A manufactured component is any type of physical object which is man made and duplicated in bulk. This may be any sort of finished good, part or product. The component does not have to be created on a production line; craft and batch made items are suitable. Examples of a manufactured component would be iPod Nano and Rolls-Royce Merlin engines.
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The Williams FJ33 is a family of turbofan jet engines intended for use in very light jet aircraft. The FJ33 is a scaled-down version of the FJ44 engine.
Engine configuration is believed to be a single stage fan, with booster stage/s, driven by a 2 stage LP turbine, supercharging a centrifugal HP compressor, driven by a single stage HP turbine. An annular combustor is featured.
The FJ33 has a dry weight of less than 300 lb (140 kg), overall diameter of 21.05in, 47.9in overall length, and produces between 1000 and 1,800 lbf (8,000 N) static thrust. Specific fuel consumption at 1,200 lbf (5,300 N) thrust (SLS, ISA) is understood to be 0.486 lb/h/lbf.
The FJ33 has been selected to power a number of different aircraft:
The Engine Alliance GP7000 is a turbofan jet engine that is currently in service on the Airbus A380.
Originally intended to power Boeing Commercial Airplanes's cancelled 747-500X/-600X, the engine has since been pushed for Airbus' A380-800 superjumbo. It is built around the GE90-110B/115B core and contains a Pratt & Whitney fan and low-pressure system design.
The competing Rolls-Royce Trent 900 was named as the lead engine for the then-named A3XX in 1996 and was initially selected by almost all A380 customers. However the GE/PW engine increased its share of the A380 engine market to the point where as of September 2007 it will power 47% of the super-jumbo fleet. This disparity in sales was resolved in a single transaction, with Emirates' order of 55 GP7000-powered A380-800s, comprising over one quarter of A380 sales (as of September 2007). Emirates has traditionally been a Rolls-Royce customer. A380 aircraft powered by the GP7000s will have A380-86X model numbers as 6 is the code for Engine Alliance engines.
Ground testing of the engine began in April 2004 and was first flight tested as the number two engine on GE's 747 flying testbed over Victorville, CA in December 2004. The
The Heinkel HeS 011 or Heinkel-Hirth 109-011 (HeS - Heinkel Strahltriebwerk) was an advanced World War II jet engine built by Heinkel-Hirth. It featured a unique compressor arrangement, combining a three-stage axial compressor with a "diagonal" stage similar to a centrifugal compressor, along with a low-compression impeller in the intake to smooth out airflow. Much like many of the projected piston-engined late-war German combat aircraft designs meant to be powered with the experimental Junkers Jumo 222 multibank powerplant, many of the German jet-powered aircraft designs at the end of the war were based around the HeS 011, but like the Jumo 222, the HeS 011 engine was not ready for production before the war ended in Europe.
Starting in 1936, Junkers started a jet engine development project under the direction of Wagner and Müller, who worked on axial compressor designs. By 1940 they had progressed to the point of having a semi-working prototype, which could not run under its own power and required an external supply of compressed air.
Meanwhile, Hans Mauch, in charge of engine development at the RLM, decided that all engine development should take place at existing engine
The Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 is a turbofan engine, developed from earlier Trent series engines. The Trent 1000 powered the Boeing 787 Dreamliner on its maiden flight, and on its first commercial flight.
On 6 April 2004 Boeing announced that it had selected two engine partners for its new 787: Rolls-Royce and General Electric (GE). Initially, Boeing toyed with the idea of sole sourcing the powerplant for the 787, with GE being the most likely candidate. However, potential customers demanded choices and Boeing relented. For the first time in commercial aviation, both engine types will have a standard interface with the aircraft, allowing any 787 to be fitted with either a GE or Rolls-Royce engine at any time as long as the pylon is also modified.
As with earlier variants of the Trent family, Rolls partnered with risk and revenue sharing partners on the Trent 1000 program. This time there were six partners: Kawasaki Heavy Industries (intermediate compressor module), Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (combustor and low pressure turbine blades), Industria de Turbo Propulsores (low pressure turbine), Carlton Forge Works (fan case), Hamilton Sundstrand (gearbox) and Goodrich Corporation (engine
The Lyulka AL-7 was a turbojet designed by Arkhip Mikhailovich Lyulka and produced by his Lyulka design bureau. The engine was produced between 1954 and 1970.
The AL-7 had supersonic airflow through the first stage of the compressor. TR-7 prototype developing 6,500 kgf (14,330 lbf, 63.7 kN) of thrust was tested in 1952, and the engine was initially intended for Ilyushin's Il-54 bomber. The afterburning version AL-7F was created in 1953. In April 1956, the Sukhoi S-1 prototype equipped with AL-7F exceeded Mach 2 at 18,000 m (70,900 ft), which lead to production of Su-7 'Fitter' and Su-9 'Fishpot' equipped with this engine. Later, the engine was adopted for Tu-128 'Fiddler' in 1960, and for the AS-3 'Kangaroo' cruise missile. The Beriev Be-10 jet flying boat used a non-afterburning AL-7PB with stainless steel compressor blades.
The Rolls-Royce Trent 700 is a turbofan engine, developed from the RB211, and is the first variant of the family of Trent engines.
When Airbus was planning its new twin-jet A330 in the late 1980s, Rolls-Royce proposed a version of the Trent 600 (known as the Trent 680) to power it. However, as the A330's design weight increased, it became clear that more thrust would be required, and Rolls proposed the Trent 720, the first member of the Trent 700 series.
In April 1989 Cathay Pacific became the first customer to specify an Airbus aircraft powered by Rolls-Royce engines when it ordered ten A330s powered by the Trent 700. The following month TWA followed suit with an order for twenty A330s. Air Canada chose the engine for its fleet of eight A330-300s.
The Trent 700 first ran in August 1990, and certification was achieved in January 1994. 90 minutes ETOPS approval was achieved in March 1995, and this was extended to 120 minutes in December 1995 and 180 minutes in May 1996.
In 2009 Rolls-Royce introduced an upgraded version of the engine dubbed the Trent 700EP (enhanced performance) which incorporated a package of improvements derived from later members of the Trent engine family
The Pratt & Whitney PW4000 is a family of high-bypass turbofan aircraft engines with certified thrust ranging from 52,000 to 99,040 lbf (230 to 441 kN). Built as the successor to the JT9D series engines, it has found much wider application than its predecessor.
The PW4000 is divided into three distinct families based on fan diameter.
The first family is the 94 inch (2.4 m) diameter fan with certified thrust ranging from 52,000 to 62,000 lbf (230 to 275 kN). It powers the Airbus A310-300, A300-600 aircraft, Boeing 747-400, 767-200/300 and MD-11 aircraft and is certified for 180-minute ETOPS if used in twinjets. These models include the PW4052, PW4056, PW4060, PW4062, PW4062A, PW4152, PW4156A, PW4156, PW4158, PW4460, and PW4462.
The second family is the 100 inch (2.5 m) diameter fan engine developed specifically for Airbus Industrie's A330 twinjet. It has certified thrust from 64,500 to 68,600 lbf (287 to 305 kN). Models are numbered PW4164, PW4168, and PW4168A. The launch of the Advantage70 program was announced at the 2006 Farnborough Airshow with a sale to Kingfisher Airlines. This package will increase certified thrust to 70,000 lbf (311 kN,) reduce fuel burn by about 1%, and
The Pratt & Whitney TF30 (company designation JTF10A) was a military low-bypass turbofan engine originally designed by Pratt & Whitney for the subsonic F6D Missileer missile carrier, but this project was cancelled. It was later adapted with an afterburner for supersonic designs, and in this form it was the world's first production afterburning turbofan, going on to power the F-111 and the F-14A Tomcat, as well seeing use in early versions of the A-7 Corsair II without an afterburner. First flight of the TF30 was in 1964 and production continued until 1986.
In the 1958, the Douglas Aircraft Company proposed a short-range, four-engined jet airliner to fill the gap below its new DC-8 intercontinental; it was known internally as the Model 2067, and to be marketed as the DC-9, jet. Pratt & Whitney (P&W) had offered its JT8A turbojet for the airliner, but Douglas preferred to go with a turbofan engine, which would have a greater fuel efficiency than a turbojet. P&W then proposed the JT10A, a half-scale version of its newly developed JT8D turbofan. Development of the new design began in April 1959, using the core of the JT8. Douglas shelved the projected DC-9 in 1960, as the targeted US
The Westinghouse J30, initially known as the Westinghouse 19XB, was a turbojet engine developed by Westinghouse Electric Corporation. It was the first American-designed turbojet to run, and only the second axial-flow turbojet to run outside of Germany. A simple and robust unit with six-stage compressor, annular combustor, and single-stage turbine, it initially gave 1,200 pounds of thrust. Its first flight was under a FG Corsair in January 1944. It was developed into the smaller J32, and the successful Westinghouse J34, an enlarged version which produced 3,000 pounds of thrust.
The Bristol Siddeley BS.100 was a British twin-spool, vectored thrust, turbofan aero engine that first ran in 1960, the engine was designed and built in limited numbers by Bristol Siddeley Engines Limited. The project was cancelled in early 1965.
The BS.100 was similar in general arrangement to that of the company's Pegasus design, but with the addition of plenum chamber burning (PCB), to enable the projected Hawker Siddeley P.1154 VSTOL fighter design to accelerate to supersonic speed. PCB is akin to reheat, but is only applied to the bypass stream (i.e. the front nozzles), as the flow turns from fan exit to the nozzle bearing plane. Variable area front nozzles were required, to maintain consistent fan matching regardless of whether the PCB was alight.
The BS.100 was also intended for the Fokker Republic D-24.
A preserved Bristol Siddeley BS100 is on public display at the Fleet Air Arm Museum, RNAS Yeovilton.
The AE 3007 is a turbofan engine produced by Rolls-Royce. In military service it is designated F137.
The engine provides up to 9,440 lbf (42 kN) of thrust. It consists of a fan, 14-stage high pressure compressor, 2-stage high pressure turbine and 3-stage low pressure turbine. It shares a common core with the AE 1107C-Liberty and AE 2100.
The Rolls-Royce RB282 is a new 2-shaft turbofan, which is due to run in Germany by the end of 2007, as part of the Efficiency, Environment and Economy (E3E) technology programme.
As a demonstrator, the RB282 is sized to develop a static thrust of 16,000-18,000lbf. At this size the gas generator comprises a 9-stage HP compressor driven by a 2-stage HP turbine. Probably, the fan has booster stages and the LP turbine at least 3 stages.
No engine cycle details are currently available for the demonstrator, but it is known that the E3E programme targets are:
1) a 20% reduction in fuel burn, when compared with a typical 5:1 bypass ratio turbofan
2) an 85% reduction in NOX emissions, when compared with current ICAO standards, by 2010
3) a 10dB reduction in noise level
The RB282 is aimed at the V2500/BR700 replacement market. Although the engine is intended to be scalable, it is understood that at small scale the gas generator may be simplified to a 7-stage HP compressor driven by a single stage HP turbine, since a high overall pressure cycle might not be suitable for the market.
For an outline of all engines used by American Motors, see list of AMC engines.
The American Motors Corporation straight-4 engine was used by a number of AMC, Jeep, and Dodge vehicles from 1984 to 2002.
American Motors devoted three years to the development of a new four-cylinder engine. The brand new engine was carefully designed to use AMC's existing tooling so that the spacing between the cylinder bores remained the same. The location of other major components, such as the distributor, oil filter, and starter were also kept the same to reuse the machine tools as for the AMC straight-6 engine.
According to Jeep's chief engineer, Roy Lunn, "unlike most engines available today [it] was not designed for passenger cars and then adapted for trucks. We specifically developed it with our Jeep vehicles and Eagle in mind. That's the reason that performance and durability were of such prime consideration from the very beginning." Although some of components were interchangeable between the AMC 258 cubic inch six-cylinder and the new engine, the four-cylinder was not a cut down version of the big six. Noted Roy Lunn, "There is some common competency, but the 4-cylinder includes many unique
The iPod Classic (stylized, and marketed as iPod classic) is a portable media player marketed by Apple Inc. The current generation is by far the most capacious iPod Classic, with 160GB of storage.
To date, there have been six generations of the iPod Classic, as well as a spin-off (the iPod Photo) that was later re-integrated into the main iPod line. (Some sources incorrectly refer to the revisions of the sixth generation as a separate "seventh generation.") All generations use a 1.8-inch (46 mm) hard drive for storage. The "classic" suffix was initially introduced when a freelance writer analyzing eBay's used/broken iPod marketplace categorized iPods into different types on May 21, 2006 and was formally introduced with the rollout of the sixth-generation iPod on September 5, 2007 Prior to this, all iPod Classic models were simply referred to as iPods. It is available in silver or black replacing the "signature iPod white".
Apple introduced the first-generation iPod Classic on October 23, 2001, with the slogan "1,000 songs in your pocket". The first iPod had a black and white LCD (liquid-crystal display) screen and featured a 5 GB hard drive capable of storing 1,000 songs encoded
The Rolls-Royce/Snecma Olympus 593 was a reheated (afterburning) turbojet which powered the supersonic airliner Concorde. Initially a joint project between Bristol Siddeley and Snecma based on Bristol's Olympus engine, Rolls-Royce Limited acquired Bristol, making it a division of Rolls-Royce.
Until Concorde's regular commercial flights ceased, the Olympus turbojet was unique in aviation as the only afterburning turbojet powering a commercial aircraft.
Installed in Concorde and while operating at Mach 2, Rolls-Royce engineers claimed that it was the world's most efficient jet engine.
The Olympus 593 project was started in 1964, using the BAC TSR-2's Olympus 320 as a basis for development. Bristol Siddeley of the UK and Snecma Moteurs of France were to share the project. SNECMA and Bristol were also involved in an unrelated joint project, the M45H turbofan.
Acquiring Bristol Siddeley in 1966, Rolls-Royce continued as the British partner. The early stages validated the basic design concept, but many studies were required to achieve desired specifications, e.g.
Initially, engineers studied using turbojets or turbofans, but the lower frontal cross-sectional area of turbojets in the end
The Aubisque was a small turbofan engine designed and produced by Turbomeca in the 1960's. It was used in the Saab 105 military trainer aircraft as the RM9. The engine is named after the Col d'Aubisque in the Pyrenees mountains, in line with company tradition.
Data from Flight Global archive.
The General Electric J47 turbojet (GE company designation TG-190) was developed by General Electric from the earlier J35 engine, and first flew in May 1948. The J47 was the first axial-flow turbojet approved for commercial use in the United States. It was used in many types of aircraft and more than 30,000 were manufactured before production ceased in 1956. It saw continued service in the US military until 1978.
Overhaul life for the J47 ranged from 15 hours (in 1948) to a theoretical 1,200 hours (625 achievable in practice) in 1956. For example, the J47-GE-23 was rated to run 225 hours between overhauls. As installed on the F-86F, it experienced one in-flight shutdown every 33,000 hours in 1955 and 1956.
Ground-based vehicles that used the engine include:
In the 1950s, interest in the development of nuclear-powered aircraft led GE to experiment with two nuclear-powered gas turbine designs, one based on the J47, and another new and much larger engine called the X211.
The design based on the J47 became the X39 program. This system consisted of two modified J47 engines which, instead of combusting jet fuel, received their heated, compressed air from a heat exchanger that was part of
The Wright J65 was an axial-flow turbojet engine produced by Curtiss-Wright under license from Armstrong Siddeley. A development of the Sapphire, the J65 powered a number of US designs.
Curtiss-Wright purchased a license for the Sapphire in 1950, with plans to have the production lines running in 1951. However a series of delays led to its service introduction slipping a full two years, by which point the Pratt & Whitney J57 was on the market and took many of the J65's potential sales. Nevertheless, once it entered production it proved to be as good as the British versions, and along with the Martin B-57, its original target, the J65 went on to power versions of the North American FJ Fury, Douglas A-4 Skyhawk, Republic F-84F Thunderstreak, and the two Lockheed XF-104 Starfighter prototypes.
A 6,500-10,380ehp turboprop version of the J65 (Sapphire) was developed by Curtiss-Wright as the Wright T49.
The General Electric F118 is a non-afterburning turbofan engine produced by GE Aviation, and is derived from the General Electric F110 afterburning turbofan.
The F118 is a non-afterburning derivative of the F110 specially developed for the B-2 Spirit stealth bomber. A single stage HP turbine drives the 9 stage HP compressor, whilst a 2 stage LP turbine drives the 3 stage fan. The combustor is annular. In 1998, the USAF's Lockheed U-2 fleet was fitted with a modified version of the F118.
