feathers, and the youngest a human bone and told him that an old
The Fountain of Youth is a Japanese fairy tale collected by Lafcadio Hearn in Japanese Fairy Tales.
An old couple lived in the mountains. The man cut wood, and the woman wove, every day. One day, the man found a spring and drank from it. He became a young man. Delighted, he ran home. His wife said a young man needed a young wife, so she would go and drink, but they should not both be away, so he should wait. He did wait, but when she did not come back, he went after her. He found a baby by the spring; his wife had drunk too eagerly. Saddened, he carried her back.
Tsarevitch Ivan, the Fire Bird and the Gray Wolf is a Russian fairy tale collected by Alexander Afanasyev in Narodnye russkie skazki.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 550, the quest for the golden bird/firebird. Others of this type include The Golden Bird, The Greek Princess and the Young Gardener, The Bird 'Grip', How Ian Direach got the Blue Falcon, and The Nunda, Eater of People.
A king's apple tree bore golden apples, but every night, one was stolen. Guards reported that the Firebird stole them. The king told his two oldest sons that the one who caught the bird would receive half his kingdom and be his heir. They drew lots to see who would be first, but both fell asleep; they tried to claim it had not come, but it had stolen an apple. Finally Ivan Tsarevich, the youngest son, asked to try; his father was reluctant because of his youth but consented. Ivan remained awake the entire time, and upon seeing the bird, tried to catch it by the tail. Unfortunately, Ivan only managed to grasp one feather. The Firebird did not return, but the king longed for the bird. He said that still, whoever caught it would have half his kingdom and be his heir.
The older brothers set out. They came to a
Allerleirauh (German "All-Kinds-of-Fur", sometimes translated as "Thousandfurs") is a fairy tale recorded by the Brothers Grimm. Since the second edition published in 1819, it has been recorded as Tale no. 65. Andrew Lang included it in The Green Fairy Book.
It is Aarne-Thompson folktale type 510B, unnatural love. Others of this type include Cap O' Rushes, Donkeyskin, Catskin, Little Cat Skin, The King who Wished to Marry His Daughter, The She-Bear, Mossycoat, Tattercoats, The Princess That Wore A Rabbit-Skin Dress, and The Bear. Indeed, some English translators of Allerleirauh titled that story Catskin despite the differences between the German and English tales.
A king promised his dying wife that he would not marry unless to a woman as beautiful as she was, and when he looked for a new wife, he realized that the only woman that would not break the promise was his own daughter.
The daughter tried to make the wedding impossible by asking for three dresses, one as golden as the sun, one as silver as moon, and one as dazzling as the stars, and a mantle made from the fur of every kind of bird and animal in the kingdom. When her father provided them, she took them, with a gold ring, a
Esben and the Witch is a Danish fairy tale. Andrew Lang included it in The Pink Fairy Book. A version of the tale also appears in A Book of Witches and A Choice of Magic, by Ruth Manning-Sanders. It is Aarne-Thompson type 327B, the small boy defeats the ogre.
A farmer had twelve sons, and the youngest, Esben, was little while his brothers were big and strong. One day the brother persuaded their father to let them seek their fortunes; he gave them each horses and money. Esben decided he would go too. His father refused to aid him. He took a stick and whittled it, so it was whiter than his brothers' horses, and rode off on it.
The eleven brothers came to a house where an old hag told them they could not only stay for the night, they could each have one of her daughters. They were pleased. Esben came up behind them and sneaked about. In the night, he had his brothers change caps with the daughters. At midnight, the witch came with a knife and cut her daughters' throats, because of their night caps. Esben woke his brothers, and they all fled. The brothers left Esben behind on their horses.
The brothers took service with the king as stableboys. When Esben arrived, no one gave him a
"Jorinde and Joringel" is a German fairy tale by the Brothers Grimm, number 69.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 405. The tale is found virtually exclusively in Germany, although Marie Campbell found a variant in Kentucky, The Flower of Dew.
The story is known in many English translations as "Jorinda and Jorindel."
A shape-shifting witch (or "fairy," depending on the translation) lived alone in a dark castle in the woods. She could lure wild animals and birds to her before killing them; she transfixed anyone who would came near to where she stood, and turn innocent maidens into birds and cage them. Jorinde and Joringel, who had promised to marry each other, went for a walk in the forest. They came too near the witch's lair; she turned Jorinde into a nightingale and fixed Joringel to the ground. Once she had carried away the bird, she freed Joringel.
One night Joringel dreamed of a flower, and that it would break all the witch's spells. He sought it for nine days, found it, and carried it back to the castle. He was not frozen to the ground when he approached the castle, and it opened all the doors. He found the witch feeding the birds. She was unable to curse him, and when she tried to
The Bear is a fairy tale collected by Andrew Lang in The Grey Fairy Book.
It is Aarne-Thompson classification system type 510B, unnatural love. Others of this type include Cap O' Rushes, Catskin, Little Cat Skin, Allerleirauh, The King who Wished to Marry His Daughter, The She-Bear, Tattercoats, Mossycoat, The Princess That Wore A Rabbit-Skin Dress, and Donkeyskin.
A king loved his daughter so much that he kept her in her rooms for fear harm would come to her. She complained to her nurse; unbeknownst to her, the nurse was a witch. She told her to get a wheelbarrow and a bearskin from the king. The king gave them, the nurse enchanted them, and when the princess put on the skin, it disguised her, and when she got into the wheelbarrow, it took her wherever she wanted to go. She had it take her to a forest.
A prince hunted her, but when she called to him to call off his dogs, he was so astounded that he asked her to come home with him. She agreed and went in the wheelbarrow. His mother was surprised, and more when the bear began to do housework as well as any servant. One day, the prince had to go to a ball given by a neighboring prince. The bear wanted to go, and he kicked it. When he
The Blue Mountains is a fairy tale. Andrew Lang included it in The Yellow Fairy Book (1894), but provided no bibliographical information and its origin remains obscure.
A Scotsman, an Englishman and an Irishman all ran away from the army together. After several days, the Scotsman saw a castle, went to it without speaking to the others, and met a lady. At his request, she gave him a meal and a bed to sleep. And then the same thing happened to the Englishman.
The Irishman saw the same castle and went to it, but when the lady gave him food, he stared about the castle and did not eat. When she asked, he said he could not eat without knowing who she was or where she came from, or how she came there. She told him she was an enchanted princess, and if a man stayed in a little room from ten until midnight for three nights running, she would be freed. Every night creatures came into the room and beat him, but the princess had a bottle that cured him every morning.
She went off and told him she would back in a coach and six. A little lad came, and when he went to wait for the princess, the lad stuck a pin in his coat, putting him to sleep. When the princess came, the lad told her he was
The Goat-faced Girl is an Italian fairy tale. Giambattista Basile included a version in his Pentamerone. Andrew Lang included a version, collected by Hermann Kletke, in The Grey Fairy Book.
The Brothers Grimm noted its similarity to their Mary's Child, and also to the Norwegian The Lassie and Her Godmother.
A poor peasant had twelve daughters, one year apart. He could not feed them all. A huge lizard offered to take his youngest daughter, Renzolla, and raise her, and if he refused, it would be the worse for him. His wife persuaded him that he did not know it meant ill, and he brought her. The lizard gave him great wealth, which enabled him to marry off his other daughters, and raised Renzolla in a palace. A king came by, and when he knocked on the door, the lizard turned into a beautiful woman and let him in. He fell in love with Renzolla. The lizard agreed to their marriage and gave Renzolla a large marriage portion, but Renzolla left without thanking her.
Angry, the lizard turned Renzolla's head into a goat's head. The king was horror-struck. He put Renzolla to work with a maid, carding flax; the maid obeyed, but Renzolla threw it out the window. When she saw what the maid had
The Ill-Fated Princess is a Greek fairy tale collected by Georgios A. Megas in Folktales of Greece.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 938A, Misfortunes in Youth.
A queen could not marry off her three daughters. A beggarwoman told her to mark how they slept, and then the youngest, who slept with her hands in her lap, was ill-fated, and her fate kept her sisters from being married. The youngest daughter heard this, told her mother to sew her dowry into the hem of her skirt, dressed herself as a nun, and left, despite her mother's pleas. She stayed at a cloth-dealer's, but her fate came and tore up the cloth, and they turned her out; she paid for the damage from her dowry and went on. She stayed at a glass-merchant's, but her fate came and smashed the glass; she paid for the damage and went on. Then she took service with a queen, who realized she had an evil Fate and kept her on.