The Lockheed J37 (company designation L-1000) was one of the first turbojet engines designed in the United States. It was not considered very important when it was first introduced in the 1930s and development was allowed to languish. By the time it was developed enough for production use, other engines, often British-derived, had surpassed it in performance. The design was later converted to a turboprop, the T35 and still later sold to Wright Aeronautical, where it saw some interest for use on what would become the B-52 Stratofortress, before that design moved to jet power. The J37 and T35 were built to the extent of a number of testbed examples but never entered production.
In 1930 Nathan C. Price joined Doble Steam Motors, a manufacturer of steam engines for cars and other uses. Over the next few years he worked on a number of projects and starting in autumn 1933 began working on a steam turbine for aircraft use. The engine featured a centrifugal compressor that fed air to a combustion chamber, which in turn fed steam into a turbine before exiting through a nozzle, powering the compressor and a propeller. The engine was fitted to a test aircraft in early 1934, where it
The Heinkel HeS 40 (HeS - Heinkel Strahltriebwerk) was an experimental constant-volume jet engine designed by Adoph Müller's team at Heinkel starting some time in 1940 or 41. It was based on the mechanical layout of the HeS 30, but replaced the conventional flame cans with oversized ones including large poppet valves that sealed off the chambers during firing. Constant-volume combustion, similar to the Otto cycle used in most piston engines, is considerably more fuel efficient than the constant-pressure combustion used in a typical jet engine.
The design was based on the HeS 30 not only to make parts more readily available as well as to make direct comparisons between the two easier. The main changes were to reduce the compression ratio of the compressor to about 2:1 (from 2.8:1), and add the new combustion chambers. The new chambers were considerably larger than the originals, forcing a reduction in the number from ten to six burners. The valve stems projected forward into streamlined fairings in the intake area behind the compressor.
The operational cycle of the engine is somewhat similar to a conventional six-cylinder engine. Slightly compressed air, similar to an automobile
The Heinkel HeS 8 (prefix being an abbreviation for "Heinkel Strahltriebwerk"-Heinkel Jet Engine) was an early jet engine designed by Hans von Ohain while working at Heinkel. It was the first jet engine to be financially supported by the RLM, bearing the official name 109-001. If naming had been common with other early german jet efforts, it would have been known as the Heinkel 001, but it does not appear this was used in practice.
The HeS 8 was intended to power the Heinkel He 280 twin-engine fighter, although both Heinkel and von Ohain preferred the axial HeS 30. A lengthy gestation period meant it was finally becoming ready for production at about the same time as the Junkers Jumo 004 and BMW 003. In 1942 work was ended on the HeS 8 and HeS 30, and Heinkel was ordered to move on to the larger Heinkel HeS 011 instead. The He 280 was left engineless, and was eventually abandoned.
By the time the HeS 3 program wound down in 1939, it appears that von Ohain no longer favoured the centrifugal compressor for jet engines. He had been "sold" on the axial compressor as early as 1938, after a meeting with D. Encke of AVA, but continued with the centrifugal design in the HeS 3 because it
The Kuznetsov NK-144 is an afterburning turbofan engine made by the Soviet Kuznetsov Design Bureau. Used on the early models of the Tupolev Tu-144 supersonic aircraft, it was very inefficient and was replaced with the Kolesov RD-36-51 turbojet engine.
The Pratt & Whitney PW1000G is a high-bypass geared turbofan engine currently selected as the exclusive engine for the Bombardier CSeries, Mitsubishi Regional Jet (MRJ) airliners, and Irkut MS-21, and as an option on the Airbus A320neo. The project was previously known as the Geared Turbofan (GTF), and originally the Advanced Technology Fan Integrator (ATFI).
In a conventional turbofan, once the overall cycle has been defined the tip speed required for the fan dictates the LP shaft rotational speed (i.e. rpm). Subsequently, at high bypass ratios (i.e. high radius ratios) the implied tip speeds of the LP turbine and (in this case) IP compressor are relatively low, which means extra turbine/compressor stages are required to keep the average stage loadings and, therefore, overall component efficiencies to an acceptable level. In a Geared Turbofan, fitting a reduction gearbox between the fan and the LP shaft allows the latter to run at a higher rotational speed thus enabling less stages to be used in both the LP turbine and the IP compressor. However, some energy will be lost as heat in the gear mechanism. Also the weight saved on turbine and compressor stages is offset to some extent
The Rolls-Royce RB.141 Medway was a large low-bypass turbofan engine designed, manufactured and tested in prototype form by Rolls-Royce in the early-1960s. The project was cancelled due to changes in market requirements that also lead to the development and production of the smaller but similar Rolls-Royce Spey, and the cancellation of the Armstrong Whitworth AW.681 military transport aircraft project.
Designed by a team led by Alan Arnold Griffith, the RB.141 was originally designed to meet a new propulsion requirement for the de Havilland DH.121 airliner project which later became the Hawker Siddeley Trident. The engine was later named after the River Medway in line with Rolls-Royce company tradition for jet engines. The DH.121 itself was being designed to a requirement and specification from British European Airways issued in February 1958, and when this requirement was altered to that of a smaller aircraft, the Medway in its initial form was no longer needed.
As a considerable amount of company funds had already been spent on development, the project was continued to rework the design for another future aircraft project, the Armstrong Whitworth AW.681 VTOL military transport
The General Electric F110 is an afterburning turbofan jet engine produced by GE Aviation. The F110 engine uses the same engine core design as the General Electric F101. The F118 is a non-afterburning variant. The engine is also license-built by Turkish Aerospace Industries.
The F-16 Fighting Falcon entered service powered by the Pratt & Whitney F100 afterburning turbofan. Seeking a way to drive unit costs down, the USAF implemented the Alternative Fighter Engine (AFE) program in 1984, under which the engine contract would be awarded through competition. The F110 currently powers 86% of the USAF F-16C/Ds (June 2005).
The F110-GE-100 provides around 4,000 lbf (17.8 kN) more thrust than the F100-PW-200 and requires more air, which led to the increase in the area of the engine intake. The F-16C/D Block 30/32s were the first to be built with a common engine bay, able to accept both engines, with block 30s having the bigger intake (known as "Big Mouth") and block 32s retaining the standard intake.
Initial orders were for the F110-GE-100 rated at 28,000 lbf (125 kN). Later versions of the F110 include the F110-GE-129 delivering 29,400 lbf (131 kN) thrust and the F110-GE-132 delivering
The General Electric YJ101 was an afterburning turbofan engines in the 15,000 lbf class (static thrust). Developed for the Northrop YF-17 entry in the Lightweight Fighter (LWF) competition, the YJ101 formed the basis for General Electric's highly successful F404 engine.
The General Electric J85 is a small single-shaft turbojet engine. Military versions produce up to 2,950 lbf (13.1 kN) of thrust dry, afterburning variants can reach up to 5,000 lbf (22 kN). The engine, depending upon additional equipment and specific model, weighs from 300 to 500 pounds (140 to 230 kg). It is one of GE's most successful and longest in service military jet engines, the civilian versions having logged over 16.5 million hours of operation. The United States Air Force plans to continue using the J85 in aircraft through 2040. Civilian models, known as the CJ610, are similar but supplied without an afterburner, while the CF700 adds an uncommon rear-mounted fan for improved fuel economy.
The J85 was originally designed to power a large decoy missile, the McDonnell ADM-20 Quail. The Quail was designed to be released from a B-52 Stratofortress in-flight and fly for long distances in formation with the launch aircraft, multiplying the number of targets facing the SA-2 surface-to-air missile operators on the ground. This mission demanded a small engine that could nevertheless provide enough power to keep up with the jet bomber. Like the similar Armstrong Siddeley Viper being
The Pratt & Whitney F135 is an afterburning turbofan developed for the F-35 Lightning II single-engine strike fighter. The F135 family has several distinct variants, including a conventional, forward thrust variant and a multi-cycle STOVL variant that includes a forward lift fan. The first production engines are scheduled to be delivered in 2009.
The origins of the F135 lie with the Lockheed Corporation Skunk Works's efforts to develop a stealthy STOVL strike fighter for the U.S. Marine Corps under a 1986 DARPA program. Lockheed employee Paul Bevilaqua developed and patented a concept aircraft and propulsion system, and then turned to Pratt & Whitney (P&W) to build a demonstrator engine. The demonstrator used the first stage fan from a F119 engine for the lift fan, the engine fan and core from the F100-220 for the core, and the larger low pressure turbine from the F100-229 for the low pressure turbine of the demonstrator engine. The larger turbine was used to provide the additional power required to operate the lift fan. Finally, a variable thrust deflecting nozzle was added to complete the "F100-229-Plus" demonstrator engine. This engine proved the lift-fan concept and led to the
The Supermarine Spitfire is a British single-seat fighter aircraft that was used by the Royal Air Force and many other Allied countries throughout the Second World War. The Spitfire continued to be used as a front line fighter and in secondary roles into the 1950s. It was produced in greater numbers than any other British aircraft and was the only British fighter in continuous production throughout the war.
The Spitfire was designed as a short-range, high-performance interceptor aircraft by R. J. Mitchell, chief designer at Supermarine Aviation Works (which operated as a subsidiary of Vickers-Armstrong since 1928). Mitchell continued to refine the design until his death from cancer in 1937, whereupon his colleague Joseph Smith became chief designer. The Spitfire's elliptical wing had a thin cross-section, allowing a higher top speed than several contemporary fighters, including the Hawker Hurricane. Speed was seen as essential to carry out the mission of home defence against enemy bombers.
During the Battle of Britain (July–October 1940), the Spitfire was perceived by the public as the RAF fighter of the battle, though the more numerous Hawker Hurricane shouldered a greater
The Pratt & Whitney J52 (company designation JT8A) is an axial-flow turbojet engine originally designed for the United States Navy, in the 9,000 lbf-class. It powered the A-6 Intruder and the AGM-28 Hound Dog cruise missile. The engine is still in use in 2011 in models of the A-4 Skyhawk and the EA-6B Prowler. The engine also provided the basis for the Pratt & Whitney JT8D, a popular civilian low-bypass turbofan engine.
The J52 was developed in the mid-1950s for the US Navy as a scaled-down derivative of the J57/JT3A. It was initially intended to power the A4D-3 Skyhawk, an advanced avionics model that was canceled in 1957. After being canceled, the USAF selected the J52 to power the AGM-28 Hound Dog cruise missile. The engine was designed with several unique features for this application, including a "conical centerbody mounted in the intake" and a "variable central plug ... in the nozzle". Then, in 1958, the US Navy selected the engine to power what became the A-6 Intruder.
The J52-P-6 model, designed for the YA2F-1 (YA-6A) Intruder, had a unique nozzle that could be angled downward at 23 degrees for STOL takeoffs; this was not used on production A-6s. Returning full circle, the
Pratt & Whitney PW6000 is a high-bypass turbofan engine designed for the Airbus A318 with a design thrust range of 18,000 to 24,000 lbf (82 to 109 kN).
Pratt & Whitney designed the engine with minimum complexity to significantly reduce maintenance cost and achieve weight and fuel consumption savings. However, tests revealed that the initial five-stage high compressor based design did not meet promised fuel burn performance. As a result many of the original customers switched their orders to the rival CFM International CFM56-5. To address the problem, Pratt & Whitney re-certified an updated design utilizing a six-stage high compressor designed by MTU Aero Engines in order to achieve promised performance. The German company manufactures the high-compressor and the low-pressure turbine. The HP compressor is driven by a single-stage turbine. On the LP spool a three-stage turbine drives a single-stage fan and a four-stage LP compressor.
The engine made its first flight August 21, 2000 on a test aircraft flown from Plattsburgh International Airport (KPBG), successfully completing a one hour and 20 minute flight. The engine final assembly line is located at MTU Aero Engines at their
The iPod Nano (stylized, and marketed as iPod nano) is a portable media player designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The first generation iPod Nano was introduced on September 7, 2005 as a replacement for the iPod Mini. It uses flash memory for storage. The iPod Nano has gone through six models, or generations, since its introduction. The current seventh generation iPod Nano will be released in October.
Development work on the design of the iPod Nano started only nine months before its launch date. The Nano was launched in two colors (black and white) with two available sizes: 2 GB (roughly 500 songs) and 4 GB (1000 songs). On February 7, 2006, Apple updated the lineup with the 1 GB model (240 songs). Apple also released some accessories, including armbands and silicone "tubes" designed to bring color to the Nano and protect it from scratches, as well as a combination lanyard-earphone accessory that hangs around the neck and avoids the problem of tangled earphone cords.
The iPod Nano uses general-purpose integrated circuits (IC) instead of smaller, low-cost custom-developed chips, possibly to reduce time-to-market. This design, however, increases the number of electronic components
The iPod 5G is the fifth generation of Apple Inc.'s iPod digital audio player. It is commonly (but incorrectly) referred to as the iPod video. The fifth generation iPod was introduced on October 12, 2005, shortly after the introduction of the iPod nano.
The fifth generation iPod (now sometimes referred to as the 5.5 Generation iPod due to updates made in hardware & software) was updated on September 12, 2006. This update included a brighter screen, a search feature, gapless playback and newly designed earphones. The addition of games and longer battery life when playing videos were also featured in the update, however later available as a firmware update for the original fifth generation iPod. An announced 80ￂﾠGB model replaced the 60ￂﾠGB model, while retaining the same dimensions as its predecessor.
On September 12, 2006 when Apple announced games would be coming to the fifth generation iPod, a new section was added to the iTunes Store. Users can download games for $4.99USD (ￂﾣ3.99GBP) to play on their iPod. However, the games work on fifth-generation iPods only, and not on iTunes.
The current game titles available to download as of July 17, 2007 (in catalogue order) are:
The Klimov VK-1 was the first Soviet jet engine to see significant production. It was developed by Vladimir Yakovlevich Klimov and first produced by the GAZ 116 works. It was derived from the British Rolls-Royce Nene. The engine was built under license in China as the WP-5.
Immediately after World War II, the Soviet Union manufactured copies of first generation German Junkers 004 and BMW 003 engines, which were advanced designs with poor durability, limited by Germany's availability of rare metals at wartime. However in 1946, before the Cold War had really begun, the new British Labour government under the Prime Minister, Clement Attlee, keen to improve diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union, authorised Rolls-Royce to export 40 Rolls-Royce Nene centrifugal flow turbojet engines. In 1958 it was discovered during a visit to Beijing by Whitney Straight, then deputy chairman of Rolls-Royce, that this engine had been copied without license to power the MiG-15 'Fagot', first as the RD-45, and after initial problems of metallurgy forced the Soviet engineers to develop a slightly redesigned (and metallurgically closer) copy, the engine had then entered production as the Klimov VK-1
The NK-8 was a low-bypass turbofan engine built by the Kuznetsov Design Bureau, in the 20,000 lbf (90 kN) thrust class. It powered production models of the Ilyushin Il-62 and the Tupolev Tu-154A and B models.
NK-8 on LeteckeMotory.cz - NK-8 (cs)
The Lyulka AL-5 was a Soviet axial compressor turbojet developed from the Lyulka TR-3 turbojet around 1950. It was flight-tested in a number of prototype aircraft, but was not accepted for production.
The Lyulka TR-3A was redesignated as the AL-5 to honor Arkhip Mikhailovich Lyulka in 1950. It was a single-shaft turbojet with a seven-stage axial compressor. It had an annular combustion chamber with 24 nozzles and a single-stage turbine. It had a fixed exhaust nozzle and had a turbine starting unit.
It was used in the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG I-350, but flamed out when it was throttled back on that aircraft's first flight on 16 June 1951. It was also flown in the Lavochkin La-190 in 1951, but suffered similar problems. The AL-5 was modified as the AL-5G in an attempt to rectify the flameout problem, which also increased its thrust by 2 kN (450 lbf), and was successfully flown in the prototype Ilyushin Il-46 bomber during 1952, but was not placed into production when that aircraft failed to beat out the Tupolev Tu-16.
Data from Kay, Turbojet
The Pratt & Whitney J48 (company designation JT7) is a turbojet engine developed by Pratt & Whitney as a license-built version of the Rolls-Royce Tay. The Tay/J48 was an enlarged development of the Rolls-Royce Nene (Pratt & Whitney J42).
In 1947, at the behest of the United States Navy, Pratt & Whitney entered into an agreement to produce the Rolls-Royce Nene centrifugal-flow turbojet engine under license as the J42 (company designation JT6), for use in the Grumman F9F Panther fighter aircraft. Concerned that the Nene would not have the potential to cope with future weight growth in improved versions of the Panther, Luke Hobbs, vice president of engineering for P&W's parent company, the United Aircraft Corporation, requested that Rolls-Royce design a more powerful engine based on the Nene, which Pratt & Whitney would also produce.