Finally, the queen told her she had to change her fate: she had to go to the mountain where they lived, and offer her some bread to change her fate. The princess did this, and would not leave until her fate took the bread; the fate resisted a long time, even when the other fates argued with her, but finally gave her
The Dragon of the North (Estonian: Põhja konn) is an Estonian fairy tale, collected by Dr. Friedrich Kreutzwald in Eestirahwa Ennemuistesed jutud. Andrew Lang included it in The Yellow Fairy Book; he listed his source as "Der Norlands Drache" from Ehstnische Märchen, which was the German translation of Kreutzwald's work, by F. Löwe.
A dragon came from the north and devastated land. It was said that a man with King Solomon's ring could stop it. A brave young man set out to find some way. A famous Eastern magician told him that the birds might aid him, and made him a brew that would enable him to understand them; then he said if the man brought him the ring, he would explain the inscription on it.
He heard birds say that only the witch-maiden could help him, and that he could find her at a certain spring when the moon was full. He followed them there. The maiden was offended, but forgave him and took him to her home. The youth heard a voice warn him to give her no blood. She asked him to marry her, and he asked to consider. She offered him King Solomon's ring in return for three drops of blood. She told him its powers. He said, after some days, that he did not quite believe it, and
The Juniper Tree is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm. In some editions the story is called The Almond Tree. The Text in the Grimm collection is in Low German.
It is tale number 47 and Aarne-Thompson type 720: "my mother slew me, my father ate me". Another such tale is the English The Rose-Tree, although it reverses the sexes from The Juniper Tree; The Juniper Tree follows the more common pattern of having the dead child be the boy.
A woman wishes for a child as red as blood and as white as snow. She knows she is about to die, so she requests that she be buried under a juniper tree that her family has outside, as that is where she wished for the child. After a few months she gives birth to a son and dies a few days later. She is buried underneath the Juniper tree. Her husband grieves for a long time, and gets married again. His second wife gives birth to a daughter, Marjory, but hates the son because he would be the one to inherit all the family's money, and she wishes it to be her daughter. One day, she offers Marjory an apple and she graciously accepts it. Then she has an evil thought and cruelly offers the boy one. As he reaches in a box to get it, she slams
Bunbuku Chagama (Japanese: ぶんぶく茶釜) is a Japanese folktale about a raccoon dog, or tanuki, that uses its shapeshifting powers to reward its rescuer for his kindness.
Bunbuku Chagama roughly translates to "happiness bubbling over like a tea pot". The story tells of a poor man who finds a tanuki caught in a trap. Feeling sorry for the animal, he sets it free. That night, the tanuki comes to the poor man's house to thank him for his kindness. The tanuki transforms itself into a chagama (tea kettle) and tells the man to sell him for money.
The man sells the tanuki-teapot to a monk, who takes it home and, after scrubbing it harshly, sets it over the fire to boil water. Unable to stand the heat, the tanuki teapot sprouts legs and, in its half-transformed state, makes a run for it.
The tanuki returns to the poor man with another idea. The man would set up a circus-like roadside attraction and charge admission for people to see a teapot walking a tightrope. The plan works, and each gains something good from the other–the man is no longer poor and the tanuki has a new friend and home.
In a variant of the story, the tanuki-teapot does not run and returns to its transformed state. The shocked
Finette Cendron (meaning in English, Cunning Cinders) is a French literary fairy tale written by Madame d'Aulnoy.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 510A. Other tales of this type include Cinderella, Fair, Brown and Trembling, The Golden Slipper, Katie Woodencloak, Rushen Coatie, The Sharp Grey Sheep, The Story of Tam and Cam, and The Wonderful Birch.
A king and queen lost their kingdom and sold all they had brought with them, until they were poor. The queen resolved that she could make nets, with which the king could catch birds and fish to support them. As for their three daughters, they were useless; the king should take them somewhere and leave them there.
Their youngest, Finette, heard this and went to her fairy godmother. She became tired on the way and sat down to cry. A jennet appeared before her, and she begged it to carry her to her godmother. Her godmother gave her a ball of thread that, if she tied to the house door, would lead her back, and a bag with gold and silver dresses.
The next day, their mother led them off and urged them to go to sleep in a meadow. Then she left. Though her sisters were cruel to her, Finette woke them. The sisters promised her many things if she would
The Clever Little Tailor (German: Vom klugen Schneiderlein) is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm as tale 114. It is Aarne-Thompson type 850, The Princess's Birthmarks. Andrew Lang included it in The Green Fairy Book.
A proud princess set a riddle to her wooers and sent them away when they could not answer. Three tailors came. Two were known for their cleverness and skill, and the third for his uselessness. The princess asked them what two colors were her hairs. The first said black and white; the second brown and red; the third gold and silver, and he was right.
The princess demanded that he spend the night with a bear as well. In his stall, the tailor began to crack nuts. He offered the bear not nuts but pebbles, and the bear could not crack them. The tailor took one away, substituted a nut, and cracked it. The tailor began to fiddle, and the bear danced. The tailor offered to teach it, but first he had to cut its nails. He trapped it in a vise and left it there.
The princess agreed to marry him. The other two tailors freed the bear. It came after the carriage. The tailor stuck his legs out the window and threatened the bear with the claim that they were a vise.
The Hut in the Forest -- or The House in the Wood -- is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm, tale number 169. Andrew Lang included it in The Pink Fairy Book (1897).
It is Aarne-Thompson type 431.
A wood-cutter told his wife to have his oldest daughter bring him his dinner in the woods. She lost her way and in the night found a house with a gray-haired man and a hen, a cock, and a brindled cow. She asked for shelter. The man asked the animals, the animals said "Duks", and the man agreed, and told her to cook supper. She cooked for him and herself, and asked for a bed. He directed her to an upper room, where she went to sleep. The old man followed her and opened a trapdoor that let her down into the cellar.
The next day, the same thing happened with the second daughter.
On the third day, the youngest ended up in the hut. She pet the animals, and when she had made supper for herself and the old man, also got barley for the birds and hay for the cow. She went upstairs to sleep, but at midnight, a sound like the house tearing apart woke her. Still, it stopped, and she went back to sleep. In the morning, she found herself in a palace with a king's son, enchanted with
The Enchanted Watch is a French fairy tale collected by Paul Sébillot (1843–1918). Andrew Lang included it in his The Green Fairy Book (1892).
A rich man's oldest two sons went out and saw the world for three years apiece, and came back. The foolish youngest son also wanted to go, and his father finally let him, expecting never to see him again. On the way, he saw men about to kill a dog, and asked them to give it to him instead; they did. He acquired a cat and a snake by the same manner. The snake brought him to the king of snakes, telling him how he would have to explain his absence, but then the king would want to reward the son. He told him to ask for a watch, which, when he rubbed it, would give him whatever he wanted.
He went home. Because he wore the same dirty clothing he set out in, his father flew into a rage. A few days later, he used the watch to make a house and invite his father to a feast there. Then he invited the king and the princess. The king was impressed by the marvels the son conjured to entertain them, and married the princess to him. Soon, because he was so foolish, his wife wearied of him. She learned of the watch, stole it, and fled.
The son set out with
"The Fir-Tree" (Danish: Grantræet) is a literary fairy tale by Danish poet and author Hans Christian Andersen (1805–1875). The tale is about a fir tree so anxious to grow up, so anxious for greater things, that he cannot appreciate living in the moment. The tale was first published 21 December 1844 with "The Snow Queen" in Copenhagen, Denmark by C.A. Reitzel. One scholar indicates that "The Fir-Tree" was the first of Andersen's fairy tales to express a deep pessimism.
In the woods stands a little fir-tree. He is preoccupied with growing up and is thoroughly embarrassed when a hare hops over him, an act which emphasizes his diminutiveness. The children call him the baby of the forest and again he is embarrassed and frustrated. A stork tells him of seeing older trees chopped down and used as ship masts, and the little tree envies them. In the fall, nearby trees are felled and the sparrows tell the little fir-tree of seeing them decorated in houses.
One day while still in his youth, the fir-tree is cut down for a Christmas decoration. He is bought, carried into a house, decorated, and, on Christmas Eve, he glows with candles, colored apples, toys, and baskets of candy. A gold star
Brother and Sister is a well-known European fairy tale which was, among others, written down by the Brothers Grimm in their collection of Children's and Household Tales (Grimm's Fairy Tales). It is alternatively known as Little Sister and Little Brother or (in the Grimm's version) Brüderchen und Schwesterchen.
Tired of the cruel mistreatment they endured from their witch stepmother, a brother and sister ran away from home one day. The two children wandered off into the countryside and spent the night in the woods. When the next morning came, the brother was thirsty and the pair went on the lookout for a spring of clear water. The evil stepmother had already discovered their escape, however, and bewitched all the springs in the forest. The brother was about to drink from one, when his sister heard how its rushing sound said, "Whoever drinks from me will become a tiger."
Desperately, the sister begged her brother not to drink from the well, lest he transform into a wild animal and tear her to pieces. So they went back on their way, but when they came to the second spring the sister heard it say, "Whoever drinks from me will become a wolf." Again, the sister desperately tried to
Hermod and Hadvor is an Icelandic fairy tale. Andrew Lang included it in The Yellow Fairy Book.
A king and queen had a daughter, Hadvor, and a foster son, Hermod. One day, the queen died, after asking her husband to marry no one but the Queen of Hetland the Good. He agreed.
The king set to sea and found a beautiful woman with another, younger woman, both finely dressed, and a third woman, a maid. This woman told him that she was the Queen of Hetland the Good and had been driven from her land, but she would marry him. They married. Hadvor and Hermod took little note of her stepmother, but Hadvor became friendly with the maid, Olof. The king went to war, and the new queen told Hermod that he had to marry her daughter. He refused, and she cursed him to go to a desert isle and be turned to a lion by day and a man by night, never to be freed until Hadvor burned his skin. He cursed her to, as soon as he was free, become a rat and her daughter a mouse, and they would fight until he killed them.
Olof told Hadvor what had happened, and that the queen wanted to marry her to her brother, a three-headed giant in the underworld, whom the queen would turn into a handsome prince. When this giant
The Sleeping Beauty (French: La Belle au bois dormant, "The Beauty sleeping in the wood") by Charles Perrault or Little Briar Rose (German: Dornröschen) by the Brothers Grimm is a classic fairytale involving a beautiful princess, enchantment of sleep, and a handsome prince. Written as an original literary tale, it was first published by Charles Perrault in Histoires ou contes du temps passé in 1697.
In 1959 the story was made into a Walt Disney animated film.
The basic elements of Perrault's narrative are in two parts. Some folklorists believe that they were originally separate tales, as they became afterward in the Grimms' version, and were joined together by Basile, and Perrault following him.
At the christening of a king and queen's long-wished-for child, seven fairies are invited to be godmothers to the infant princess. At the banquet back at the palace, the fairies seat themselves with a golden casket containing golden jeweled utensils laid before them. However, a wicked fairy who was overlooked, having been within a certain tower for many years and thought to be either dead or enchanted enters and is offered a seating, but not a golden casket since only seven were made. The
The Canary Prince is an Italian fairy tale, the 18th tale in Italian Folktales by Italo Calvino. He took the tale from Turin, making various stylistic changes; he noted it developed a medieval motif, but such tales as Marie de France's Yonec produced a rather different effect, being tales of adultery.
A variant on Rapunzel, Aarne-Thompson type 310, The Maiden in the Tower, it includes many motifs that differentiate it from that tale. Other fairy tales of this type include Anthousa, Xanthousa, Chrisomalousa, Petrosinella, Prunella, and Rapunzel.
A jealous stepmother persuades her husband the king to lock his daughter in a castle in the forest.
One day, a king's son goes by, hunting, and is astounded to see the abandoned castle in use. He sees the daughter, but they are unable to communicate except by gesture. A witch, to help them, tricks the ladies-in-waiting into giving the princess a book. When she ruffles the pages forward, her lover turns into a canary; when she ruffles them back, he is restored to his human form.
After some time, the queen arrives and sees a young man by the window, and puts pins on the window sill so that if the daughter leaned on it to flirt, she would be
The Cat on the Dovrefjell (also known as The Cat on the Dovre-Mountain and The Trolls and the Pussycat) is a Norwegian fairy tale collected by Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe in Norske Folkeeventyr. It is Aarne-Thompson type 1161, The Bear Trainer and His Cat.
A man was bringing a white bear to give to the king of Denmark, and he came to the mountain Dovre on Christmas Eve and asked a man called Halvor for shelter for the night. Halvor told him that trolls came every Christmas Eve and made such havoc that the household had to flee them. The man said he would stay with his bear anyway.
The trolls came, eating the feast the people had left behind, and one began to bait the bear, calling it "Kitty". It rose up and drove them all out of the house.
The next year, a troll asked Halvor if he still had that cat. Halvor assured him that he did, and she had had seven kittens, bigger and fiercer than herself. The trolls never again came to his cottage for Christmas Eve.
Jan Brett retold this story as Who's That Knocking on Christmas Eve, featuring a boy as the bear's owner and a girl as the one who welcomed him.
Kaja Foglio retold the story in comic form, where the bear's owner was a
The Giant Who Had No Heart in His Body is a Norwegian fairy tale collected by Asbjørnsen and Moe.
George MacDonald retold it as "The Giant's Heart" in Adela Cathcart. A version of the tale also appears in A Book of Giants by Ruth Manning-Sanders.
A king had seven sons, and when the other six went off to find brides, he kept the youngest with him because he could not bear to be parted from them all. They were supposed to bring back a bride for him, as well, but they found a king with six daughters and wooed them, forgetting their brother. But when they returned, they passed too close to a giant's castle, and he turned them all, both princes and princesses, to stone in a fit of rage.
When they did not return, the king, their father, tried to prevent their brother from following, but he went. On the way, he gave food to a starving raven, helped a salmon back into the river, and gave a starving wolf his horse to eat. The wolf let the prince ride on him, instead, and showed him the giant's castle, telling him to go inside. The prince was reluctant fearing the wrath of the giant, but the wolf consoled him. The wolf persuaded the prince to enter the castle for there he would encounter not
The Giants and the Herd-boy is a Bukowniaer fairy tale collected by Dr Heinrich von Wlislocki in Märchen Und Sagen Der Bukowinaer Und Siebenbûrger Armenier. Andrew Lang included it in The Yellow Fairy Book.
An orphan tended sheep for a lord. One day, he found an injured giant, who promised to reward him, if he bound up his foot. The herdboy did that, with his own shirt, and the giant took him to a giants' wedding, giving him a belt to make him invisible, and then underground, where he ate a good meal and stole a loaf of bread. The next day, he tried to tear off a piece of bread to eat, but he could not, until he finally bit it. It still did not break, but he found a gold piece dropped from his mouth. He used the gold to buy food.
The lord had a beautiful daughter who was always polite to the herdboy. He decided to give her a bag of gold on her birthday, using the belt to leave it secretly. It gave him so much pleasure that he did it for seven more nights. The eighth night, the girl and her parents watched for who did it, and the herdboy forgot his belt and so was caught. The lord sent him from his service. The herdboy spent his gold on fine clothing and a coach with horses, and
The Gifts of the Magician is a Finnish fairy tale. Andrew Lang included it in The Crimson Fairy Book (1903), listing his source as Finnische Mahrchen.
A widower forbade his only son to shoot at some birds. One day, he did so, and chased after a bird he wounded until he became lost in the forest. When night fell, he saw a magician being chased by wolves. He shot the largest wolf, which put all the rest to flight. The magician gave him shelter during the night. In the morning, he could not be woken. The magician left to hunt. The boy woke and talked with the maid servant, who told him to ask for the horse in the third stall as a reward. When he did, the magician tried to persuade him otherwise, but finally gave it to him, along with a zither, a fiddle, and a flute, telling him to play each one in turn if he were in danger.
The horse warned him not to go back to his father, who would only beat him. He rode the horse on, to the king's city, where everyone admired the horse. The horse told him to tell the king to stable it with the royal horses; then they would grow as beautiful as it. This worked, but made the old groom envious of the boy. He told the king that the boy had claimed to
The Goose-Girl at the Well is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm, tale number 179.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 923, love like salt.
An old woman raised geese in the mountains. One day, speaking of her heavy burden, she persuaded a count to carry it for her up the mountain. He found it burdensome, but she would not let him even rest. When they arrived at the hut, there was an ugly girl tending the old woman's geese, but the old woman would not let them stay together, lest "he may fall in love with her". Before the old woman sent the count away, she gave him a box cut out of an emerald as thanks for carrying her burden.