By 1948, Rolls-Royce had designed the Tay turbojet, also a centrifugal-flow design. However, as Rolls-Royce was then developing an improved design with an axial compressor, which would become the Avon, the development and production of the Tay turbojet was left to Pratt & Whitney. However, Rolls-Royce retained the rights to the Tay outside of the United
The Pratt & Whitney JT8D is a low-bypass (0.96 to 1) turbofan engine, introduced by Pratt & Whitney in February 1963 with the inaugural flight of Boeing's 727. It was a modification of the Pratt & Whitney J52 turbojet engine, which powered the US Navy A-6 Intruder attack aircraft. The Volvo RM8 is an afterburning version that was license-built in Sweden for the Saab 37 Viggen fighter. A "fixed" version for powerplant and ship propulsion is known as the FT12.
The JT8D is an axial-flow front turbofan engine incorporating dual-spool design. There are two coaxially-mounted independent rotating assemblies: one rotating assembly for the low pressure compressor (LPC) which consists of the first six stages (i.e. six pairs of rotating and stator blades, including the first two stages which are for the bypass turbofan), driven by the second (downstream) turbine (which consists of three stages); and a second rotating assembly for the high-pressure compressor (HPC) section, which has seven stages. The high-pressure compressor is driven by the first (upstream) turbine, which has a single stage.
The front-mounted bypass fan has two stages. The annular discharge duct for the bypass fan runs along
The de Havilland PS.23 or PS.52 Gyron, originally the Halford H-4, was Frank Halford's last turbojet design while working for de Havilland. Intended to outpower any design then under construction, the Gyron was the most powerful engine of its era, producing 20,000 lbf (89 kN) "dry", and 27,000 lbf (120 kN) with afterburner ("reheat" in British terminology). The engine was actually too large for most roles and saw no production use. It was later scaled down to 45% of its original size to produce the de Havilland Gyron Junior, which was somewhat more successful.
The Gyron was Halford's first axial-flow design, a complete departure from his earlier centrifugal-flow engines based on Whittle-like designs, the Goblin (H-1) and Ghost (H-2). The Gyron was also one of the first engines designed specifically for supersonic flight.
The Gyron first ran in 1953. Flight testing started in 1955 on a modified Short Sperrin (a bomber design that was instead turned into an experimental aircraft), replacing the lower two Rolls-Royce Avons with the much larger Gyrons. Flight rating was 18,000 lbf (80,000 N). In 1955 the DGy.1 received an official rating of 15,000 lbf (67,000 N). Addition of a reheat
The Garrett ATF3 (US military designation F104) is a 3-spool turbofan engine developed at the California division of Garrett AiResearch. Due to mergers it is currently supported by Honeywell Aerospace. The engine is unusual as the core flow path is twice reversed 180 deg. Aft of the fan, the axial compressor has five stages, after which the gas path progresses to the aft end of the engine. There, it is reversed 180 deg and flows through a centrifugal compressor stage, the combustors and then the turbine stages. Beyond this, the flow is then reversed 180 deg again to exit in the fan bypass duct. All engine accessories are mounted on the aft end of the engine under an engine tail-cone.
The engine was first flown in the Teledyne Ryan YQM-98 Compass Cope R high altitude UAV, as the YF104-GA-100. The engine proved to have a very low infrared signature, as the hot turbine was not externally visible and the core exhaust mixed with the bypass air before exiting the engine. The pilots of U-2 high altitude chase planes reported being unable pick up the YQM-98A with either radar or IR sensors. It was later used in the Northrop Tacit Blue stealth demonstrator because of these characteristics.
The Rolls-Royce Derwent is a 1940s British centrifugal compressor turbojet engine, the second Rolls-Royce jet engine to enter production. Essentially an improved version of the Rolls-Royce Welland, itself a renamed version of Frank Whittle's Power Jets W.2B, Rolls inherited the Derwent design from Rover when they took over their jet engine development in 1943. Performance over the Welland was somewhat improved, reliability dramatically, making the Derwent the chosen engine for the Gloster Meteor and many other post-World War II British jet designs.
When Rover was selected for production of Whittle's designs in 1941 they set up their main jet factory at Barnoldswick, staffed primarily by various Power Jets personnel. Rover felt their own engineers were better at everything, and also set up a parallel effort at Waterloo Mill, Clitheroe. Here Adrian Lombard developed the W.2 into a production quality design, angering Whittle who was left out of the team. Lombard went on to become the Chief Engineer of the Aero Engine Division of Rolls-Royce for years to come.
After a short period Lombard decided to dispense with Whittle's "reverse flow" design, and instead lay out the engine in a
The GE Honda HF120 is a small turbofan engine for the light-business jet market. GE Honda Aero Engines estimates a market for as many as 200 units annually.
The HF120 turbofan is the first engine to be produced by GE Honda Aero Engines. Developed from the Honda HF118, the HF120 is currently undergoing an extensive testing program, with formal certification testing scheduled to begin in late 2008. The engine has a wide-chord swept fan, two-stage low-pressure compressor and counter rotating high-pressure compressor based on a titanium impeller. Evolved from Honda's HF118, the engine demonstrates a 2,050 lbf takeoff thrust. The engine touts environmental performance, striving to meet and exceed future environmental standards for business jet engines. Greater fuel efficiency and reduced emissions are two of the results of the engine's lightweight design.
The RD-180 (РД-180, Ракетный Двигатель-180, Rocket Engine-180) is a Russian dual-combustion chamber, dual-nozzle rocket engine, derived from the RD-170 used in Soviet Zenit rockets, and currently provides first-stage power for American Atlas launch vehicles.
The combustion chambers of the RD-180 share a single turbopump unit, much like in its predecessor, the four-chambered RD-170. The RD-180 is fueled by a kerosene/liquid oxygen mixture and uses an extremely efficient, high-pressure staged combustion cycle. The engine runs with an oxidizer to fuel ratio of 2.72 and employs an oxygen-rich preburner, unlike typical fuel-rich US designs. The thermodynamics of the cycle allow an oxygen-rich preburner to give a greater power-to-weight ratio, but with the drawback that high pressure, high temperature gaseous oxygen must be transported throughout the engine. The movements of the engine nozzles are controlled by four hydraulic actuators. The engine can be throttled from 40% to 100% of rated thrust.
During the early 1990s General Dynamics Space Systems Division (later purchased by Lockheed Martin) acquired the rights to use the RD-180 in the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) and
The Tumansky R-13 designed by Sergei Alekseevich Gavrilov is a Soviet turbojet engine.
The Tumansky R-13 is a development of the successful Tumansky R-11 engine. It is a two-spool axial-flow turbojet featuring a new five-stage high-pressure compressor, new combustion chamber design to facilitate restarting the engine at high altitudes, new afterburner, and greater use of titanium components. It is used by MiG-21M, MF, SM, and SMT, and Sukhoi Su-15M and TM. R-13 is also built in China as LM WP13, and experienced similar fate like Tumansky R-11: originally, both were supposed to be licensed built in China, but due to Sino-Soviet split, all Soviet technical support was withdrawn and China was forced to do the job itself. Under the leadership of the general designer Mr. Jiang Hepu (江和甫), both R-11 and R-13 were successfully built in China on its own, and were given the designation of WP-7 and WP-13 respectively.
The General Electric J31 was the first working jet engine produced in the United States and also the first jet engine to be produced in quantity there.
The J31 was essentially a production version of the prototype Whittle W.1 that had been sent to the US after the Tizard Mission successes. General Electric's extensive experience in turbocharger production made them the natural choice for producing the engine, which they initially referred to as the I-16, I-A referring to the original prototype. The United States Army Air Forces later decided to standardize all their jet engine naming, at which point the I-16 became the J31.
Like the W.1, the I-16 produced 1,650 pounds force (7.3 kN) of thrust and weighed about 850 lb. Production started for the P-59 Airacomet in 1943, and by the time the lines shut down in 1945, a total of 241 had been built. GE also used the basic design to produce the much larger I-40 with 4,000 lbf, but this design was passed on to Allison as the J33, much to GE's chagrin.
A derivative of the J31, the General Electric I-20, given the military designation J49, was ordered but later cancelled.
The General Electric J97 is a single-shaft turbojet engine designed and built by General Electric as a compact high-performance engine for light attack fighters and eventually a number of drone projects.
The J97 was based on GE's General Electric GE1/J1 series of turbojets and the engine development was financed by the United States Air Force. The original application was to be the Northrop P-530 (which later evolved into the YF-17), but it was ultimately only used in several small drone aircraft.
Data from: Flight International (1978)
The Pratt & Whitney Canada PW300 series is a family of turbofan engines developed by Pratt & Whitney Canada specifically for business jet applications.
The basic configuration of the PW300 is as follows: single stage fan, driven by a three-stage low pressure turbine, supercharging a four-stage axial/single stage centrifugal high pressure compressor, driven by a two stage high pressure turbine. An annular combustor is featured. Some versions have an unmixed exhaust, but the PW306 and PW308 include a forced mixer. A Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) system is incorporated.
The PW307A is a new centre-line engine developed specifically for a tri-jet application on the Dassault Falcon 7X. The PW307 was certified by Transport Canada in March 2005.
The PW308A has been chosen to power the Scaled Composites White Knight Two, the launch aircraft for Virgin Galactic's SpaceShipTwo.
The T-44 was a medium tank first produced towards the end of the Second World War by the Soviet Union. It was the successor to the famous T-34. Fewer than two thousand T-44s were built, but the design became the basis for the T-54/55 series of main battle tanks, the most-produced tank of all time.
By the end of 1940, when production of the T-34 started, there were already plans to improve the vehicle's reliability and operational capabilities by adopting more modern technology.
This design project was designated T-34M. It had enhanced armour protection, a three-man hexagonal turret, torsion bar suspension instead of Christie suspension, road wheels with internal shock absorption, increased fuel capacity, and more main gun ammunition (100 rounds instead of 77 in standard T-34). The bow machine gun and driver's hatch switched positions on the glacis plate. In addition to six smaller wheels, the suspension of the T-34M had four return rollers. The original model V-2 12-cylinder diesel engine developing 500 hp (373 kW) was replaced by a new 12-cylinder diesel engine which produced 600 horsepower (450 kW). It had a new 8-speed transmission system. It was the first tank design to feature
The Soloviev D-30 is a Russian two-shaft low-bypass turbofan engine, officially referred to as a "bypass turbojet." A supersonic afterburning version, the D-30F6, is used in the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-31 interceptor, while the non-afterburning civilian versions, the D-30Kp and D-30KU are used in the Ilyushin Il-62M and Tupolev Tu-154M airliners, and in the Ilyushin Il-76MD, TD heavy cargo aircraft.
In the mid-1970s, the Soviet Union began the search for a high-speed interceptor to supplement and replace its MiG-25. The Mig-25 had two enormously powerful Tumansky R-15 turbojets, allowing Mach 3 speed at high altitudes, but the problem was their weak performance at low altitudes, not even sufficient to cross Mach 1 boundary. More acute problems stemmed from the tendency of the Foxbat's engines to break down at maximum throttle in high-speed situations. A new engine, this time a low-bypass turbofan, was needed to power the new interceptor. The Mikoyan-Gurevich (MiG) design bureau contracted Soloviev (later Aviadvigatel, now Perm) to build such an engine, for the aircraft that would become known as the MiG-31.
Aviadvigatel came up with the D30-F6 turbofan. Capable of generating 9,500 kgf
The General Electric/Allison J35 was originally developed by General Electric (GE company designation TG-180) in parallel with the Whittle-based centrifugal-flow J33, and was the United States Air Force's first axial-flow (straight-through airflow) compressor engine. The J35 was fairly simple, consisting of an eleven-stage axial-flow compressor and a single-stage turbine. With the afterburner, which most models carried, it produced 7,400 lbf.
Like the J33, the design of the J35 originated at General Electric, but major production was by Allison.
The J35 first flew in the XP-84 in 1946. Late in 1947, complete responsibility for the production of the engine was transferred to the Allison Division of the General Motors Corporation. Some J35s were built by GM's Chevrolet division. More than 14,000 J35s had been built by the time production ended in 1955.
The J35 was used to power the Bell X-5 variable-sweep research aircraft and various prototypes such as the XB-43 Jetmaster, XB-45 Tornado, Convair XB-46, XB-47 Stratojet, Martin XB-48, and Northrop YB-49. It is probably best known, however, as the engine used in two of the USAF's leading fighters of the 1950s, the F-84 Thunderjet and
The General Electric J79 is an axial-flow turbojet engine built for use in a variety of fighter and bomber aircraft. The J79 was produced by General Electric Aircraft Engines in the United States, and under license by several other companies worldwide
A simplified civilian version, designated the CJ805, powered the Convair 880, while an aft-turbofan derivative, the CJ805-23, powered the Convair 990 airliners and a single Sud Aviation Caravelle intended as a prototype for the US market.
The J79 was developed in the 1950s as an outgrowth of the General Electric J73 engine program, originally called J73-GE-X24A, intended for reliable Mach 2 performance.
The first flight of the engine was on 20 May 1955 where the engine was placed in the bomb bay of a J47-powered B-45C (48-009). The J79 was lowered from the bomb bay and the four J47s were shut down leaving the B-45 flying on the single J79. The first flight after the 50-hr qualification test was on 8 December 1955, powering the second pre-production Douglas F4D Skyray, with the J79 in place of its original Westinghouse J40 engine as part of the General Electric development and qualification program. The YF-104 was the next airplane to
The Pratt & Whitney F119 (company designation PW5000) is an afterburning turbofan engine developed by Pratt & Whitney for the Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor advanced tactical fighter.
The engine delivers thrust in the 35,000 lbf (160 kN) class, and is designed for supersonic flight without the use of afterburner (supercruise). Delivering almost 22% more thrust with 40% fewer parts than conventional, fourth-generation military aircraft engine models, the F119 allows sustained supercruise speeds of up to Mach 1.72. The F119's nozzles incorporate thrust vectoring technology. These nozzles direct the engine thrust ±20° in the pitch axis to give the F-22 enhanced maneuverability.
The F119 derivative, The F135, produces 40,000 lbf (180 kN) of thrust for the F-35 Lightning II.
The T-64 is a Soviet main battle tank, introduced in the early 1960s. It was a more advanced counterpart to the T-62: the T-64 served tank divisions, while the T-62 supported infantry in motor rifle divisions. Although the T-62 and the famed T-72 would see much wider use and generally more development, it was the T-64 that formed the basis of more modern Soviet tank designs like the T-80.
The T-64 was conceived in Kharkov (Kharkiv, Ukraine) as the next-generation main battle tank by Alexander A. Morozov, the designer of the T-54 (which in the meantime would be incrementally improved by Leonid N. Kartsev's Nizhny Tagil bureau, in models T-54A, T-54B, T-55, and T-55A).
A revolutionary feature of the T-64 is the incorporation of an automatic loader for its 125-mm gun, allowing a crewmember's position to be omitted, and helping to keep the size and weight of the tank down. Tank troopers would joke that the designers had finally caught up with their unofficial hymn, "Three Tankers"—the song had been written to commemorate the crewmen fighting in the Battle of Khalkhin Gol, in 3-man BT-5 tanks in 1939.
The T-64 also pioneered other Soviet tank technology: the T-64A model of 1967
Toyota Motor Corporation's V family of engines were a longitudinally mounted V8 engine design. They were used from the 1960s through the 1990s. The V family engine was used in the prestigious Toyota Century. Toyota had worked with Yamaha to produce the first Japanese full aluminum alloy block engine. The V Family is often referred to as the Toyota Hemi as the engine features a similar cylinder head design to those found on the Chrysler's Hemi, even though most of the engine design is completely different.
The V 2.6L engine was first used in the Crown Eight from 1964 to 1967 as part of the second generation Crown range. Thereafter the Crown Eight was replaced by the upmarket Toyota Century.
The 3V, 4V and 5V engines were used in the Toyota Century up until 1997 when it got a complete redesign and gained the 5.0 L 1GZ-FE V12.
The V series engines, like several Toyota Motor Corporation engines (e.g. 2T-C, 2M, 4M etc.) at the time had a hemispherical combustion chamber. The position of the spark plugs, like the 2T-C and Chrysler's Hemi, were located on the top of the head.