The count wandered the woods for three days before he arrived at a town where a king and queen reigned. He showed them the box. When the queen saw the box, she collapsed as if dead, and the count was led to a dungeon and kept there. When the queen woke, she insisted on speaking with him. She told him that her youngest daughter had been a beautiful girl who wept pearls and jewels. But one day, when the king had asked his three daughters how well they loved him, the youngest said that she loved him like salt. The king divided his kingdom between the two
The Greek Princess and the Young Gardener is an Irish fairy tale collected by Patrick Kennedy in Fireside Stories of Ireland. Joseph Jacobs included it in More Celtic Fairy Tales.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 550, the quest for the golden bird/firebird. Jacobs noted, as parallels, the Scottish How Ian Direach got the Blue Falcon and the German The Golden Bird. Other fairy tales of this type include The Bird 'Grip', Tsarevitch Ivan, the Fire Bird and the Gray Wolf, and The Nunda, Eater of People.
A king with one daughter grew old and sick, but the doctors found that the best medicine for him was apples from a tree in his own orchard, outside his window. One night, he saw a bird stealing them. He blamed the gardener for neglecting the orchard, and the gardener promised that his sons, the best archers in the land, would stop the thief. The first night, the oldest son came but fell asleep; the king saw him and the thieving bird again, and though he shouted, the boy did not wake quickly enough. The same thing happened with the second. But the third night, the youngest son stayed awake and shot off a feather, frightening off the bird.
The king admired the feather greatly and said he would
The Iron Stove is a fairy tale, collected by the Brothers Grimm, as tale number 127.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 425A, The Animal Bridegroom
A prince is cursed by a witch and imprisoned in an iron stove in the woods. A lost princess finds the stove and is surprised to find it talking to her, offering to help her find her way back home, provided she return to the woods with a knife to scrape a hole in the stove, thereby freeing the prince, and marry him.
Her father, the King, not wanting to give up his only child to a stove in the woods, tries to send substitutes back to the woods, including a miller's daughter and a swine-herd's daughter. Although very beautiful, the women betray their origins, and the princess herself reluctantly returns to the woods. When she scrapes with the knife to make a hole, she sees that the prince is very handsome. He wants to take her to his own country, but she wishes to first bid her father farewell. He agrees, but tells her to speak no more than three words. She fails this prohibition, and can not find the iron stove.
In the woods, she finds a cottage full of toads and frogs. They give her shelter for the night, tell her how to find the prince—by
The Gingerbread Man (also known as The Gingerbread Boy or The Gingerbread Runner) is a fairy tale about a Gingerbread Man's escape from various pursuers and his eventual demise between the jaws of a fox. The Gingerbread Boy makes his first print appearance in the May 1875 issue of St. Nicholas Magazine in a cumulative tale which, like "The Little Red Hen", depends on rhythm and repetition for its effect with one event following hard upon another until the climax is reached. A gingerbread boy as hero is a uniquely American contribution to the tale type. Modern twists on the tale include a gingerbread cowboy in a Wild West.
In the 1875 St. Nicholas tale, a childless old woman bakes a gingerbread man who leaps from her oven and runs away. The woman and her husband give chase but fail to catch him. The gingerbread man then outruns several farm workers and farm animals while taunting them with the phrase:
The tale ends with a fox catching and eating the gingerbread man who cries as he's devoured, "I'm quarter gone...I'm half gone...I'm three-quarters gone...I'm all gone!" - a detail often omitted in subsequent versions.
Variations on the original tale do occur. In one of these
"Childe Rowland" is a fairy tale, the most popular version being by Joseph Jacobs in his English Folk and Fairy Tales, published in 1892, and written partly in verse and part in prose.
The story tells of how the four children of the Queen (by some accounts Guinevere), Childe Rowland, his two older brothers, and his sister, Burd Ellen, were playing ball near a church. Rowland kicked the ball over the church and Burd Ellen went to retrieve it, inadvertently circling the church "widdershins", or opposite the way of the sun, and disappeared. Rowland went to Merlin to ask what became of his sister and was told that she was taken to the Dark Tower by the King of Elfland, and only the boldest knight in Christendom could retrieve her.
The eldest brother decided he would make the journey, and was told what to do by Merlin. He did not return, and the middle brother followed, only to meet the same fate. Finally Childe Rowland went forth, having been given his father's sword, which never struck in vain, for protection. Merlin gave him his orders: he must chop off the head of anyone in Elfland who speaks to him until he sees his sister, and he must not eat or drink anything while in that realm.
Fairy Gifts is a French literary fairy tale, by the Comte de Caylus (1692–1765). Andrew Lang included it in his The Green Fairy Book (1892).
The Flower Fairy raised princes and princesses in her house and never sent them away grown without a gift. Her favorite was the Princess Sylvia, but she was curious how some other princesses had prospered with their gifts.
One day, she sent Sylvia to visit a former charge, Iris, who had received the gift of beauty. Sylvia returned with news that Iris thought that beauty supplied everything and she need do nothing else; unfortunately, she had fallen ill during the visit, and lost her looks. The fairy regretted that she could give such gifts once.
She sent her to others, but the princess who received eloquence would not be quiet and wearied all her listeners in time; the princess who received the gift of pleasing was insincere and made all her lovers weary of her; the princess who received wit was always turning everything into an occasion for it and took nothing seriously.
Sylvia asked for herself a quiet spirit, which made her and everyone around her happy.
The Daughter of the Skies is a Scottish fairy tale collected by John Francis Campbell in Popular Tales of the West Highlands, listing his informant as James MacLauchlan, a servant from Islay.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 425A. Others of this type include The Black Bull of Norroway, The Brown Bear of Norway, East of the Sun and West of the Moon, The King of Love, The Enchanted Pig, The Tale of the Hoodie, Master Semolina, The Enchanted Snake, The Sprig of Rosemary, and White-Bear-King-Valemon.
A man had daughters, and owned many cattle and sheep, but one day they vanished and he could not find them. A dog offered to find them if a daughter would marry him. The father agreed, if the daughter consented. He asked each of his daughters, and the youngest agreed.
They married, and he took her home and turned into a fine man. They stayed for a time, and she wanted to visit her father. He agreed, as long as she did not stay there until her child, nearly due, was born. She agreed, but stayed too long. Music came in the night, putting everyone else to sleep, and a man came in and took her child. Twice more, she stayed at her father's too long, had a child there, and watched it kidnapped. The
Farmer Weathersky (Norwegian: Bonde Værskjegg) is a Norwegian fairy tale collected by Peter Chr. Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe in Norske Folkeeventyr.
Andrew Lang included it in The Red Fairy Book as "Farmer Weatherbeard".
It is Aarne-Thompson type 325, The Magician and His Pupil, and involves several transformation chases. This tale type is well known in India and Europe and notably stable in form. Others of this type include Master and Pupil and The Thief and His Master. A literary variant is Maestro Lattantio and His Apprentice Dionigi.
A version of the tale appears in A Book of Wizards by Ruth Manning-Sanders.
A farmer was trying to apprentice his son, but because his wife insisted that he must learn to be a master above all masters, was unable to find a place until a driver said that he could and had the boy get on his sleigh, whereupon he flew off into the air. His wife learned that he could not tell where his son is, and sent him after him.
He found a hag in the forest, and she consulted all the animals and was unable to tell him where to find Farmer Weathersky. She sent him to her sister, who consulted all the fish and sent him on to the third sister, who consulted all the
The Three Apples is a story contained in the One Thousand and One Nights collection (also known as the "Arabian Nights"). It is a first level story, being told by Scheherazade herself, and contains one second level story, the Tale of Núr al-Dín Alí and his Son. It occurs early in the Arabian Nights narrative, being started during night 19, after the Tale of Portress. The Tale of Núr al-Dín Alí and his Son starts during night 20, and the cycle ends during night 25, when Scheherazade starts the Tale of the Hunchback.
In this tale, a fisherman discovers a heavy locked chest along the Tigris river and he sells it to the Abbasid Caliph, Harun al-Rashid, who then has the chest broken open only to find inside it the dead body of a young woman who was cut into pieces. Harun orders his vizier, Ja'far ibn Yahya, to solve the crime and find the murderer within three days or else he will have him executed instead. Ja'far, however, fails to find the culprit before the deadline. Just when Harun is about to have Ja'far executed for his failure, a plot twist occurs when two men appear, one a handsome young man and the other an old man, both claiming to be the murderer. Both men argue and call each
The Enchanted Pig is a Romanian fairy tale, collected in Rumanische Märchen and also by Petre Ispirescu in Legende sau basmele românilor. Andrew Lang included it in The Red Fairy Book.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 425A, the search for the lost husband. Others of this type include The Black Bull of Norroway, The Brown Bear of Norway, The Daughter of the Skies, East of the Sun and West of the Moon, The King of Love, The Tale of the Hoodie, Master Semolina, The Sprig of Rosemary, The Enchanted Snake, and White-Bear-King-Valemon. It opens with an episode of 411, In an Enchanted Skin; others of this type include The Pig King.
A king goes to war and tells his daughters they may go anywhere in the castle except one room. One day, they disobey and find a book open in it. It says that the oldest shall marry a prince from the east, the second a prince from the west, and the youngest a pig from the north. The youngest is horror-struck, but her sisters manage to convince her that it is impossible.
The king returns and discovers, from the youngest's unhappiness, what they had done. He resolves to face it as best they can. A prince from the east marries the oldest, and a prince from the west the
"The Frog Prince; or, Iron Henry" (German: Der Froschkönig oder der eiserne Heinrich, literally "The Frog King or the Iron Heinrich") is a fairy tale, best known through the Brothers Grimm's written version; traditionally it is the first story in their collection. In the tale, a spoiled princess reluctantly befriends a frog (possibly meeting him after dropping a gold ball into his pond), who magically transforms into a handsome prince. Although in modern versions the transformation is invariably triggered by the princess kissing the frog, in the original Grimm version of the story the frog's spell was broken when the princess threw it against a wall in disgust. In other early versions it was sufficient for the frog to spend the night on the princess's pillow.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 440. Other folktales similar to the Frog Prince are:
The violent act of the princess, throwing the frog against the wall, is a common folkloric trait of undoing shapeshifting magic, and not even the most violent; in The Tale of the Queen Who Sought a Drink From a Certain Well and the English The Well of the World's End, the heroine must behead the frog to transform it to a prince. See also The White
The Golden Crab is a Greek fairy tale collected as "Prinz Krebs" by Bernhard Schmidt in his Griechische Märchen, Sagen and Volkslieder. Andrew Lang included it in The Yellow Fairy Book.
Georgios A. Megas collected a variant, The Crab, in Folktales of Greece.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 425D, Vanished Husband learned of by keeping inn.
One day a fisherman, who had a wife and three children, caught a golden crab with the rest of his fish. He took it home, and the crab told his wife, who was cleaning the other fish, to let down her skirt, her feet were showing. That evening, the crab asked to be given dinner, and when they did, they found his plate was filled with gold. This happened every night.
One day, the crab told the fisherman's wife to tell the king that he wanted to marry his younger daughter. The king, guessing he was an enchanted prince, demanded that he build a wall in front of the castle, higher than the highest tower, and blooming with flowers, and then a garden with three fountains that played gold, diamonds, and brilliants. When this was done, the king agreed.
The crab sent the fisherman to fetch rich garments for himself and his bride, and had himself carried to the
Eglė the Queen of Serpents, alternatively Eglė the Queen of Grass Snakes (Lithuanian: Eglė žalčių karalienė), is a Lithuanian folk tale.
Eglė the Queen of Serpents is considered one of the most archaic and best-known Lithuanian fairy tales and the richest in references of Baltic mythology. Over a hundred slightly diverging versions of the plot have been collected. Its multi-layered mythological background has been an interest of Lithuanian and foreign researchers of Indo-European mythology; Gintaras Beresnevičius considered it being a Lithuanian theogonic myth. Interestingly, the tale features not only human–reptile shapeshifting, but an irreversible human–tree shapeshifting as well.
Eglė is both a popular female name in Lithuania and also a noun meaning spruce (Picea). The serpents (žaltys) of the tale are grass snakes in Lithuanian, but because they inhabit the sea, the word may mean a mythical water snake.
The story can be subdivided into a number of sections each having parallels with motifs of other folk tales, yet a combination of them is unique.
At the beginning a young girl Eglė after bathing with her two sisters discovers a serpent in her clothes. Speaking in a human
"Master Cat; or, The Booted Cat" (early French: Le Maître Chat, ou Le Chat Botté), commonly known as "Puss in Boots", is a French literary fairy tale about a cat who uses trickery and deceit to gain power, wealth, and the hand of a princess in marriage for his penniless and low-born master. The tale was written at the close of the seventeenth century by Charles Perrault (1628–1703), a retired civil servant and member of the Académie française. The tale appeared in a handwritten and illustrated manuscript two years before its 1697 publication by Barbin in a collection of eight fairy tales by Perrault called Histoires ou contes du temps passé. The book was an instant success and remains popular.
Perrault's Histoires has had considerable impact on world culture. The original French title was "Histoires ou contes du temps passé or Les Contes de ma Mère l'Oye (Stories or Fairy Tales from Past Times with Morals or "Mother Goose Tales"... "The frontispiece to the earliest English editions depicts an old woman telling tales to a group of children beneath a placard inscribed "MOTHER GOOSE'S TALES" and is credited with launching the Mother Goose legend in the English-speaking world. "Puss in
The Cat's Elopement is a Japanese fairy tale collected by David Brauns in Japanische Marchen und Sagen (1885)1. Andrew Lang had it translated and included in The Pink Fairy Book (1897).
A handsome cat named Gon, belonging to a music teacher, and a lovely cat named Koma, belonging to a lady, met and fell in love. Neither of their owners would sell one of them to the other owner, and they finally decided to elope. In the evening, they were threatened by a dog; Koma fled up a tree, while Gon stood his ground to protect her; a servant came by and carried off Gon to his mistress, the princess.
A snake had fallen in love with this princess, and annoyed her with its visits. One day, when it came to annoy her once again, Gon pounced on it and killed it. After, he saw a large cat harassing a smaller one. He went to rescue the small cat and found it was Koma. He brought her to the princess and told her their story. She wept with sympathy and kept them with her; when she married a prince, she told him their story, and the prince agreed to keep them always, so they lived happily, with their many kittens playing with the prince and princess's many children.
The Dragon and the Prince or The Prince and the Dragon is a Serbian fairy tale collected by A. H. Wratislaw in his Sixty Folk-Tales from Exclusively Slavonic Sources, tale number 43. Andrew Lang included it in The Crimson Fairy Book.
Ruth Manning-Sanders included it, as "The Prince and the Dragons", in A Book of Princes and Princesses.
An emperor had three sons. The oldest went hunting and chased a hare; when it fled into a water-mill and he followed, it turned into a dragon and ate him. The same thing happened to the second.
When the youngest set out, he chased the hare but did not go into the water-mill. Instead, he searched for other game. When he got back to the mill, only an old woman sat there. She told him of the dragon. He asked her to ask the dragon the secret of its strength, and whenever it told her, to kiss the place that it mentioned. He left. When the dragon returned, the old woman did ask it; when it told her the fireplace, she began to kiss it, and it laughed and said it was the tree in front of the house; when she began to kiss that, it told her that a distant empire had a lake, which held a dragon, which held a boar, which held a pigeon, which held its
The Girl and the Dead Man is a Scottish fairy tale collected by John Francis Campbell in Popular Tales of the West Highlands, listing his informant as Ann Darroch, in Islay.
A poor woman's oldest daughter said she would go seek her fortune. The mother offered her a whole bannock with her curse or a little one with her blessing. She took the big one, and when she ate and birds begged for some, she refused it. She found a place at a house, watching by night over the body of the housewife's brother, which was under spells, but she fell asleep the first night and the mistress hit her such a blow that she died.
The second sister set out the same way and came to the same end.
The youngest also set out, but asked for the little one with her blessing, and shared it with the birds. She got the same place as her sisters, but stayed awake. In the night, the body propped itself up on its elbow and grinned; she threatened to beat it. It propped itself up twice more, and the third time, she hit it with a stick. The stick stuck to the body, and to her hand, and she had to follow it into the woods, where the nuts and sloes hit her as they went, but they got out of the woods and back to the house.
The Husband of the Rat's Daughter is a Japanese fairy tale. Andrew Lang included it in The Brown Fairy Book. It is Aarne-Thompson type 2031C, a chain tale or cumulative tale. Another story of this type is The Mouse Turned into a Maid.
Two rats had a remarkably beautiful daughter. In some variants, the father would have been happy to marry her to a rat of finer family, but the mother did not want her daughter to marry a mere rat; in others, they both agreed that she must marry the greatest being in the world. They offered her to the sun, telling him they wanted a son-in-law who was greater than all. The sun told them that he could not take advantage of their ignorance: the cloud, which blotted out his face, was greater. So they asked the cloud instead. The cloud told them that the wind freely blew it about. They asked the wind. The wind told them that the wall could easily stop it. They asked the wall. The wall told them that a rat could reduce it to powder with its teeth. So they married her to a rat.
Wilhelm Carl Grimm (also Karl; 24 February 1786 – 16 December 1859) was a German author, the younger of the Brothers Grimm.