The Williams FJ22 was a small turbofan engine that was being developed by Williams International for very light jet (VLJ) aircraft applications.
Williams International had been building small turbofan engines for cruise missile applications since the 1960s, and had successfully entered the general aviation market in 1992 with the FJ44 engine. That same year, NASA initiated a program, Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE), to partner with manufacturers and help develop technologies that would revitalize the sagging general aviation industry. In 1996, Williams joined AGATE's General Aviation Propulsion (GAP) program to develop a fuel-efficient turbofan engine that would be even smaller than the FJ44 and designated the FJX-2 engine.
Initially, Williams contracted with Burt Rutan's Scaled Composites to design and build the Williams V-Jet II, a Very Light Jet (VLJ) to use as a testbed and technology demonstrator to showcase the new engine. The aircraft, powered by two interim FJX-1 man-rated version of Williams' cruise-missile engine, debuted at the 1997 Oshkosh Airshow. Development of the FJX-2 engine progressed, most of the design work was completed during 1998 with
The Klimov RD-33 is a turbofan engine that was developed in OKB-117 led by S. P. Izotov (now OAO Klimov) from 1968, production started in 1981. It is an 8,000 to 9,000 kilograms-force (78,000 to 88,000 N; 18,000 to 20,000 lbf) thrust class turbofan twin-shaft engine with afterburner built by the Klimov company of Russia and has several variants. It features a modular design, individual parts can be replaced separately and has a good tolerance to the environment. The RD-33 is simple to maintain and retains good performance in challenging environments.
In early 1970s the RD-33 was selected for new light fighter jet, later becoming Mikoyan MiG-29, the other option was Tumansky R-67-300. Years of development has built an extensive engine family. A newly designed thrust vectoring nozzle (TVN) is now available. New models of the RD-33 family include BARK digital monitoring and control systems. Repair and maintenance of RD-33 engines takes advantage of an information and diagnostics system (IDS).
Baseline model developed in 1976 to power the MiG-29.
A model without afterburner for various types of aircraft, such as the Il-102.
A variant used to power the JF-17 / FC-1. According to
Mazda's first automobile engine was the V-twin family. This tiny air-cooled engine only lasted a few years in the early 1960s before Mazda moved to the standard straight-4 format used in most modern automobiles.
The first automobile engine from Mazda was the 356 cc (60x63 mm) air-cooled 90° V-twin. It was an overhead valve 4-valve pushrod design. This engine produced 16 hp (11.9 kW) and 16 lb·ft (22 Nm) in the 1960 Mazda R360.
The engine was enlarged to 577 cc for the 1961 B600.
The Rolls-Royce RB.106 was an advanced military turbojet engine design of the 1950s by Rolls-Royce Limited. The work was sponsored by the Ministry of Supply.
The RB.106 was a two-shaft design with two axial flow compressors each fed by its own single stage turbine and reheat. Although of similar size to the Rolls-Royce Avon, allowing it to be used as a drop-in replacement, it would have produced about twice the thrust at 21,750 lbf (96.7 kN). The two-stage layout was relatively advanced for the era; the single-stage de Havilland Gyron matched it in power terms, while the two-spool Bristol Olympus was much less powerful at the then-current state of development.
Apart from being expected to power British aircraft such as those competing for Operational Requirement F.155 it was selected to be the powerplant for the Avro Canada CF-105 Arrow. However funding was cut with the 1957 Defence White Paper which terminated most aircraft development then under way. The Arrow moved to an indigenous two-spool design similar to the RB.106, the Orenda Iroquois.
A scaled-up version of the RB106 intended for F.155 was the Rolls-Royce RB122.
The RB.106 project was cancelled in March 1957, at a
The Rolls-Royce/MAN Turbo RB.193 was a vectored thrust turbofan engine designed and manufactured by Rolls-Royce and MAN Turbo in the mid-1960s. The engine test flew in its sole application, the VFW VAK 191B VTOL fighter aircraft but production did not follow after cancellation of the associated aircraft project.
The RB.193 was a joint development project by Rolls-Royce/MAN Turbo originally designed to meet a requirement for the VFW VAK 191B project, design work commenced after a contract from the Federal German Ministry of Defence was signed in December 1965. Bristol Siddeley (from 1966 part of Rolls-Royce) were sub-contracted to manufacture components for the engine.
The design was similar in concept and closely related to the earlier Bristol Siddeley Pegasus, employing the same layout of 'hot' and 'cold' pairs of rotating thrust nozzles, internal airflow was the same as the Spey. Tethered flight testing of the VFW VAK 191B commenced in 1966 with the first free hovering flight taking place at Bremen in October 1971. The aircraft later successfully transitioned from hovering to forward flight at Manching in October 1972. By the end of the test programme in 1975 the RB.193 had
The original Atar Volant or C.400 P1 was a turbojet engine produced by SNECMA (Société National d'Etude et de Construction de Moteurs d'Aviation) engineers, as part of their 'Atar' series. Encased in a basic fairing which could hold fuel and remote-control equipment, the unit weighed 5,600 pounds (2550 kg) and generated a thrust of approximately 6,200 pounds-force (27.6 kN); the Atar Volant was able to cause vertical lift, which was precisely its purpose. There were later Atar Volant models, each made improvements and alterations to the previous designs, and eventually resulted in a full-fledged craft.
The Coléoptère was a VTOL or "Vertical Take-Off and Landing" aircraft that was designed by SNECMA during the 1950s. While the Coléoptère was not the first VTOL aircraft, none of its predecessors had an annular wing designed to land vertically. The benefit of this annular wing was the requirement for very little landing or take-off space. However, the design of the Coléoptère met with many problems, such as overcoming the torque imparted to a vertical engine by its own turbine wheels and rotating compressor, and discovering and developing a method of balancing the craft on the column
The Williams F112 is a small turbofan engine made by Williams International designed to power cruise missiles. It has been used as the powerplant for the AGM-129 Advanced Cruise Missile and the AGM-86B advanced cruise missile, as well as the experimental X-36 and X-50.
Although Williams originally designed these small turbofans to power target drones while aiming for a contract in the Subsonic Cruise Armed Decoy (SCAD) program, it quickly became apparent that these were valuable tools to be used in the future to power advanced cruise missiles. Originally designated the F107-WR-14A6, then designated the F107-WR-103 by Williams then designated the F112-WR-100 by the USAF.
Though the true benefits that the F112 brought to the AGM-129 are classified, it has been said that the F112 increased the range of the AGM-129 to four times that of the AGM-86B. Another benefit is that the infrared heat signature has also been reduced or nearly eliminated, aiding the stealthiness of the AGM-129. This was accomplished with the use of high tech materials and coatings.
The Avro Canada TR.5 Orenda was the first production jet engine from Avro Canada's Gas Turbine Division. Similar to other early jet engines in design, like the Rolls-Royce Avon or General Electric J47, the Orenda nevertheless outperformed its rivals in most ways, and the Orenda-powered Canadair Sabres were among the fastest of all first-generation jet fighters. Over 4,000 Orendas of various marks were delivered during the 1950s, Avro's greatest engine success.
The Orenda design started in the summer of 1946 when the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) placed an order with Avro Canada for a new night/all-weather fighter. To power the design, Avro decided to build their own engines. Avro had recently purchased Turbo Research, a former crown corporation set up in Leaside, Toronto, to develop jet engines.
Turbo Research was in the midst of designing their first engine, the 3,000 lbf (13 kN) TR.4 Chinook, which could easily be scaled up for the new fighter design. It was decided to continue working on the Chinook to gain experience even though they had no intention of producing it.
As work on the Chinook continued, Avro's newly christened Gas Turbine Division started work on the larger
The Lycoming ALF 502 is a geared turbofan engine produced by Lycoming, AlliedSignal and then Honeywell Aerospace.
The original YF102 was developed at the Lycoming Turbine Engine Division in Stratford, Connecticut by adding a fan to the Lycoming T55 engine, which was used as the gas generator. Six engines were built for the Northrop YA-9 prototype ground-attack aircraft. These engines were later reused in the C-8A Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA).
The ALF 502 was certified in 1980, and used on the British Aerospace 146 and Bombardier Challenger 600. The improved, higher-thrust LF 507 was used on the Avro RJ update of the BAe 146.
Data from "ALF 502 Turbofan Engine -Honeywell Aerospace". November 29. http://www.honeywell.com/sites/portal?smap=aerospace&page=Propulsion_Engines3&theme=T5&catID=CDAB5CA0F-004C-6DBB-B50C-20859E156C16&id=H8D86112E-572B-E3ED-33CB-C2D8ED91628F&sel=1g.
Leyes, Richard A., II; William A. Fleming (1999). The History of North American Small Gas Turbine Aircraft Engines. Reston, VA: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. ISBN 1-56347-332-1.
The Ishikawajima Ne-20 (Japanese: 石川島 ネ-20) was Japan's first turbojet engine. It was developed during World War II in parallel with the nation's first military jet, the Nakajima Kikka.
The decision to manufacture this engine came about because of the unsuitability of two earlier powerplants selected for the Kikka, the Tsu-11 and the Ne-12. The Ne-20 was made possible by Imperial Japanese Navy engineer Eichi Iwaya obtaining photographs and a single cut-away drawing of the German BMW 003 engine.
Only a small number of these engines, perhaps fifty, were produced before the end of the war. Two of them were used to power the Kikka on its only flight on August 7, 1945. Only a few of the engines under construction survived. It was also planned to use the engine to power a version of the Ohka kamikaze weapon, but this was not implemented before the end of the war.
Three Ne-20s have been preserved to the present day, one at Ishikawajima-Harima's internal company museum in Tanashi, and two at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC.
The Lotarev DV-2 (or PSLM DV-2) is a two-spool turbofan engine manufactured in Považská Bystrica, Slovakia by Považské Strojárne Letecké Motory (PSLM) (former ZVL) and designed in partnership with Ivchenko Lotarev Design Bureau.
Developed from the Ivchenko AI-25 turbofan engine, ZVL was also responsible for pre-production and serial engine production.
The DV-2 is a two-spool modular aviation turbofan engine with a single-stage overhung fan, two-stage LP compressor, seven-stage HP compressor, single-stage HP turbine, and two-stage LP turbine, and an annular combustion system. Maximum power at T-O is 4,850 lbf (21.58 kN) with a specific fuel consumption of 0.593lb/hr/lbf, at Maximum Rating, Sea Level Static, ISA.
One of the most unusual features of this military engine is the single stage fan; most trainer and combat engines have multi-staged fans, single stage fans normally being the preserve of civil and military transport turbofans. Ivchenko Lotarev chose a very low specific thrust (net thrust/airflow) cycle for the DV-2, so a single stage fan is sufficient to develop the desired fan pressure ratio. Even so, the pressure ratio produced is somewhat higher than that normally
The Rolls-Royce RB282 is a new series of twin-spool turbofan engines under development by Rolls-Royce.
The first variant of this engine is intended to power the Dassault Future Falcon mid-sized business jet, the replacement for the Falcon 50 EX, due to enter service in 2012. The engine will develop approximately 10,000 pounds of thrust.
The Shenyang Liming WS-10 (or WS10, WS stands for Woshan, Chinese: 涡扇, meaning turbofan), codename Taihang, is a turbofan engine designed and built in the People's Republic of China. The WS-10A is already being used to power the J-11B. In the next year or two, China plans to use this engine to power the Chengdu J-10 aircraft that currently feature Russian Saturn AL-31FN turbofan engines.
The WS-10 project had it roots in the earlier WS-6 turbofan, which was abandoned at the start of the 1980s. Development of the WS-10 started in 1987 by Shenyang Aeroengine Research Institute (606 Institute) of the China Aviation Industry Corporation and was based upon the core of CFM International CFM56 engines imported from the United States in 1982. This core itself deriving from the F16's GE F101 engines. The original WS-10 was found to lack the performance needed for modern jet-powered fighters and was never used to power an aircraft. The design was modified and an improved version, the WS-10A, was tested on a prototype Shenyang J-11 fighter in 2002.
In 2005 it was reported that, according to Russian sources familiar with China's WS-10A turbofan development project, WS-10A was being developed
The Fairchild J44 was a small turbojet developed in the 1940s by the Fairchild Engine Division.
The Fairchild Engine Division (previously the Ranger Aircraft Engine Division of the Fairchild Engine & Aircraft Corporation) began development of the J44 in 1947. It was used in target drones, missiles, and as jet boosters on several aircraft types.
The General Electric F404, F412, and RM12 are a family of afterburning turbofan engines in the 10,500–19,000 lbf (47–85 kN) class (static thrust). The series are produced by GE Aviation. Partners include Volvo Aero, which builds the RM12 variant. The F404 was developed into the larger F414 turbofan, as well as the experimental GE36 civil propfan.
GE developed the F404 for the F/A-18 Hornet, shortly after losing the competition for the F-15 Eagle's engine to Pratt & Whitney, and losing the Lightweight Fighter (LWF) competition to the P&W-F100 powered YF-16. For the F/A-18, GE based the F404 on the YJ101 engine they had developed for the Northrop YF-17, enlarging the bypass ratio from .20 to .34 to enable higher fuel economy. The engine was designed with a higher priority on reliability than performance. Cost was the main goal in the design of the engine.
GE also analyzed "throttle profiles" and found that pilots were changing throttle settings far more often than engineers previously expected; putting undue stress on the engines. GE also sought with the F404 a design that would avoid compressor stalls and other engine failures, and would respond quickly to control inputs; a common
The General Electric/Rolls-Royce F136 was an advanced turbofan engine being developed by General Electric and Rolls-Royce plc for the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II. The two companies stopped work on the project in December 2011 after failing to gather Pentagon support for further development.
All early F-35s were to be powered by the Pratt & Whitney F135 but it was planned that engine contracts would be competitively tendered from Lot 6 onward. The engines selected would be either the F135 or an engine produced by the GE/RR Fighter Engine Team and designated the F136. The GE/RR Fighter Engine Team was a co-operation between GE Aviation in Cincinnati, Ohio, United States (60% share) and Rolls-Royce in Bristol, United Kingdom and Indianapolis, Indiana, USA (40% share).
On 21 July 2004, the F136 began full engine runs at GE's Evendale, Ohio facility. The engine ran for over an hour during two separate runs. In August 2005, the United States Department of Defense awarded the GE and Rolls-Royce team a $2.4 billion contract to develop its F136 engine. The contract was for the system development and demonstration (SDD) phase of the F136 initiative, scheduled to run until September
The HeS 30 (HeS - Heinkel Strahltriebwerk) was an early jet engine, originally designed by Adolf Müller at Junkers, but eventually built and tested at Heinkel. It was possibly the best of the "Class I" engines, a class that included the more famous BMW 003 and Junkers Jumo 004, but work on the design was stopped by the Reichluftfahrtministerium (RLM) as they felt the Heinkel team should put all their efforts into other designs.
The HeS 30 was designed before the RLM introduced standardized naming for their engine projects. It was assigned the official name 109-006, and it was sometimes called the HeS 006 as a short form. Development ended just as these names were being introduced, so "HeS 30" naming is much more common.
Herbert Wagner started engine developments at Junkers in 1936, placing Adolf Müller in overall charge of the project. In 1938 Junkers purchased Junkers Motoren (Jumo), formerly a separate company. In October 1939, under pressure from the RLM, Junkers moved all their engine work to Jumo's Dessau factories from their main plants at Magdeburg. Müller would have ended up in a subordinate role after the move, but decided to leave instead. He and about half of the
The Progress D-18T (or Lotarev D-18T) is a three-shaft, high-bypass turbofan engine rated at more than 50,000 pounds of thrust and designed to power very large transport aircraft.
The engine was designed by the Ivchenko-Progress Design Bureau and is manufactured by Motor Sich factory in Zaporizhia, Ukraine. It was the first engine in the USSR that could deliver more than 20,000 kgf (~44,000 lbf or ~196 kN) of thrust.
Currently 188 D-18T engines are in operation with a total flight time of over 1 million hours.
Data from forecastinternational.com
The Honeywell/ITEC F124 is a low-bypass turbofan engine derived from the civilian Honeywell TFE731. The F125 is an afterburning version of the engine. The engine began development in the late 1970s for the Republic of China (Taiwan) Air Force AIDC F-CK Indigenous Defence Fighter (IDF), and it first ran in 1979. The F124/F125 engine has since been proposed for use on other aircraft, such as the T-45 Goshawk and the SEPECAT Jaguar, and currently powers the Aero L-159 Alca and the Alenia Aermacchi M-346.
The F124 has a rather unusual design for a two spool gas turbine engine, using both axial and centrifugal compressors in its high pressure compressor.