He was born in Hanau, Hesse-Kassel and in 1803 he started studying law at the University of Marburg, one year after his brother Jacob started there. The whole of the lives of the two brothers was passed together. In their school days, they had one bed and one table in common. As students, they had two beds and two tables in the same room. They always lived under one roof, and had their books and property in common.
In 1825 Wilhelm married a pharmacist's daughter; Henriette Dorothea Wild, also known as Dortchen, at age 39. Wilhelm's marriage in no way disturbed the harmony of the brothers. As Richard Cleasby said, “they both live in the same house, and in such harmony and community that one might almost imagine the children were common property.” Together, Wilhelm and Henriette had four children: Jacob Grimm (3 April 1826–15 December 1826), Herman Friedrich Grimm (6 January 1828–16 June 1901), Rudolf Georg Grimm (31 March 1830–13 November 1889), and Barbara Auguste Luise Pauline Marie (21 August 1832–9 February 1919).
Wilhelm's character was a complete contrast
Babiole is a French literary fairy tale, written by Madame d'Aulnoy.
A queen thought she was childless because of the ill wishes of the fairy, Fanferluche. One day, Fanferluche appeared to her to say that this was not true, that the queen would have a daughter who would bring her much woe, and that to avert this, Fanferluche would give her a branch of hawthorn to be attached to the child's head. After the birth, the queen had this done, and the princess was instantly turned into a monkey. The queen caught the monkey and removed the branch but this did not restore the princess. A lady-in-waiting persuaded the queen to tell the king the baby had died and persuaded her that the monkey should be thrown into the sea. The queen agreed and the princess/monkey was put into a box. On the way to the sea, the servant took the monkey out of the box, deciding to keep the box for himself. Meanwhile, the queen's sister, with her four-year-old son, came by. She had heard of the birth, and then of the death. The son saw the monkey and wanted to keep it. So, the monkey was raised in his chambers. When she was four, the monkey started to speak. The boy's mother (the queen of another region) took her
East of the Sun and West of the Moon is a Norwegian folk tale.
East of the Sun and West of the Moon was collected by Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe. It is Aarne-Thompson type 425A, the search for the lost husband; other tales of this type include Black Bull of Norroway, The King of Love, The Brown Bear of Norway, The Daughter of the Skies, The Enchanted Pig, The Tale of the Hoodie, Master Semolina, The Sprig of Rosemary, The Enchanted Snake, and White-Bear-King-Valemon. The Swedish version is called Prince Hat under the Ground.
It was included by Andrew Lang in The Blue Fairy Book.
The White Bear approaches a poor peasant and asks if he will give him his youngest daughter; in return, he will make the man rich. The girl is reluctant, so the peasant asks the bear to return, and persuades her in the meantime. The White Bear takes her off to a rich and enchanted castle. At night, he takes off his bear form in order to come to her bed as a man, although the lack of light means that she never sees him.
When she grows homesick, the bear agrees that she might go home as long as she agrees that she will never speak with her mother alone, but only when other people are about. At
Gold-Tree and Silver-Tree is a Scottish fairy tale collected by Joseph Jacobs in his Celtic Fairy Tales. It is Aarne-Thompson type 709, Snow White. Others of this type include Bella Venezia, Nourie Hadig, and Myrsina.
ONCE upon a time there was a king who had a wife, whose name was Silver-tree, and a daughter, whose name was Gold-tree. On a certain day of the days, Gold-tree and Silver-tree went to a glen, where there was a well, and in it there was a trout.
Said Silver-tree, "Troutie, bonny little fellow, am not I the most beautiful queen in the world?"
"Oh indeed you are not."
"Why, Gold-tree, your daughter."
Silver-tree went home, blind with rage. She lay down on the bed, and vowed she would never be well until she could get the heart and the liver of Gold-tree, her daughter, to eat. At nightfall the king came home, and it was told him that Silver-tree, his wife, was very ill. He went where she was, and asked her what was wrong with her.
"Oh! only a thing which you may heal if you like."
"Oh! indeed there is nothing at all which I could do for you that I would not do."
"If I get the heart and the liver of Gold-tree, my daughter, to eat, I shall be well."
Graciosa and Percinet is a French literary fairy tale by Madame d'Aulnoy. Andrew Lang included it in The Red Fairy Book.
A king and queen had a beautiful daughter, Graciosa, and an ugly duchess hated her. One day, the queen died. The king grieved so much that his doctors ordered him to hunt. Weary, he stopped at the duchess's castle and discovered how rich she was. He agreed to marry her even though she demanded control of her stepdaughter.
The princess was reasoned into behaving well by her nurse. A handsome young page, Percinet, appeared. He was a rich young prince with a fairy gift, and he was in her service. He gave her a horse to ride to greet the duchess. It made the duchess's look ugly, and she demanded it, and that Percinet led it as he led it for Graciosa. Nevertheless the horse ran away, and her disarray made her look even uglier. The duchess had Graciosa beaten with rods, except that the rods were turned into peacock feathers, and she suffered no harm.
The wedding went on, and the king arranged a tournament to flatter the queen. The king's knights overthrew all the challengers, for all the ugliness of the queen, until a young challenger overthrew them and showed the
How the Stalos were Tricked is a Lapp fairy tale collected by J. C. Poestion in Lapplandische Märchen. Andrew Lang included it in The Orange Fairy Book.
A boy saw a giant man in the woods, and his mother identified it as a Stalo, a man-eater.
Soon after, Patto's children began to vanish. One day, a boy told him how he had seen his youngest daughter caught in the Stalo's trap and drowned. Patto went to the trap and made it catch him without drowning him. The Stalo carried him off. Patto stole his ax, and when the Stalo sent his three sons to find it, they could not; the Stalo came himself, Patto cut his head off, and the three sons ran off, being frightened that their father's head had just come off for no reason.
They went to their mother, and stayed with her. Nearby lived two brothers Sodno and their sister Lyma. One day the Stalos carried off Lyma and their reindeer. Her brothers followed, and had Lyma stir ashes into the food so that the Stalos would tell her to throw it out, and she could bring it to them; they had not eaten for three days. After they had eaten, they told her that once the oldest Stalo fell asleep, she must pull off his iron mantle and heat it on the fire.
In Love with a Statue is an Italian fairy tale collected by Thomas Frederick Crane in Italian Popular Tales.
A king had two sons. The younger one fell in love with a statue. His older brother set out to see if he could find a woman like it. He bought a dancing mouse and a singing bird on the way, and saw a beautiful girl, exactly like the statue, appeared at a window when a beggar knocked on the door. He posed as a merchant of looking glasses and lured her onto his ship, and sailed off with her.
While he was sailing, a large black bird told him that the mouse, the bird, and the lady would all turn his brother's head but if he said anything, he would turn to stone. The older prince showed his brother the mouse and bird, but killed them; to keep him from killing the lady, the younger prince had him thrown into prison and, when he would not speak, condemned to death. When it was time to execute, the older brother told the story and turned to stone.
After the lady and the younger prince married, they had two children, and a physician said that with their blood, he could restore the prince to flesh. The mother refused, but the king had it done while she was at a ball. The older prince
Jack and his Comrades is an Irish fairy tale collected by Joseph Jacobs, listing as his source Patrick Kennedy's Legendary Fictions of the Irish Celts.
In the Aarne-Thompson categorisation system, it is "type 130", i.e. "outcast animals find a new home".
Jack tells his mother he will seek his fortune. His mother offers him half a hen and half a cake with her blessing, or the whole of both without; he asks for the halves and is given the whole of both, with her blessing. On his way, he meets a donkey in a bog and helps it out. A dog runs up to him for protection, with a pot tied to its tail and a crowd hunting it; the donkey bellows and scares them off and Jack unties the pot. He shares his meal with the dog, while the donkey eats thistles; a half-starved cat comes by, and Jack gives it a bone with meat. In the evening, they rescue a rooster from a fox.
They go to sleep in the woods. The rooster crows, claiming to see dawn, and Jack realizes that it's a candle in a house. They go to it, and realize it is a robbers' den. Jack has all the animals make noise at once and himself shouts orders to destroy them all, frightening off the robbers. Jack and the animals eat and go to sleep. The
The Bird 'Grip' is a Swedish fairy tale. Andrew Lang included it The Pink Fairy Book. It is Aarne-Thompson type 550, the quest for the golden bird/firebird; other tales of this type include The Golden Bird, The Greek Princess and the Young Gardener, How Ian Direach got the Blue Falcon, The Nunda, Eater of People, and Tsarevitch Ivan, the Fire Bird and the Gray Wolf.