There are currently only three production variants of the engine, although several more have been proposed throughout its lifespan.
In 1978, Garrett announced joint research on the TFE1042 afterburner with Swedish company Volvo Flygmotor AB in order to provide an engine for the AIDC F-CK Indigenous Defence Fighter (IDF) being developed for the Republic of China (Taiwan) Air Force (ROCAF). The TFE731 Model 1042 was touted as a low bypass ratio "military derivative of the proven commercial TFE731 engine" and "provides efficient, reliable,
The Snecma Silvercrest is a French turbofan currently under development which will be manufactured by Snecma.
Announced at the 2006 NBAA convention. The engine was originally designed as an 8,500- to 10,500-pound thrust turbofan to power super mid-size to large cabin business jets or 40 to 60-seat regional jets with a MTOW between 45,000 and 60,000 lb. Since original development the thrust range has been raised and is currently quoted as 9,500 to 12,000 pounds of thrust.
The engine architecture includes a solid wide-chord swept fan without booster, followed by a 4 axial stage + 1 centrifugal stage high pressure compressor. The overall pressure ratio is 27:1 with a core pressure ratio of "over 17". The high pressure compressor is driven by a single stage turbine, while the 40-inch (1.0 m) fan is coupled to a 3-stage low pressure turbine.
The high pressure spool and combustor have been run in a core-demonstrator reaching the take-off speed of 20,300rpm. A full engine demonstrator is due to run towards the end of 2008, while engine certification is pencilled in for the end of 2010 or early 2011 and should be available towards 2012.
Turbomeca, which like Snecma is a part of the SAFRAN
The Turbo-Union RB199 is an aircraft turbofan jet engine designed and built in the early 1970s by Turbo-Union, a joint venture between Rolls-Royce, MTU and FiatAvio. The RB199's sole production application is the Panavia Tornado.
The RB199 is a modular engine, improving servicing. It was flight tested on the Avro Vulcan, the same aircraft that was used for the flight testing of Concorde’s Olympus 593. A specially built nacelle was designed that was fully representative of the Tornado fuselage and attached below the Vulcan. The aircraft first flew in this configuration in 1972.
All the installed versions of the RB199 are of three spool design and are fitted with thrust reversers for braking on the Panavia Tornado. The engine's compact design gives high thrust-to-weight and thrust-to-volume ratios while maintaining good handling characteristics and low fuel consumption. The RB199 has amassed over 5 million flight hours since entering service with the Royal Air Force, Luftwaffe, German Navy, Italian Air Force and Royal Saudi Air Force. The engine was also used in the EAP Demonstrator assembled at, and flown from, Warton in Lancashire, England, and the early prototype Eurofighter
The Avro Canada TR.4 Chinook was Canada's first turbojet engine, designed by Turbo Research and manufactured by A.V. Roe Canada Ltd. Named for the warm Chinook wind that blows in the Rocky Mountains, only three Chinooks were built and none were used operationally. The Chinook was nevertheless an extremely successful design in terms of introducing new concepts and materials, and after being scaled up from 2,600 lbf (12 kN) to 6,500 lbf (29 kN), would go on to become one of the early jet age's most respected designs, the Orenda.
In late 1942 the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) sent Dr. J.J. Greene and Malcolm Kuhring to England to report on the various advanced research projects and to see if Canada could play a role in them. One of the team's many topics in the resulting report was an introduction to the work on jet engines being carried out by Frank Whittle at Power Jets. The Department of Munitions and Supply (DMS) thought this was a wonderful opportunity to get in at the "ground floor" of a newly developing field, one that the country could enter with relative ease and thereby reduce their dependence on foreign suppliers for aircraft engines.
In early 1943 a new
The Porsche 109-005 was a turbojet engine intended to power the FZG-76B long-range missile (an improved version of the V-1 flying bomb known as the FZG-76).
The engine was 11.25 feet (3.43 m) long and 1.9 feet (0.58 m) in diameter. It had a designed thrust of 1,100 pounds-force (4.9 kN) and a fuel capacity of 140 US gallons (530 L).
The Rolls-Royce Merlin is a British liquid-cooled, V-12, piston aero engine, of 27-litre (1,650 cu in) capacity. Rolls-Royce Limited designed and built the engine which was initially known as the PV-12: the PV-12 became known as the Merlin following the company convention of naming its piston aero engines after birds of prey.
The PV-12 first ran in 1933 and, after several modifications, the first production variants were built in 1936. The first operational aircraft to enter service using the Merlin were the Fairey Battle, Hawker Hurricane and Supermarine Spitfire. More Merlins were made for the four-engined Avro Lancaster heavy bomber than for any other aircraft; however, the engine is most closely associated with the Spitfire, starting with the Spitfire's maiden flight in 1936. A series of rapidly applied developments, brought about by wartime needs, markedly improved the engine's performance and durability.
Considered a British icon, the Merlin was one of the most successful aircraft engines of the World War II era, and many variants were built by Rolls-Royce in Derby, Crewe and Glasgow, as well as by Ford of Britain at their Trafford Park factory, near Manchester. The Packard
The Rolls-Royce RB.82 Soar was a small, expendable British axial-flow turbojet intended for cruise missile use and built by Rolls-Royce Limited in the 1950s.
The Soar was developed in the early 1950s, and was first demonstrated at the Farnborough Airshow in 1953 on each wingtip of a Gloster Meteor flying testbed.
The output of the improved RB.93 Soar was 1,750 lbf (7.8 kN). As an expendable device the life of the Soar engines was limited at 10 hours.
It was to be the intended powerplant for the "Red Rapier" missile project one of the projects coming from the UB.109T operational requirement. Red Rapier was to be built by Vickers-Armstrong Ltd, Weybridge, Surrey as the Vickers 825. Development was cancelled in 1953. Three Soar engines were used on this design, two on the tips of the tailplane, and one on the tip of the fin. One-third scale models without engines were built and air launched from a Washington bomber (the Boeing B-29 Superfortress in RAF service) on the Woomera missile range to test the aerodynamics and autopilot operation.
As the Westinghouse J81 it was a powerplant for the US AQM-35 missile
It was employed as an auxiliary powerplant for the Italian Aerfer Ariete
The Rolls-Royce Trent 800 is a high-bypass-ratio turbofan engine, developed from the RB211 and is one of the family of Trent engines. It was designed to be used on the Boeing 777.
In the late 1980s, Boeing was investigating an enlarged development of its 767 model dubbed the 767X, for which Rolls-Royce proposed the Trent 760. By 1990 Boeing abandoned its planned 767X and instead decided to launch a new, larger aircraft family designated 777 with a thrust requirement of 80,000 lbf (360 kN) or more. The Trent 700's 2.47 m (97 in) diameter fan would not be big enough to meet this requirement, so Rolls proposed a new version with a 2.80 m (110 in) fan diameter, designated Trent 800. Rolls brought in Kawasaki Heavy Industries and Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries as risk and revenue sharing partners who between them took an 11 per cent stake in the Trent 700 and 800 programmes.
Testing of the Trent 800 began in September 1993, and certification was achieved in January 1995. The first Boeing 777 with Trent 800 engines flew in May 1995, and entered service with Thai Airways International on 31 March 1996. 180 minutes ETOPS approval was granted by the FAA on 10 October 1996.
The Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire was a British turbojet engine produced by Armstrong Siddeley in the 1950s. It was the ultimate development of work that had started as the Metrovick F.2 in 1940, evolving into an advanced axial flow design with an annular combustion chamber that developed over 11,000 lbf (49 kN). It powered early versions of the Hawker Hunter and Handley Page Victor, and every Gloster Javelin. Production was also started under license in the United States by Curtiss-Wright as the J65, powering a number of US designs.
Design evolution of the Sapphire started at Metropolitan-Vickers (Metrovick) in 1943 as an offshoot of the F.2 project. With the F.2 reaching flight quality at about 1,600 lbf (7,100 N), the Metrovick engineers turned to producing larger designs, both an enlarged F.2 known as the Beryl, as well as the much larger F.9 Sapphire, the names being chosen after they decided to use gemstones for future engine names. The Beryl was soon running and eventually developed 4,000 lbf (18 kN) thrust, but the only project to select it, the Saunders-Roe SR.A/1, was cancelled.
By this point the F.9 MVSa.1 was developing about 7,500 lbf (33 kN), somewhat more than its
The de Havilland Ghost (originally Halford H-2) was the de Havilland Engine Company's second turbojet engine design to enter production and the world's first gas turbine engine to enter airline (BOAC) service. A scaled up development of the Goblin, the Ghost powered the de Havilland Venom, de Havilland Comet and SAAB Tunnan.
The Ghost came about when de Havilland started work on what was to become the Comet in 1943. Frank Halford's first design, the H-1, was just entering production and he was able to meet the power requirements of the Comet by simply scaling up features of the H-1. The resulting H-2 also used ten larger flame cans in place of the Goblin's sixteen smaller ones, using "split intakes" to each can to feed in more air, as if there were twenty cans feeding off the compressor. While the prototype was being built, de Havilland bought Halford's firm and reformed it as the de Havilland Engine Company, renaming the H-1 and H-2 as the Goblin and Ghost respectively.
The Ghost was already being tested in 1944, and flew in 1945. This was long before the Comet or Venom was ready for flight. By this point the Ghost had been selected for the Swedish "JxR" fighter project, which
The General Electric J87 (company designation X211) was a nuclear-powered turbojet engine designed to power the proposed WS-125 long-range bomber. The program was started in 1955 in conjunction with Convair for a joint engine/airframe proposal for the WS-125. It was one of two nuclear-powered gas turbine projects undertaken by GE, the other one being the X39 project.
The X211 was a relatively large turbojet engine of straight conventional layout, save for the combustion chamber being replaced with a heat exchanger. It featured variable-stator compressors and an afterburner. A single nuclear reactor was intended to supply heat to two X211 engines.
In 1956, the USAF decided that the proposed WS-125 bomber was unfeasible as an operational strategic aircraft. In spite of this, the X211 program was continued for another 3 years, albeit with no target application. It was finally terminated in mid-1959, and by 1961, all funding for nuclear propulsion was canceled.
The iPod Shuffle (stylized, and marketed as iPod shuffle) is a digital audio player designed and marketed by Apple Inc. It is the smallest model in Apple's iPod family, and was the first to use flash memory. The first model was announced at the Macworld Conference & Expo on January 11, 2005; the current fourth generation model was introduced on September 1, 2010.
Released on January 11, 2005, the first-generation iPod Shuffle weighed 0.78 ounces (22 g) and was designed to be easily loaded with a selection of songs and to play them in random order. According to Apple, owners of existing iPods had often left the music selection to "shuffle", and the new iPod Shuffle was a way of implementing that in a much more cost-effective fashion. It relies on the use of an "autofill" feature in iTunes, which can select songs at random from a user's music library (or from a specific playlist) and copy as many as will fit into the iPod Shuffle's memory. The Shuffle can hold up to 240 songs (1-GB model, based on Apple's estimate, of four minutes per song and 128 kbit/s AAC encoding). It used the SigmaTel STMP35xx system on a chip (SOC) and its software development kit (SDK) v2.6, a flash memory IC,
The Progress D-436 is a three-shaft high by-pass turbofan engine developed by the Ukrainian (then Soviet) company Ivchenko-Progress. It was initially developed to meet the requirements for late versions of the Yakovlev Yak-42 and the Antonov An-72 in the 1980s. The engine first ran in 1985 and was subsequently certified in 1987. Several variants have been developed and are currently in service with a variety of aircraft.
The D-436 engine was developed as a follow on to the Lotarev D-36. The engine took several of its design features from that engine and another Progress engine, the Progress D-18. The D-436 incorporated an updated, higher RPM fan, a lower emissions combustor, and new compressor sections. Several variants of the engine incorporate a FADEC.
Data from Flight, Jane's Aero Engines and forecastinternational.com
The Tumansky R-25 is a turbojet engine, which is seen as the ultimate development of Tumansky R-11. It was designed under the leadership of Sergei Alekseevich Gavrilov.
The Tumansky R-25 was designed as a replacement for Tumansky R-13 in MiG-21 fighters. R-25 is a two-spool axial-flow turbojet featuring a new compressor with increased overall pressure ratio and airflow, variable two-stage afterburner, and greater use of titanium.
The R-25 jet engine's specialty was the addition of a second fuel pump in the afterburning stage. Activating this "CSR" booster feature allows the engine to develop 96.8 kilonewtons (21,800 lbf) of thrust under 4,000 metres (13,000 ft) of altitude. The limit of operation is 1 minute for dogfight practice and 3 minutes for an actual wartime emergency, as further use causes the engine to overheat and potentially explode. Use of CSR requires engine take-out inspection upon landing and every minute of its use counts as one full hour of engine runtime on the logbook.
This further shortens the already limited cycle time of Soviet made engines between industrial-level overhauls and adds great cost, but the extreme thrust of CSR allowed to the MiG-21bis to reach a
The General Electric CF700 (military designation TF37) is a turbofan development of the CJ610. The CF700 has an uncommon rear-mounted fan connected directly to the low-pressure turbine blade for improved fuel economy.
The General Electric CJ610 is a non-afterburning turbojet engine derived from the military J85, and is used on a number of civilian business jets. The model has logged over 16.5 million hours of operation. Civilian versions have powered business jets such as the Learjet 23 and the Hamburger Flugzeugbau HFB-320 Hansa Jet.
A development, the CF700 added a rear-mounted "flade" connected directly to the low-pressure turbine blade.
The GTRE GTX-35VS Kaveri is an afterburning turbofan being developed by the Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE), a lab under the DRDO in Bangalore, India. An Indian design, the Kaveri was originally intended to power production models of the HAL Tejas fighter, also known as the Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) being built by the Aeronautical Development Agency. However, the Kaveri programme failed to satisfy the necessary technical requirements or keep up with its envisaged timelines and was officially delinked from the Tejas programme in September 2008. GTRE is now running two separate successor engine programmes, the K9+ programme and the K10 programme.
In 1986, the Indian Defence Ministry's Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) was authorized to launch a programme to develop an indigenous powerplant for the Light Combat Aircraft. It had already been decided early in the LCA programme to equip the prototype aircraft with the General Electric F404-GE-F2J3 afterburning turbofan engine, but if this parallel program was successful, it was intended to equip the production aircraft with this indigenous engine.
The DRDO assigned the lead development responsibility to its
The Honeywell HTS900 is a turboshaft engine produced by Honeywell Aerospace. A growth version of the LTS101 which it is designed to replace, the HST900 is in the 1,000 shp (745 kW) class.
The Jumo 004 was the world's first turbojet engine in production and operational use, and the first successful axial compressor jet engine ever built. Some 8,000 units were manufactured by Junkers in Germany during late World War II, powering the operational Messerschmitt Me 262 fighter jet and the Arado Ar 234 reconnaissance / bomber jet, along with prototypes including the Horten Ho 229 aircraft. Variants of the engine were produced in Eastern Europe for years following the war.
The feasibility of jet propulsion had been demonstrated in Germany in early 1937 by Hans von Ohain working with the Heinkel company. Most of the RLM remained uninterested, but Helmut Schelp and Hans Mauch saw the potential of the concept and encouraged Germany's aero engine manufacturers to begin their own programmes of jet engine development. The companies remained skeptical and little new development was carried out.
In 1939 Schelp and Mauch visited the companies to check up on progress. Otto Mader, head of Junkers Motoren (Jumo), stated that even if the concept was useful, he had no one to work on it. Schelp responded by stating that Dr Anselm Franz, then in charge of Junkers' turbo- and supercharger
The Microturbo TRI 60 is a small, expendable turbojet engine developed for use in cruise missiles, target drones, and other small unmanned air vehicles. Variants of this engine produce from 3.5 - 5.3 kN (800 - 1200 lbf) of thrust. The engine first ran in 1974.
The TRI 60 engine was developed in the 1970s to meet the need for a small, inexpensive, reliable, and expendable jet engine for use in cruise missiles and other small unmanned air vehicles. This need was broken down into the key requirements for high production at low cost and a high thrust-to-weight ratio. The first generation of engines, the "tri-axial" engines, were named that way because they featured only three simple compressor sections. The engine overall only has 20 major components. These first engines, the "-1", "-2", and "-3" variants, were used in many different applications (list below in the "Variants" section.)
The latest version of the tri-axial engine, the "-5" and the "-5+" variants are the only tri-axial models still in production. One significant change from the early models to these later ones is the use of an ECU to monitor the performance of the engine and adjust fuel flow accordingly.
In the late 1980s
The SNECMA ATAR is a French axial-flow turbojet engine built by Snecma. It was derived from the German World War II BMW 003 design, but extensively developed though a progression of more powerful models. The name is derived from its original design group, Atelier technique aéronautique de Rickenbach. The Atar powered many of the French post-war jet aircraft, including the Vautour, Étendard and Super Étendard, Super Mystère and several models of the Mirage.
Herman Östrich's team in charge of the development of the BMW 003 engine had moved to the town of Stassfurt, near Magdeburg, in February 1945. An underground production factory was being set up in a salt mine outside town by C.G. Rheinhardt in a desperate attempt to continue engine production in face of the now overwhelming Allied air campaign. This mine is well known historically as it was also being used for the storage of uranium compounds as part of the Nazi atomic bomb program.
The town of Stassfurt surrendered to US forces on 12 April 1945, and Östrich hid much of the technical data in a local cemetery. The next day a ten-man team made up primarily of engineers from Pratt & Whitney arrived, and he handed the data over to
The General Electric/Allison J33 was a development of the General Electric J31, enlarged to produce significantly greater thrust, starting at 4,000 lbf (18 kN) and ending at 4,600 lbf (20 kN) with an additional low-altitude boost to 5,400 lbf (24,000 N) with water-alcohol injection.
The J33 was originally developed by General Electric as a follow-on to their work with the designs of Frank Whittle during World War II. Their first engine was known as the I-A, but after major changes to adapt it to US production and to increase thrust, it started limited production as the I-16 in 1942, the 16 referring to its 1,600 lbf (7,100 N) thrust. Full production started as the J31 when the United States Army Air Forces introduced common naming for all their engine projects.
Along with the I-16, GE also started work on an enlarged version, known as the I-40. As the name implied, the engine was designed to provide 4,000 lbf (18 kN). The development cycle was remarkably rapid. Design work started in mid-1943 and the first prototype underwent static testing on January 13, 1944.
Lockheed was in the midst of the XP-80 project at the time, originally intending to power their design with a US-produced
The Pratt & Whitney Canada PW600 series is a family of very small turbofan engines developed by Pratt & Whitney Canada for use in very light jets. Designed with scalability in mind, the engines can produce between 900 lbf (4,000 N) and 3,000 lbf (13,000 N) of take-off thrust.
First run of the 2,500 lbf (11,000 N) thrust PW625F demonstrator engine was on 31 October 2001. P&WC began work on the 900 lbf (4 kN) thrust PW610F engine, destined for the Eclipse 500, in 2002. The engine was certified by the Canadian authorities on the 27 July 2006. The first Eclipse 500 aircraft, powered by two PW610Fs, was delivered to a customer on 31 December 2006.
With a 14.5 inch (36.83 cm) diameter fan, the PW610F is one of the smallest turbofans to enter production. Little is known about the engine cycle, although the bypass ratio is believed to be about 1.83. Driven by a single-stage low pressure (LP) turbine, the single stage fan is an advanced snubberless design, with wide chord blades integral with the rotor hub. The newly patented high pressure (HP) compressor comprises a diagonal (i.e. mixed) flow stage, supercharging a conventional centrifugal blower, the whole being driven by a single stage
The Pratt & Whitney PW2000, also known by the military designation F117, is a series of high-bypass turbofan aero engines with a thrust range from 37,000 to 43,000 lbf (165 to 190 kN). Built by Pratt & Whitney, they were designed for the Boeing 757. As a 757 powerplant, these engines compete with the Rolls-Royce RB211.
A dual spool, axial air flow, annular combustion, high by-pass, turbo fan, dual channel FADEC computer controlled turbine engine.
The first PW2000 series engine, the PW2037, powered the Boeing 757-200 and entered service with Delta Air Lines as the civil aviation launch customer for the new engine type.
In 1984, Pratt and Whitney was the first engine designer to certify a Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) system available for civil aviation use. Operating with two independent channels for control and redundancy, the new FADEC system not only made it easier for flight crews to manage engine control, but also made the engine much more efficient.
Other than the 757, the PW2000 series engines also power the C-17 Globemaster III military transport; the United States Department of Defense designation for the engine is F117, with the specific variant used on the
The Rolls-Royce Turbomeca Adour is a two-shaft turbofan aircraft engine developed by Rolls-Royce Turbomeca Limited, a joint subsidiary of Rolls-Royce (UK) and Turbomeca (France). The engine is named after the Adour, a river in south western France.
The Adour is a turbofan engine developed primarily to power the Anglo-French SEPECAT Jaguar fighter-bomber, achieving its first successful test run in 1968. It is produced in versions with or without reheat.
As of July 2009 more than 2,800 Adours have been produced, for over 20 different armed forces with total flying hours reaching 8 million in December 2009. The U.S. military designation for this engine is the F405-RR-401 (a derivative of the Adour Mk 871), which is currently used to power the fleet of Boeing / BAE Systems T-45 Goshawk trainer jets of the US Navy.
Data from Rolls-Royce
The T-34 was a Soviet medium tank produced from 1940 to 1958. Although its armour and armament were surpassed by later tanks of the era, it has been often credited as the most effective, efficient and influential design of World War II. First produced at the KhPZ factory in Kharkov (Kharkiv, Ukraine), it was the mainstay of Soviet armoured forces throughout World War II, and widely exported afterwards. It was the most-produced tank of the war, and the second most-produced tank of all time, after its successor, the T-54/55 series. In 1996, T-34 variants were still in service in at least 27 countries.
The T-34 was developed from the BT series of fast tanks and was intended to replace both the BT-5 and BT-7 tanks and the T-26 infantry tank in service. At its introduction, it was the tank with the best balanced attributes of firepower, mobility, protection and ruggedness, although its battlefield effectiveness suffered from the unsatisfactory ergonomic layout of its crew compartment, scarcity of radios, and poor tactical employment. The two-man turret-crew arrangement required the commander to aim and fire the gun, an arrangement common to most Soviet tanks of the day; this proved to
The ASX, likely short for Armstrong Siddeley eXperimental, was an early axial flow jet engine built by Armstrong Siddeley that first ran in April 1943. Very little information on the engine is available, and it appears it was never put into production. A conversion to turboprop as the ASP was somewhat more successful, and as the Armstrong Siddeley Python saw use in the Westland Wyvern.
The ASX was unique in layout. The inlet to the 14-stage compressor was placed near the middle of the engine, the air flowing forward as it was compressed. From there it fed into 11 flame cans arranged around the outside of the compressor, flowing back past the inlet, and finally through the turbine. This layout allowed the compressor and combustion areas to be "folded" together to make the engine shorter, although the overall reduction in the case of the ASX appears to be fairly limited. Additionally this makes it more difficult to service the compressor, although in modern designs it is the "hot section" that generally requires most servicing.
The ASX was flight tested fitted to the bomb bay of a modified Avro Lancaster, ND784, the first flight taking place on 28 September 1945.
At full power the
The Kolesov RD-36-51 was a supersonic turbojet engine used on the Tu-144D SST.
The RD-36-51 produced a thrust of 18,100 kgf (per one) and consumed 25,700 kg fuel per hour (per four). and gave the aircraft a maximum range of 6,500 km.
The engine was a replacement for the Kuznetsov NK-144 turbofan, and its use permitted significantly increased range particularly in supercruise.
The Lyulka AL-21 is an axial flow turbojet engine created by the Soviet company named for its chief designer Arkhip Mikhailovich Lyulka.
The AL-21 entered service in the early 1960s. With later marks AL-21F3 it was used in the Sukhoi Su-17, Sukhoi Su-24, early Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23, and Sukhoi T-10 (Sukhoi Su-27 prototype). A non-afterburning version powered the Yakovlev Yak-38 VTOL fighter.
The Motorlet M-701 is a Czechosloviakian jet engine. It was used to power the Aero L-29 Delfín jet trainer, with about 9,020 engines built between 1961 and 1989.
In 1955, the Czechoslovakian aero-engine company Motorlet commenced design of a new turbojet engine to power the Jet trainer being designed by Aero for a competition to equip all Warsaw Pact air forces, the Aero L-29. The resulting design, designated Motorlet M-701 was a single shaft centrifugal turbojet and was the first jet engine designed in Czechoslovakia (although Motorlet had previously built the Klimov VK-1 under license).
The engine was first run in 1958, and powered the second prototype L-29 when it flew in 1960 (the first prototype had flown the previous year powered by a Rolls-Royce Viper). The L-29 was selected as the winner of the competition, and was ordered in large numbers, with the M-701 entering production at Jinonice near Prague in 1961. By the time production ended in 1989, about 9,020 had been built.
From: Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1971-72
The Power Jets W.1 (sometimes called the Whittle W.1) was a British turbojet engine designed by Frank Whittle and Power Jets (Research and Development) Ltd. The W.1 was built under contract by British Thomson-Houston (BTH) in the early 1940s. It is notable as being the first British jet engine to fly, powering the Gloster E.28/39 on its maiden flight at RAF Cranwell on 15 May 1941.
After a period of indifference, in June 1939 a demonstration of the Power Jets WU was made before a delegation of the Air Ministry, notably Dr Pye, Director of Scientific Research. The demonstration was so successful that the Ministry quickly arranged to buy the engine to give Power Jets working capital, loaning it back to them for testing. At the same time, a contract was placed for "flight engine", the W.1. The design utilised a simple double-sided centrifugal compressor, reverse-flow annular combustion chambers and a water-cooled axial-flow turbine section, this was later modified to use air-cooling. The turbine blades were of Firth-Vickers Rex 78, a stainless steel developed under Dr. W. H Hatfield.
As development of the new design dragged on, it was decided to build a test unit "early engine" using
The Rolls-Royce RB.162 was a simply constructed and lightweight British turbojet engine produced by Rolls-Royce Limited. Developed in the early 1960s, it was specially designed for use as a lift engine for VTOL aircraft but was also used in a later variant of the Hawker Siddeley Trident airliner as an auxiliary boost engine. A smaller related variant, the RB.181 remained a design project only, as did a turbofan version designated RB.175.
The RB.162 was designed to meet an anticipated need for a lift engine to power VTOL aircraft with the emphasis on simplicity, durability and lightweight construction. Development costs were shared by Britain, France and Germany after signing a joint memorandum of agreement. The engine featured fibre glass compressor casings and plastic compressor blades to save weight which also had the effect of reducing production costs. The engine has no oil system, a metered dose of oil instead being injected into the two main bearings by the compressed air used to turn the compressor at startup. Although the RB.162 was a successful design the expected large VTOL aircraft market did not materialise and the engine was only produced in limited numbers.
The Rolls-Royce RB.23 Welland was Britain's first production jet engine. It was designed by Frank Whittle's team at Power Jets and was originally intended to be produced by Rover as the W.2B/23. Rover's continued delays in starting production and Whittle's increasing anger over Rover going behind his back to design their own engine, the W.2B/26, led to the project being moved to Rolls-Royce where Stanley Hooker joined the team from Rolls' supercharger division. Hooker's experience in turbocompressor design, along with improved metals and combustion systems, put the engine back on track, although it was largely passed over in favour of Rover's W.2B/26, that became the Rolls-Royce Derwent.
The engine was renamed the Welland after the English river, and entered production in 1943 for use on the Gloster Meteor.
The W.2 was basically a larger version of Whittle's original flying design, the Whittle Supercharger Type W.1, or simply W.1, which flew in 1941 in the Gloster E. 28/39 experimental testbed aircraft. The engines used a single double-sided centrifugal compressor, or impeller, with the compressed air being taken off at several ports around the extreme outer edge of the compressor
The Soyuz/Tumansky R-15-300 is an axial flow, single shaft turbojet with an afterburner. Its best known use is on the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25,
The R-15-300 was designed at OKB-300 design bureau led by Sergei Tumansky in the late 1950s. The engine was originally designed to be used in the Tupolev Tu-121 high-altitude high-speed cruise missile. Due to lacking Soviet resources and funding the engine casing was mainly steel, and in areas exposed to high levels of heat, 30 micrometre silver-plated steel. At the time, the USSR did not have the resources to exploit metals such as titanium, or other composite alloys, which could have greatly reduced the engine's weight. The Tu-121 effort was later canceled, but its basic design was re-used to create the Tupolev Tu-123 reconnaissance drone.
At dry thrust the engine could produce 7,500 kilograms force (73.5 kN, 16,500 lbf); with afterburner the output is 11,200 kilograms force (110 kN, 24,700 lbf). This allowed speeds of up to mach 3.2 in the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25 (which used two engines). However, at speeds above mach 3, the force of the engine sucking fuel through the pumps overwhelmed the pumps' ability to limit the flow. At this point,
The Viper is a British turbojet engine developed and produced by Armstrong Siddeley and then by its successor companies Bristol Siddeley and Rolls-Royce Limited. It entered service in 1953 and remained in use with the Royal Air Force, powering its Dominie T1 navigation training aircraft until January 2011.
The design originally featured a seven-stage compressor based on their Adder engine — the Viper is in effect a large-scale Adder.
Like the similar J85 built in United States, the Viper was developed as an expendable engine for powering production versions of the Jindivik target drone, but, again like the J85, the limited-life materials and total-loss oil systems were replaced with standard systems for use in manned aircraft.
Because it was initially developed as an expendable engine, the Viper was subject to many recurring maintenance issues. This led to the development of the first Power by the Hour program in which operators would pay a fixed hourly rate to Bristol Siddeley for the continual maintenance of the engines.
Preserved Viper engines are on public display at the following museums:
The Garrett F109 (Company designation TFE109) was a small turbofan engine developed for the Fairchild T-46 by Garrett AiResearch. With the United States Air Force's cancellation of the T-46 program in 1986, further development of the engine ceased,and with it the civil TFE109 version.
The General Electric F414 is an afterburning turbofan engine in the 22,000-pound (98 kN) thrust class produced by GE Aviation. The F414 was developed from GE's widely-used F404 turbofan for use in the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet.
GE evolved the F404 into the F412-GE-400 non-afterburning turbofan for the A-12 Avenger II. After the cancellation of the A-12, the research was directed toward an engine for the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet. GE successfully pitched the F414 as a low-risk derivative of the F404, rather than a riskier new engine. In fact, the F414 engine was originally envisioned as not using any materials or processes not used in the F404, and was designed to fit in the same footprint as the F404.
The F414 uses the core of the F412 and its full-authority digital engine control (FADEC), alongside the low-pressure system from the YF120 engine developed for the Advanced Tactical Fighter competition. One of the major differences between the F404 and the F414 is the fan section. The fan of the F414 is larger than that of the F404, but smaller than the fan for the F412. The larger fan section increases airflow by 16% and is 5 inches (13 cm) longer. To keep the engine in the F404's
The Rolls-Royce RB.41 Nene was a 1940s British centrifugal compressor turbojet engine. The Nene was essentially an enlarged version of the Rolls-Royce Derwent with the minimal changes needed to deliver 5,000 lbf, making it the most powerful engine of its era. The Nene was Rolls-Royce's third jet engine to enter production, designed and built in an astonishingly short five-month period in 1944, first running on 27 October 1944. It was named after the River Nene in keeping with the company's tradition of naming its jet engines after rivers.
The design saw relatively little use in British aircraft designs, being passed over in favour of the axial-flow Avon that followed it. Its only widespread use in Great Britain was in the Hawker Sea Hawk and the Supermarine Attacker. In the US it was built under license as the Pratt & Whitney J42, and it powered the Grumman F9F Panther. Ironically, its most widespread use was in the form of the Klimov RD-45, which powered the famous Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15.
Although based on the "straight-through" version of the basic Whittle-style layout, the Nene used a double-sided centrifugal compressor for improved pressure ratio and thus higher thrust. It was
The General Electric GE4 turbojet engine was designed in the late 1960s as the powerplant for the Boeing 2707 supersonic transport. The GE4 was a nine-stage, single-shaft, axial-flow turbojet based largely on the General Electric YJ93 which powered the North American XB-70 bomber. The GE4 was the most powerful engine of its era, producing 50,000 lbf (220 kN) dry, and 65,000 lbf (290 kN) with afterburner. The Boeing 2707 was cancelled in 1971, putting an end to further work on the GE4.
The Eurojet EJ200 is a military turbofan, used as the powerplant of the Eurofighter Typhoon. The engine is largely based on the Rolls-Royce XG-40 technology demonstrator which was developed in the 1980s. The EJ200 is built by the EuroJet Turbo GmbH consortium.
Rolls-Royce began development of the XG-40 technology demonstrator engine in 1984. Development costs were met by the British government (85%) and Rolls-Royce.