A king lost his sight. An old woman said that the song of the bird, 'Grip', would restore it. The king's eldest son offered to fetch the bird, from where it was kept in a cage by another king; but on his way to fetch the bird, he stayed at a merry inn, where he enjoyed himself so much that he forgot about his journey. His two brothers followed; the second also stayed at the inn, but the youngest said that he had to fetch the bird 'Grip', and continued on instead of remaining at the inn.
He stayed at a house in the woods where he heard shrieks in the night. In the morning, he asked about the shrieks. A girl told him that they came from a dead man, whom the innkeeper had beat and killed for not being able to pay the bill, and whom he refused to bury without the money for the funeral. The prince paid his bill, but was
The Child who came from an Egg or The Egg-Born Princess (Estonian: Munast sündinud kuningatütar) is an Estonian fairy tale, collected by Dr. Friedrich Kreutzwald in Eestirahwa Ennemuistesed jutud. W. F. Kirby included a synopsis of it in The Hero of Esthonia as "The Egg-Born Princess." Andrew Lang included it as "The Child who came from an Egg" in The Violet Fairy Book; he listed his source as Ehstnische Märchen, which was the German translation of Kreutzwald's work, by F. Löwe.
An old woman told a queen that she had two griefs: a new one, that her husband was at war, and an old one, that they had no children. She gave her a basket with an egg: the queen was to put it somewhere warm. In three months, it would break and let out a doll. She was to let it alone, and then it would become a baby girl. She would have a baby of her own, a son, and she was to put the girl with him and show them both to the king, and then raise the son herself but entrust the daughter to a nurse. Furthermore, she must invite this woman to the christening by throwing a wild goose feather into the air.
The queen obeyed exactly. When the christening arrived, a dazzlingly beautiful woman came in a cream-colored
The Crystal Ball is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm, tale number 197. It is Aarne-Thompson type 552A, the girls who married animals.
A witch was afraid of her three sons. She turned the oldest into an eagle and the second into a whale, and each could take his human form for only two hours a day. The youngest fled before he could suffer the same and went off to seek the king's daughter, bewitched and held prisoner in the Castle of the Golden Sun. He saw two giants quarreling over a wishing cap, and they asked him to settle the dispute. He put on the cap, forgot he had it on, and wished himself to the castle.
The king's daughter told him that only a crystal ball would break the enchantment. She directed him to go down the mountain and fight a wild bull beside a spring. If he killed it, a bird would spring out of it. If the bird was forced to let free an egg in its body, the crystal ball was its yolk, but the egg would light everything about it on fire if dropped on the land.
He fought the bull. The bird sprung free, but his brother the eagle harried it until it dropped the egg. This landed on a fisherman's hut, setting it ablaze, but his brother the whale drowned
The Fox Sister is a Korean fairy tale.
A man had three sons and no daughter. He prayed for a daughter, even if she was a fox. His wife gave birth to a daughter, but when the girl was six, one of their cows died every night. He set his oldest son to watch. The boy watched, and told him that his sister did it, by pulling the liver out of the cow and eating it. His father accused him of having fallen asleep and having a nightmare. He threw his son out. The second son was set to watch over the cows, and nothing happened until the moon was full again, but then the sister struck, and the second son was also thrown out. When the youngest son was set to watch, and claimed that their sister had gone to the outhouse, he claimed that the cows must have died from seeing the moon.
The older brothers wandered until they met a Buddhist monk, who sent them back with three magical bottles. They found their sister living alone; she told them their parents and brother had died, and implored them to stay. Finally, she persuaded them to stay the night and somehow made a rich meal for them. In the night, the older brother was woken by the sounds of chewing. He rolled over, saw the meal, and realized
The Golden Branch is a French literary fairy tale written by Madame d'Aulnoy. Andrew Lang included it in The Red Fairy Book.
A cruel king had a hideous but good-hearted son. The king wanted to arrange an alliance by marrying his son to a princess who was as ugly as he was. The prince, being tired enough of seeing himself, did not want to marry her. The king imprisoned him in a tower until he consented, and sent his ambassadors anyway. The princess did not want to consent, but her father sent her off with the ambassadors.
Meanwhile, the prince found a room with stained glass windows, that were depicting the adventures of a man like himself, and then the central figure became a tall and handsome young man, which no longer pleased him. He went back, and found a book, which he found depicted the same scenes, coming to life. In one, the people told him to find them their queen. Finally, he tried to find the key and the cabinet as depicted in the windows and book. He succeeded and found a man's hand, which horrified him, but a voice told him he could restore it to the man and directed him to go to the gallery and search where the light was brightest. There he found a portrait, and behind
The Golden Slipper is a Russian fairy tale collected by Alexander Afanasyev in Narodnye russkie skazki.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 510A, the persecuted heroine.
An old man brought back two fish from the market for his daughters. The older one ate hers, but the younger asked her fish what to do with it. It told her to put it in water, and it might repay her; she puts it in the well.
The old woman, their mother, loved her older daughter and hated her younger. She dressed up the older to take to Mass, and ordered the younger to husk two bushels of rye while they were gone. She wept beside the well. The fish gave her fine clothing and sent her off, husking the rye while she was gone. The mother came back talking of the beauty they had seen at Mass. She took the older daughter again, leaving the younger to husk three measures of barley and the younger went to Mass again with the fish's aid. A king's son saw her and caught her slipper with some pitch. He found the younger daughter and tried the shoe on her; when it fit, they married.
Andras Baive is a Sámi fairy tale collected by J. C. Poestion in Lapplandische Märchen. Andrew Lang included it in The Orange Fairy Book.
A town, very proud of their bailiff's ability to run, scorned tales that Andras Baive was faster, but one day, Andras Baive came to town. The bailiff challenged him, and they both tried to jump a boat; Andras Baive succeeded, but the bailiff caught his heel.
The next spring, the bailiff heard Andras Baive was driving reindeer nearby and disguised himself as a Stalo (or ogre). Andras Baive was trying to collect some wreckage that he might have use for when he heard the pipes that only the Stalo could play. He used magic to give himself the feet of a reindeer and galloped off, but not far enough to avoid the Stalo. Still, he sprang over a river by a stone in the middle of it, just covered by water. The Stalo came up, and Andras taunted him into trying to jump. Once he was in, Andras shot him with arrows. The Stalo told him that he could take all he owned and kill his dog, but must let his boy live.
Andras killed the dog, because if it licked its master's wounds, the Stalo would come back to life; the bailiff had only not brought him because he was
Baš Čelik (Serbian: Баш Челик, pronounced [bâʃ tʃɛ̌lik]), meaning "head of steel", from Turkish baş for "head" and çelik for "steel", is a famous Serbian folk tale. It is similar to the Brothers Grimm's "The Crystal Orb" (Aarne-Thompson type 552A).
A king had three sons and three daughters. On his deathbed he made his sons swear that they would marry off their sisters to the first person who asked. When one night a booming voice demanded that one sister be given to him, the two older brothers were reluctant, except for the youngest (the Least of Three) who heeded his father's dying request and handed her over. The same thing happened for the next two nights, until all the sisters were given away to mysterious strangers. The three brothers decided to go and search for their sisters to find out where they were.
Throughout their travels, they fought many-headed serpents; in addition, the youngest brother used his wits to defeat nine giants that were terrorizing the region; finally he saved the king’s daughter from a snake bite. Because of all this, he is allowed to marry the princess and becomes one of the king’s favorites. He lives in her castle and is allowed to visit any of the
The Black Bull of Norroway is a fairy tale collected by Joseph Jacobs in More English Fairy Tales.
The language, including references to bannocks, would indicate a Scottish story teller, in this instance, Kenny Norman Macleod.
It was included within The Blue Fairy Book by Andrew Lang, Scottish Folk Tales by Ruth Manning-Sanders; A Book Of British Fairytales by Alan Garner. J. R. R. Tolkien cited it in the essay "On Fairy-Stories" as the example of a "eucatastrophe."
It is Aarne-Thompson type 425A, the search for the lost husband. Others of this type include The King of Love, The Brown Bear of Norway, The Daughter of the Skies, East of the Sun and West of the Moon, The Enchanted Pig, The Tale of the Hoodie, Master Semolina, The Sprig of Rosemary, The Enchanted Snake, and White-Bear-King-Valemon.
A washerwoman's three daughters each in succession ask her to cook them some food to take with them on a journey to seek their fortune. Along their way, they consult a witch woman on how to seek the fortune. The woman advised them to look out her back door. On the third day, the eldest sees a coach-and-six come for her and leaves with it, delighted; the second daughter finds a coach-and-four
Buttercup or Butterball (Norwegian: Smørbukk, literally "Butter-buck") is a Norwegian fairy tale collected by Asbjørnsen and Moe. It is Aarne-Thompson type 327 C, the devil (witch) carries the hero home in a sack. Buttercup is so named because he is "plump and fat, and fond of good things".