On 2 August 1985, Italy, West Germany and the UK agreed to go ahead with the Eurofighter. The announcement of this agreement confirmed that France had chosen not to proceed as a member of the project. One issue was French insistence that the aircraft be powered by the SNECMA M88, in development at the same time as the XG-40.
The Eurojet consortium was formed in 1986 to co-ordinate and manage the project largely based on XG-40 technology. In common with the XG-40, the EJ200 has a three-stage fan with a high pressure ratio, five-stage low-aspect-ratio high-pressure (HP) compressor with active tip-clearance control, a combustor using advanced cooling and thermal protection, and single-stage HP and low-pressure (LP) turbines with PM discs and low-density single crystal
The Heinkel HeS 3 (HeS - Heinkel Strahltriebwerk) was the world's first operational jet engine to power an aircraft. Designed by Hans von Ohain while working at Heinkel, the engine first flew as the primary power of the Heinkel He 178, piloted by Erich Warsitz on 27 August 1939. Although successful, the engine had too little thrust to be really useful, and work started on the more powerful Heinkel HeS 8 as their first production design.
In some ways the HeS 3 design was simply a cleanup of the original HeS 1, converted to burn liquid fuel instead of the HeS 1's hydrogen gas. von Ohain was also unhappy with the large external diameter of the HeS 1, and re-arranged the layout of the new engine to allow the parts to be "folded together" in a more compact layout.
The first HeS 3 design was generally similar to the HeS 1, using a 16-bladed centrifugal compressor supported by an 8-blade impeller to smooth out the airflow in the intake. The compressed air flowed into an annular combustion chamber arranged to lie between the compressor and turbine, which were separated much more than in the HeS 1 to allow this arrangement. The first example was bench tested around March 1938, but the
The IAE V2500 is a two-shaft high-bypass turbofan engine which powers the Airbus A320 family (A320, A321, A319 and the Airbus Corporate Jet), and the McDonnell Douglas MD-90. International Aero Engines is a consortium backed by four aero-engine manufacturers, formed in 1983 to produce the engine. FAA flight certification for the V2500 was granted in 1988.
Rolls-Royce based the HP compressor on a scale-up of the RC34B eight stage research unit used in the RB401-06 Demonstrator Engine, but with a zero-stage added at the front and a tenth stage added to the rear. Pratt & Whitney developed the combustor and the 2-stage air-cooled HP turbine, while the Japanese companies provided the LP compression system. MTU were responsible for the 5-stage LP turbine.
The 4,000th V2500 engine was delivered to the Brazilian flag carrier TAM and installed on the 4,000th Airbus A320 family aircraft (an A319).
The original version to enter service with Cyprus Airways.
A fourth booster stage was introduced into the engine basic configuration to increase core flow. This, together with a fan diameter/airflow increase, helped to increase the thrust to 33,000 lbf (147 kN) thrust, to meet the requirements of
The Pratt & Whitney PW1120 turbofan was a derivative of the F100 turbofan. It was installed as a modification to a single F-4E fighter jet, and also powered the abortive IAI Lavi.
The development of the PW1120, according to Israeli Air Force (IDF/AF) specifications, started in June 1980. It retained the F100 core module, gearbox, fuel pump, forward ducts, as well as the F100 digital electronic control, with only minor modifications. Unique PW1120 components included a wide chord low pressure (LP) compressor, single-stage uncooled low pressure (LP) turbine, simplified single stream augmentor, and a lightweight convergent/divergent nozzle. Full scale testing was initiated in June 1982, and flight clearance of the PW1120 was tested in August 1984. The PW1120 had 70 percent similarity with the F100, so the IDF/AF would not need a special facility for spare parts. It would be built under licence by Bet-Shemesh Engines Limited in Israel.
IAI installed one PW1120 in the starboard nacelle of an F-4E-32-MC of the IDF/AF (Number 334/66-0327) to explore the airframe/powerplant combination for an upgrade program of the F-4E, known as Kurnass 2000 ("Heavy Hammer") or Super Phantom and to act as
The Rolls-Royce Spey (company designations RB.163 and RB.168 and RB.183) is a low-bypass turbofan engine originally designed and manufactured by Rolls-Royce that has been in widespread service for over 40 years. Intended for the civilian jet airliner market when it was being designed in the late 1950s, the Spey concept was also used in various military engines, and later as a turboshaft engine for ships known as the Marine Spey, and even as the basis for a new civilian line, the Rolls-Royce Tay. A licensed version built by the XAEC is known as the WS-9 Qin Ling. Aviation versions of the "base model" have accumulated over 50 million hours of flight time. In keeping with Rolls-Royce naming practices, the engine is named after the River Spey.
In 1954 Rolls-Royce introduced the first commercial bypass engine, the Rolls-Royce Conway, with a 21,000 lbf (94 kN) thrust aimed at what was then the "large end" of the market. This was far too large for smaller aircraft such as the Sud Caravelle, BAC One-Eleven or Hawker Siddeley Trident which were then under design. Rolls then started work on a smaller engine otherwise identical in design, the RB.163, using the same two-spool turbine system
The RS-25, otherwise known as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), is a liquid-fuel cryogenic rocket engine that was used on NASA's Space Shuttle and is planned to be used on its successor, the Space Launch System. Built in the United States of America by Rocketdyne, the RS-25 burns cryogenic liquid hydrogen & liquid oxygen propellants, with each engine producing 1,859 kN (418,000 lbf) of thrust at liftoff. Although the RS-25 can trace its heritage back to the 1960s, concerted development of the engine began in the 1970s, with the first flight, STS-1, occurring on April 12, 1981. The RS-25 has undergone several upgrades over its operational history to improve the engine's reliability, safety and maintenance load.
The engine produces a specific impulse (Isp) of 453 seconds in a vacuum, or 363 seconds at sea level (effective exhaust velocities of 4,440 m/s and 3,560 m/s respectively), consumes 1,340 L (350 US gal) of propellant per second, has a mass of approximately 3.5 tonnes (7,700 pounds) and is capable of throttling between 67% and 111% of its rated power level in one-percent increments. The RS-25 operates at extreme temperatures, with the liquid hydrogen fuel being stored at
The Aviadvigatel PS-90 is a Russian high-bypass commercial turbofan rated at 16000 kgf (157 kN, 35,300 lbf) thrust. It powers Russian airliners such as the Ilyushin Il-96 and the Tupolev Tu-204/Tu-214 series and transport aircraft such as the Ilyushin Il-76. It is made by the Russian aircraft engine company Aviadvigatel, which is the successor of the soviet Soloviev Design Bureau. "PS" are the initials of Pavel Aleksandrovich Soloviev (Russian:Павел Алеќсандрович Соловьёв).
With the advent of new generation of Russian airliners, Aviadvigatel developed the PS-90 to satisfy the demands of economy, performance and exhaust emissions. It represented a huge advance over previous generations of 1960s era Soviet engines. The PS-90 is almost double the efficiency of those engines and is reasonably competitive to the current generation of western engines.
It incorporates many firsts in a Russian engine with advanced technology features such as
It was first certified in 1992 and has been in service since.
There are five variants; the basic PS-90A, the PS-90A-76, the improved PS-90A variants, PS-90A1 and PS-90A2, and the PS-90A-42 turbojet.
The PS-90A engine is the initial variant and is
The BT tanks (Russian: Быстроходный танк (БТ), Bystrokhodny tank, lit. "fast tank" or "high-speed tank") were a series of Soviet cavalry tanks produced in large numbers between 1932 and 1941. They were lightly armoured, but reasonably well-armed for their time, and had the best mobility of all contemporary tanks of the world. The BT tanks were known by the nickname Betka from the acronym, or its diminutive Betushka.
The direct successor of the BT tanks would be the famous T-34 medium tank, introduced in 1940, which would replace all of the Soviet fast tanks, infantry tanks, and medium tanks in service.
The BT tanks were "convertible tanks". This was a feature designed by J. Walter Christie to reduce wear of the unreliable tank tracks of the 1930s. In about thirty minutes the crew could remove the tracks and engage a chain drive to the rearmost road wheel on each side, allowing the tank to travel at very high speeds on roads. In wheeled mode the tank was steered by pivoting the front road wheels. However, Soviet tank forces soon found the convertible option of little practical use in a country with few paved roads, and it consumed space and added needless complexity and weight. The
The General Electric F101 is an afterburning turbofan jet engine. It powers the B-1 Lancer strategic bomber fleet of the USAF. In full afterburner it produces a thrust of 30,000 pounds-force (130 kN). The F101 was GE's first turbofan with an afterburner.
The F101 was developed specifically for the Advanced Manned Strategic Aircraft, which became the B-1A. The F101 powered the four development aircraft from 1970 to 1981. The B-1A was officially cancelled in 1977. However the flight test program continued. General Electric was awarded a contract to further develop the F101-102 engine variant. This turbofan eventually powered the B-1B from 1984, entering service in 1986. The B-1's four F101 engines helped the aircraft win 61 world records for speed, payload and range.
The GE F110 fighter engine is a derivative of the F101, designed using data from the F101-powered variant of the F-16 Fighting Falcon tested in the early 1980s. The F101 also became the basis for the highly successful CFM56 series of civil turbofans.
iPod is a line of portable media players created by and marketed by Apple Inc. The product line-up consists of the hard drive-based iPod classic, the touchscreen iPod touch, the compact iPod nano and the ultra-compact iPod shuffle. iPod classic models store media on an internal hard drive, while all other models use flash memory to enable their smaller size (the discontinued mini used a Microdrive miniature hard drive). As with many other digital music players, iPods can serve as external data storage devices. Storage capacity varies by model, ranging from 2 GB for the iPod shuffle to 160 GB for the iPod classic. The iPod line was announced by Apple on October 23, 2001, and released on November 10, 2001.
All of the models have been redesigned multiple times since their introduction. The most recent iPod redesigns were introduced on September 12, 2012, to be released later in 2012. Apple's iTunes software can be used to transfer music to the devices from computers using certain versions of Apple Macintosh and Microsoft Windows operating systems. For users who choose not to use iTunes or whose computers cannot run iTunes, several open source alternatives are available for the iPod.
The PowerJet SaM146 is a turbofan engine produced by the PowerJet joint venture (not to be confused with Power Jets) between Snecma of France and NPO Saturn of Russia. Snecma is in charge of the core engine, control system (FADEC), transmissions (accessory gearbox, transfer gearbox), overall engine integration and flight testing. NPO Saturn is responsible for the components in the low pressure section and engine installation on the Sukhoi Superjet 100 regional aircraft and ground testing.
The SaM146 design is based on the CFM56. In keeping with the design and development of jet engines from manufacturers like Pratt & Whitney Canada, General Electric and Rolls Royce, the engine has been conceived to meet customer requirements regarding fuel burn, cost of operation and dispatch reliability.
The core was developed by Snecma, drawing on its M88 ‘hot section’ military engine experience and the DEM21 core demonstrator project – with its six-stage compressor and single-stage, high-pressure turbine with active blade-tip clearance control – and various other modern design features (such as single-piece bladed disks).
The SaM146 provides 62 to 77.8KN of thrust (6,200 to 7,700 kg). In April
The Rolls-Royce RB.401 was a business jet engine which Rolls-Royce started to develop in the mid-1970s. RB.401-06 prototype engines were already being manufactured when a decision to develop the higher thrust RB.401-07 was taken. Although ground testing of both the -06 and -07 continued into the early 1980s, a lack of funds caused the project to be cancelled.
Although the basic configuration of both engines was almost identical, the -07 variant had a larger fan diameter. The -06 version HP compressor was based on the eight-stage version of the RC34B research compressor, unscaled, whereas the -07 was a scaled-up unit. A single stage fan, driven by a two-stage LP turbine, supercharged the HP compressor which was driven by the single stage transonic HP turbine. The combustor was annular and the co-annular exhaust featured a lightweight target type thrust reverser.
The F-1 is a rocket engine developed by Rocketdyne and used in the Saturn V. Five F-1 engines were used in the S-IC first stage of each Saturn V, which served as the main launch vehicle in the Apollo program. The F-1 is still the most powerful single-chamber liquid-fueled rocket engine ever developed. The RD-170 has slightly more thrust, using a cluster of four smaller combustion chambers and nozzles.
The F-1 was originally developed by Rocketdyne to meet a 1955 US Air Force requirement for a very large rocket engine. The eventual result of that requirement was two different engines, the E-1 and the much larger F-1. The E-1, although successfully tested in static firing, was quickly seen as a technological dead-end and was abandoned for the larger, more powerful F-1. The Air Force eventually halted development of the F-1 because of a perceived lack of requirement for such a large engine. However, the recently created National Aeronautics and Space Administration appreciated the usefulness of an engine with so much power and contracted Rocketdyne to complete its development. Test firings of F-1 components had been performed as early as 1957. The first static firing of a full stage
The Rolls-Royce RB.183 Tay is a turbofan engine, developed from the RB.163 Spey, using scaled down low-pressure components from the RB.211 to produce versions with a bypass ratio of 3.1:1 or greater. The engine was first run in August 1984. The Tay family is used on a number of airliners and larger business jets, including the Gulfstream IV family, Fokker 70 and Fokker 100, with a later version being used to re-engine Boeing 727-100s.
Originally designated 610-8, all but one training engine have now been converted to 611-8 standard. The newest variant is the 611-8C which has a modified high pressure nozzle box, cast HP1 turbine blades, larger fan from the 650-15, structural by-pass duct and FADEC.
All Tays consists of a twenty-two blade titanium fan, 3 stage Intermediate pressure compressor (Same spool as the fan.), 12 stage High pressure compressor, 2 stage high pressure turbine, 3 stage low pressure turbine.
Thrust: 13,850 lbf (62 kN) Aircraft: Tay 611 entered service in 1987 on the Gulfstream IV/IV-SP, for which it is the exclusive powerplant.
The 620-15 is internally identical to the 611-8 and externally similar to the 650-15.
Thrust: 13,850 lbf (62 kN) Aircraft: Fokker 70 from
The T-80 is a main battle tank (MBT) designed and manufactured in the former Soviet Union. A development of the T-64, it entered service in 1976 and was the first production tank to be equipped with a gas turbine engine for main propulsion. The T-80U was last produced in a factory in Omsk, Russia, while the T-80UD and further-developed T-84 continue to be produced in Ukraine. The T-80 and its variants are in service in Belarus, Cyprus, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, Russia, South Korea, and Ukraine. The chief designer of the T-80 was the Russian engineer Nikolay Popov.
The project to build the first Soviet turbine powered tank began in 1949. Its designer was A. Ch. Starostienko, who worked at the Leningrad Kirov Plant (LKZ). The tank was never built because available turbine engines were of very poor quality. In 1955 two prototype 1,000 hp (746 kW) turbine engine were built at the same plant under the guidance of G. A. Ogloblin. Two years later a team led by the famous heavy tank designer Ż. J. Kotin constructed two prototypes of the Ob'yekt 278 tank. Both were hybrids of the IS-7 and the T-10 heavy tanks, powered by the GTD-1 turbine engine, weighing 53.5 tonnes and armed with the M65
The Teledyne CAE J69 was a small turbojet engine produced by Continental Aviation and Engineering (CAE) under license from Turbomeca. A development of the Marboré II, the J69 powered a number of US drones, missiles and small aircraft. Later produced by Teledyne CAE, the J69 was also developed into the J100 turbojet optimized for higher altitudes
Data from FAA Type Certificate Data Sheet
The Bristol Thor was a 16" diameter ramjet engine developed by Bristol Aero Engines (later Bristol Siddeley Engines) for the Bristol Bloodhound anti-aircraft missile.
Although Bristol Aero Engines acquired ramjet technology from the US company Marquardt, BAE put considerable effort into developing the Thor unit, including the construction of a high altitude test plant (HATP), with a supersonic test cell, at their Patchway site.
The Bloodhound Mk.1 could attain a speed of Mach 2.2, while the Mk.2 was capable of just over Mach 2.7.
The General Electric CF6 is a family of high-bypass turbofan engines produced by GE Aviation. A development of the first high-power high-bypass jet engine available, the TF39, the CF6 powers a wide variety of civilian airliners. The basic engine core formed the basis for the LM2500, LM5000, and LM6000 marine and power generation turboshaft. GE intends to replace the CF6 family with the GEnx.