While Buttercup's mother was baking, the dog began to bark, and Buttercup saw a witch coming "with her head under her arm, and a bag at her back". His mother had him hide under the kneading trough, but the witch said she had a silver knife to give him, and this lured him out. The witch told him that he had to climb into her sack to get it, and as soon as he was in, she carried him off. On the way, the witch asked "How far is it to Snoring?", and Buttercup said half a mile, so she rested, and using the knife he escaped, putting a big fir root in the sack.
The next day, she lured him out with the offer of a silver spoon, but he escaped in the same way, using a stone. The third day, she offered him a silver fork and went straight home without resting. She gave him to her daughter to cook and, because it was Sunday, went to church to invite guests to dinner. The daughter didn't know how to kill him.
Der Mond (The Moon) is an opera in one act by Carl Orff based on a Brothers Grimm fairy tale (KHM 175) with a libretto by the composer. It was first performed on 5 February 1939 by the Bavarian State Opera in Munich under the direction of Clemens Krauss. The composer describes it not as an opera but as Ein kleines Welttheater ("A little world theatre"); the performance lasts for about one hour and is usually paired with Orff's Die Kluge.
The story involves characters who steal the moon for their country which does not have a moon. They take the moon to their graves upon their deaths and St. Peter goes to the underworld to retrieve it and hang it again in the sky. Two speaking roles include that of a child and a landlord. Singing roles include the four rascals who steal the moon, St. Peter, a farmer and the narrator.
Diamond Cut Diamond is an Indian fairy tale. Andrew Lang included it in The Olive Fairy Book, describing as a Punjabi story collected by Major Campbell in Feroshepore.
A merchant, after many years of poverty and hard work, moved to a distant region and grew rich. He decided to go home. A man told him that his road was beset by thieves, and the merchant left his box of jewels with him until he could get men of his own family to accompany him. When he returned, the man denied that it had ever happened, and threw him out of the shop.
Koosby Ram saw him sitting on the road, and asked him what had happened. Then he told him to go back the next day, and ask for his box when someone gave him a signal. While he was waiting, a palanquin arrived, and the man was told that a lady wished to leave her boxes of jewels with him, for safety. While the talk was still going on, the merchant received the signal and came to ask. The man decided that it would put off the lady, and handed over the box. The merchant started to dance in the street. A message arrived that her husband had come, so she did not need to deposit the jewels after all. Then Koosby Ram burst out of the palanquin and joined the
Fair Brow is an Italian fairy tale collected by Thomas Frederick Crane in his Italian Popular Tales.
Italo Calvino included a variant from Istria in his Italian Folktales. He noted that the grateful dead man was a common medieval motif.
A merchant sent his son off to make money. Once he spent it all paying off a dead man's debts, so he could be buried, and another time, he bought a slave woman, the Sultan's kidnapped daughter, and married her. His father beat them both and drove them out of his home. The wife said that she would paint, and her husband would sell the paintings, though he must not tell where they came from. Turks saw them, recognized the work, and told him they wanted more. He said to come to his house, where his wife painted them, and they seized her and carried her off.
He walked on the shore, and an old man agreed to have him fish with him. They were captured by Turks and sold to the Sultan as slaves. The old man was made a gardener, and the young man to carry bouquets to the Sultan's daughter, whom the Sultan had imprisoned in a tower as punishment. One day his wife recognized him while he was singing. They escaped with a great deal of treasure.
The old man said
The Green Serpent (a green dragon, known as Serpentin Vert in French), is a French fairy tale written by Marie Catherine d'Aulnoy, popular in its day and representative of European folklore, that was published in her book New Tales, or Fairies in Fashion (Contes Nouveaux ou Les Fées à la Mode), in 1698. The serpent is representative of a European dragon. His description is: "he has green wings, a many-coloured body, ivory jaws, fiery eyes, and long, bristling hair."
The Green Dragon is really a handsome king placed under a spell for seven years by Magotine a wicked fairy. In many ways the tale is based on the story of Eros and Psyche, to which the narration pays conscious homage when referring to the "discovery" of the Green Dragon.
This story begins with a celebration feast for two twin princesses, who would later be named Laidronette and Bellotte. The King and Queen invite many fairies but forgot to invite Magotine, the older sister of Carabosse. Magotine was the oldest and most wicked fairy that existed. Magotine found out about the party, and was so furious for not being invited, that she placed a spell on one of the infant princesses, to become the ugliest woman in the world,
Jean, the Soldier, and Eulalie, the Devil's Daughter is a French fairy tale collected by Achille Millien.
The fable is classed as Aarne-Thompson type 313 (A girl helps the hero to flee) and revolves about a transformation chase. Others of this type include The Water Nixie, The Foundling-Bird, The Master Maid, and The Two Kings' Children. The motifs contain notable similarities to the legend of Jason and Medea, in the tasks assigned to the hero, and in the help from a woman connected with the villain.
Jean was coming back from his enlistment and knocked on a door because he was tired; Eulalie answered, and not even her statement that her father ate people persuaded him to go on. Her father, the Devil, came and would have eaten him at once, but Eulalie persuaded him to set Jean to work instead. The Devil ordered him to clean the fire irons with his bare hands. Jean told Eulalie she might as well have let him be eaten at once. Eulalie asked him to promise to marry her and take her away, and when he agreed she cleaned the irons with her magic wand. The next day the Devil set him to clean the horse trappings; Eulalie got Jean to repeat his promise and cleaned them for him. Then she made
The Bay-Tree Maiden is a Romanian fairy tale.
Once, a prince began to cry six weeks before he was due to be born. Nothing his mother did placated him until she promised him that he could marry Sanda-Lucsandra, a fair maiden who lived past nine lands and nine seas. When he grew up, however, he demanded that his parents marry him to her, and when the queen confessed she had made up Sanda-Lucsandra, he set out in search of her. He came to a great bay tree. While the prince rested under it, he heard a verse being pronounced, calling a maiden out, and a beautiful maiden came out. He seduced her, promising to marry her, and sneaked away the next morning. He came to a castle, where the master claimed that his own daughter was Sanda-Lucsandra and a wedding was arranged. The maiden could no longer get back into the bay tree, and so set out in search of the prince. She traded her clothing, unsuitable for travel, with a monk. Then she found the carriage where the prince was bringing his bride back. The prince took her up and she told the story of seeing a maiden weeping in the meadow because a prince had seduced her, and she could no longer get into the bay tree. He had her tell it to him
The Feather of Finist the Falcon or Finist the Falcon is a Russian fairy tale collected by Alexander Afanasyev in Narodnye russkie skazki.
It is Aarne–Thompson type 432, the prince as bird. Other tales of this type include The Green Knight, The Blue Bird, and The Greenish Bird.
A merchant asked his three daughters what they want him to bring them from the fair. The older two ask for dresses or shawls, but the youngest wants either the feather of Finist the Falcon or a red flower. In some variants, he went to the fair twice, able to bring back what her older sisters had asked for, but not hers, but she did not vary her request.
In the third or first visit, he found the feather, or else found the flower and must promise that his daughter will marry Finist the Falcon for it. Whether the flower or the feather, the thing brought Finist the Falcon to her at night, and he wooed her. If she was given the flower, he gave her a feather that would magically aid her. Her sisters discovered the visit; they might have spied, or she may have appeared in finer clothing, from use of the feathers, than they knew she had, or she may have appeared in church as a strange woman (like Cinderella at the
The Golden Bracelet is an American fairy tale from Kentucky, collected by Marie Campbell in Tales from the Cloud Walking Country, listing her informant as Aunt Lizbeth Fields.
It is Aarne-Thompson type 533. Another tale of this type is The Goose Girl, although The Golden Bracelet differs in several respects, appearing to be derived from a Gaelic variant.
A dying queen, instead of making her husband promise not to remarry, made her daughter a bracelet of golden thread and her own golden hair. The king remarried, to a woman with her own, ugly daughter. The new queen took all the best things for her daughter and would not let the king's daughter go to parties. The king's daughter took pleasure in her golden bracelet that she did not mind, but sat and sewed, and went for walks with her little dog. One day, a strange man rode by and asked what she was doing. As a joke, she said she was making a fine pocket handkerchief for the King of Spain. He told her that he was the King of Spain and she could give it to him; she told him she had to finish it, and it would take a week. After a week, he asked her to marry him; she told him she had to think, and her stepsister also thought about him.