After the successful development in the late 1960s of the TF39 for the C-5 Galaxy, GE offered a more powerful development for civilian use as the CF6, and quickly found interest in two designs being offered for a recent Eastern Airlines contract, the Lockheed L-1011 and McDonnell Douglas DC-10. Although the L-1011 would eventually select the Rolls-Royce RB211, the DC-10 stuck with the CF6, and entered service in 1971. It was also selected for versions of the Boeing 747. Since then, the CF6 has powered versions of the Airbus A300, 310 and 330, Boeing 767, and McDonnell Douglas MD-11. The NTSB issued warnings regarding the cracking of the high pressure compressor in 2000 and failure of the low pressure turbine rotor disks in 2010.
The CF6-6 was a development of the military TF39. It was first
The Kronach Lorin was a small ramjet engine, for aircraft propulsion, that was statically tested in Vienna during the latter stages of World War II. It was intended to be used in the German interceptor planes Lippisch P.13a and Lippisch P.13b.
It was initially proposed that a wire-mesh basket holding coal be mounted behind a nose air intake, protruding slightly into the airflow and ignited by a gas burner. Following wind-tunnel testing of the ramjet and the coal basket, modifications were incorporated to provide more efficient combustion. The coal was to take the form of 300 - 400 lb of small granules instead of irregular lumps, to produce a controlled and even burn, and the basket was altered to a mesh drum revolving on a vertical axis at 60 rpm. A jet of flame from tanks of bottled gas would fire into the basket once the P.13a had reached operating speed (above 320 km/h), whether by using a RATO unit or being towed. The air passing through the ramjet would take the gases from the burning coal towards the rear where they would mix under high pressure with clean air taken from a separate intake. The resulting mixture of gas would then be directed out through a rear nozzle to
The Saturn AL-31 is a family of military turbofan engines. It was developed by Lyulka, now NPO Saturn, of Soviet Union, originally for the Sukhoi Su-27 air superiority fighter. It produces a total thrust of 123 kN (27,600 lb) with afterburning in the AL-31F, 137 kN (30,800 lb) in the AL-31FM (AL-35F) and 142 kN (32,000 lb) in the AL-37FU variants. Currently it powers all Su-27 derivatives and the Chengdu J-10 multirole jet fighter which has been developed in China.
China is able to produce domestically most parts for clones of the AL-31 for its own jet engine programs, but is still dependent on imports of turbine blades from Russia.
The AL-31FP and AL-37FU variants have thrust vectoring. The former is used in the Su-30MKI export version of the Su-30 for India & Sukhoi Su-30MKM for Malaysia . The AL-37FU can deflect its nozzle to a maximum of ±15° at a rate of 30°/sec. The vectoring nozzle is utilized primarily in the pitch plane.
The Al-31FP is built in India by HAL at the Koraput facility under a deep technology transfer agreement.
It has a reputation for having a tremendous tolerance to severely disturbed air flow. In the twin-engined Su-27, the engines are interchangeable
The Metropolitan-Vickers F.2 was an early turbojet engine and the first British design to be based on an axial-flow compressor. It was considered too unreliable for use during the war, and never entered production. The potential of the engine and the investment did not go to waste, however, and eventually resulted in an engine design that was passed on by Metropolitan-Vickers ("Metrovick") when they left the gas turbine business to Armstrong Siddeley; as the Sapphire.
Alan Arnold Griffith published a seminal paper in 1926, An Aerodynamic Theory of Turbine Design, that for the first time clearly demonstrated that a gas turbine could be used as a practical, and even desirable, aircraft powerplant. The paper started by demonstrating that existing axial compressor designs were "flying stalled" due to their use of flat blades, and that dramatic improvements could be made by using airfoil designs instead, improvements that made a gas turbine practical. It went on to outline a complete compressor and turbine design, using the extra exhaust power to drive a second turbine that would power a propellor. In today's terminology the design was a turboprop. In order to prove the design, Griffith
The Pratt & Whitney J58 (company designation JT11D) was a jet engine used on the Lockheed A-12, and subsequently on the YF-12 and SR-71 Blackbird aircraft. The J58 was a variable cycle engine which functioned as both a turbojet and a fan-assisted ramjet. The J58 was a single-spool turbojet engine with an afterburner. Bypass jet engines were rare at the time, but Ben Rich later described the engine as "bypass jet engine by air withdrawal".
The J58 was initially developed for the US Navy to power the planned version of the Martin P6M jet flying boat. Upon cancellation of this aircraft, it was selected by Convair and Lockheed for their supersonic projects. Other sources link its origin to the USAF's requirement for a powerplant for the WS-110A, the future XB-70 Valkyrie. The J-58 produced 32,000 lbf (142 kN) of thrust. It was the first engine to be able to operate on afterburner for extended periods of time, and the first engine to be flight-qualified by the United States Air Force for Mach 3. A major feature of the J58 was the conical spikes in the variable-geometry inlets, which were automatically moved fore and aft by an Air Inlet Computer. The spike altered the flow of supersonic
SABRE (Synergistic Air-Breathing Rocket Engine) is a concept under development by Reaction Engines Limited for a hypersonic precooled hybrid air breathing rocket engine. The engine has been designed to achieve single-stage-to-orbit capability, propelling the proposed Skylon launch vehicle. SABRE is an evolution of Alan Bond's series of liquid air cycle engine (LACE) and LACE-like designs that started in the early/mid-1980s for the HOTOL project.
The design comprises a single combined cycle rocket engine with two modes of operation. The air breathing mode combines a turbo-compressor with a lightweight air precooler positioned just behind the inlet cone. At high speeds this precooler cools the hot, ram compressed air leading to an unusually high pressure ratio within the engine. The compressed air is subsequently fed into the rocket combustion chamber where it is ignited with stored liquid hydrogen. The high pressure ratio allows the engine to continue to provide high thrust at very high speeds and altitudes. The low temperature of the air permits light alloy construction to be employed which gives a very lightweight engine — essential for reaching orbit. In addition, unlike the LACE
The Allison J71 was a turbojet engine, designed and built in the United States. It began development in 1948 as a modified J35 and was originally designated the J35-A-23.
The Allison J71 turbojet powered the Douglas B-66 Destroyer and the McDonnell F3H-2 Demon after the failed Westinghouse J40 proved unworkable. The prototype P6M SeaMasters were also fitted with the engine.
Data from Gunston.
The T-24 was a Soviet medium tank built in 1931. Only twenty-four tanks were built, and saw no combat. This was the first tank produced at the KhPZ factory in Ukraine, which was later responsible for the very successful T-34 and T-54 Soviet tanks. The T-24's suspension was used successfully in the Soviet Union's first purpose-built artillery tractors.
The T-24's main armament was a 45 mm gun. It had a ball-mount 7.62 mm DT machine gun in the hull, another in the turret, and a third in a secondary turret atop the main turret. The tank was well-armoured for its time, but suffered from problems with the engine and transmission.
A tank design bureau was established at the Kharkov Locomotive Factory (KhPZ) in Kharkiv, Soviet Ukraine, in 1928. The first tank project of the factory was the T-12 (or T-1-12). This was a larger version of the T-18, with a more powerful engine (the T-18 was based on the Renault FT-17). One prototype was built and production of thirty tanks in 1930 was authorized, but automotive performance was so disappointing that it was decided to do further development work.
The project was re-designated T-24, work was completed fixing problems with the transmission and
The Tumansky RD-9 was an early Soviet turbojet engine, not based on pre-existing German or British designs. It was a development of the Mikulin AM-5, featuring a new compressor with higher subsonic airflow. The engine completed testing in 1953 and produced 5,732 lbf (25.50 kN) thrust without afterburner. When Sergei Tumansky replaced Alexander Mikulin as the OKB-24's chief designer in 1956, the engine was renamed RD-9. The engine was built under license in China as the WP-6.
The RD-9B was also used in the East German civilian jetliner project Baade 152 in 1958 and 1959. It was replaced when Pirna 014 engines became available.
RD-9B page on LeteckeMotory.cz (cs)
The SNECMA M53 is an afterburning turbofan engine developed for the Dassault Mirage 2000 fighter by Snecma. The engine is in service with different air forces, including the latest Mirage 2000-5 and 2000-9 multirole fighters.
Although an entirely new design, the M53 is very similar in concept with the previous family of SNECMA military engines, the ATAR 9C and 9K, in that it has a single shaft driving both the fan and the high pressure compressor. Although this made it rather “dated” in comparison to other engines of the same generation, this gave the M53 some very desirable traits for a military engine: It allows for carefree operation, whereas a two-spool engine of the same generation required much more care during its operation; its maintenance is vastly simplified, being of modular construction (subassemblies or modules do not require calibration when exchanged), and engine parts are changed “on condition”, that is, they do not expire after a given amount of hours of operation or time since installed, but rather on the general condition of the part or subassembly at the moment of inspection, which cuts down on maintenance costs. It is a simple engine in general, having no
The Tumansky R-11 (initially AM-11) is a turbojet engine.
The Tumansky R-11 was developed by A.A. Mikulin, S.K. Tumansky, and B.S. Stechkin as a twin-spool axial-flow high-altitude non-afterburning turbojet for Yakovlev Yak-25RV reconnaissance aircraft. This engine was the first Soviet twin-spool turbojet. It was first run in early 1956. The basic design was very successful and it was evolved into Tumansky R-13 and Tumansky R-25. Also experimental Tumansky R-21 was an evolution of R-11. A total of 20,900 R-11 engines were built.
The Curtiss V-2 was a 12-cylinder Vee liquid-cooled aircraft engine.
The Army submitted a specification for a new engine on 15 August 1923. The fixed-price contract was won by Curtiss following its bid of 13 November 1923, and was for the construction of three engines, known as the R-1454, with an option for three more. The first engine was delivered in September 1924, and it managed 405hp at 1650 rpm. A modified cylinder (Type M) developed by S.D Heron, an independent contractor, was fitted to the engine, and the Army picked up the option in the contract in February 1926.
The appearance of the lighter Pratt & Whitney Wasp engine effectively killed off the R-1454, and the Army and Curtiss agreed to terminate the contract almost at once.
The Ford Model T (colloquially known as the Tin Lizzie, T‑Model Ford, 'Model T Ford', or T) is an automobile that was produced by Henry Ford's Ford Motor Company from September 1908 to October 1927. It is generally regarded as the first affordable automobile, the car that opened travel to the common middle-class American; some of this was because of Ford's innovations, including assembly line production instead of individual hand crafting. The Ford Model T was named the world's most influential car of the 20th century in an international poll.
The Model T set 1908 as the historic year that the automobile became popular. The first production Model T was produced on August 12, 1908 and left the factory on September 27, 1908, at the Piquette Plant in Detroit, Michigan. On May 26, 1927, Henry Ford watched the 15 millionth Model T Ford roll off the assembly line at his factory in Highland Park, Michigan.
There were several cars produced or prototyped by Henry Ford from the founding of the company in 1903 until the Model T came along. Although he started with the Model A, there were not 19 production models (A through T); some were only prototypes. The production model immediately before
The Ford Model T used a 177-cubic-inch (2.9 L) inline 4-cylinder engine. It was primarily a petrol engine, but it had multifuel ability and could also burn kerosene or ethanol. It produced 20 hp (15 kW) for a top speed of 45 mph (72 km/h). The engine had side valves and 3 main bearings and was built in-unit with the Model T's novel transmission (a planetary design), sharing the same lubricating oil. The engine bore was 3+⁄4 inches (95.25 mm) and its stroke was 4 inches (101.6 mm) even, for a total displacement of 177 cu in (2,900 cc). Casting all four cylinders in one block was an uncommon practice when T production started in 1908.
The spark plugs were powered by a magneto (as typical of the time), and the ignition system included a manual advance/retard control. Starting was via a hand crank.
The Model T engine was produced continuously from September 27, 1908 through August 4, 1941, exactly 12,000 days. This makes it one of the longest engines in series production, especially considering that the specifications remained mostly unchanged for this entire duration. Its production run for the U.S. consumer market for passenger cars and pickups was shorter, being the 19 years'
The Lyulka TR-3 was a Soviet axial turbojet designed after World War II by Arkhip Mikhailovich Lyulka.
The Lyulka TR-3 was a single-shaft turbojet with a seven-stage axial compressor. It had an annular combustion chamber with 24 nozzles and a single-stage turbine. It had a fixed exhaust nozzle and had a pneumatic SV-3 starting unit, although this was later replaced by a turbine unit. It had a thrust of 46 kN (10,000 lbf). It was used in the Ilyushin Il-30 during 1949, but was superseded by later versions. The improved TR-3A version was redesignated as the AL-5 to honor Lyulka in 1950.
Data from Kay, Turbojet
The Orenda PS.13 Iroquois was an advanced turbojet engine designed for military use. It was developed by the Canadian aircraft engine manufacturer Orenda Engines, a part of the Avro Canada group. Intended for the CF-105 Arrow interceptor, development was cancelled, along with the Arrow, in 1959.
For the CF-105 Arrow project, Avro Canada had originally intended to use one of three different engines, all UK designs: Rolls-Royce RB.106, the Bristol B.0L.4 Olympus, or a license-built version of the Olympus, the Curtiss-Wright J67. The RB.106 and J67 were selected as the primary and backup engines for the new design. However, both the RB.106 and J67 were cancelled during the Arrow's design phase, too far into the program to select the Olympus. Orenda Engines quickly responded with the PS.13 Iroquois design.
The Iroquois design was based on simplicity and lightness. With this in mind, Orenda pioneered work in the use of titanium in engines, with 20% by weight of the Iroquois (mainly the compressor rotor blades) consisting of this metal. Titanium has light weight, high strength and good temperature and corrosion resistance. It was estimated that the engine would be 850 pounds (386 kg)
The Pratt & Whitney Canada PW500 is a series of medium thrust turbofan engines designed specifically for business jet applications.
The PW530 has a single stage fan, driven by a 2 stage LP turbine, supercharging a 2A/1CF axial-centrifugal HP compressor, driven by a single stage HP turbine.
Although similar in configuration, the PW535 has a T-stage, mounted on the LP shaft behind the fan, to increase overall pressure ratio and core flow.
Similar to the PW535, the PW545 has an additional LP turbine stage to drive a larger diameter fan.
The Turbomeca Marboré was a small turbojet engine produced by Turbomeca from the 1950s into the 1970s. The most popular uses of this engine were in the Fouga Magister and the Morane-Saulnier MS-760. It was also licensed for production in the United States as the Teledyne CAE J69,.
The first major production version was the Marboré II, which had a maximum thrust of 880 lbf (3.9 kN) at 22,500 rpm. In its most basic form, it is a single-spool, centrifugal compressor turbojet. Fuel consumption was rated at 109 gal/h. Variations include military or civilian aircraft, oil tank design, auxiliary equipment, and exhaust pipe configuration. Some variants also included one axial stage compressor for additional performance. The engine dimensions of different variants with different auxiliary components and mounting configurations.
These were eventually replaced by the Marboré VI series which were slightly more powerful at was 1080 lbf (4.8 kN) instead of 880 lbf. Fuel consumption was only slightly higher at 119 gal/h. This was a 23% increase in thrust with slightly more than a 9% increase in fuel consumption. As a result the IV series were used to re-engine many II-series aircraft, and Marboré
The Turbomeca Palas is a diminutive centrifugal flow turbojet engine used to power light aircraft. An enlargement of the Turbomeca Piméné the Palas was designed in 1950 by the French manufacturer Société Turbomeca, and was also produced under licence by Blackburn and General Aircraft in the United Kingdom and Teledyne Continental Motors in the United States.
The de Havilland Gyron Junior was a military turbojet engine design of the 1950s developed by the de Havilland Engine Company and later produced by Bristol Siddeley. The Gyron Junior was a scaled-down derivative of the de Havilland Gyron.
Only a little more widely used than the Gyron, it did at least enter serial production for the Blackburn Buccaneer S.1 twin-engined Naval strike aircraft. However it was never a successful engine in service. The Buccaneer S.1 was criticised for being underpowered and the later and more numerous S.2 used the more powerful Rolls-Royce Spey instead.
Twin Gyron Juniors, with afterburners, were also used to power the Bristol 188 Mach 2 supersonic research aircraft. The Rolls-Royce Avon had been considered, but only the Gyron Junior was used in practice. The program was a disappointment, if not a failure, and was terminated early without achieving all of the high-speed high-temperature trials that had been intended. The limitation was the poor fuel consumption of the Gyron Junior and surging from the intakes. This could have been solved with Avons and the successful English Electric Lightning intake design, but the Avro 730 project that the 188 was a
The General Electric TF39 is a high-bypass turbofan engine. Developed to power the Lockheed C-5 Galaxy, it was the first high-power, high-bypass jet engine available. The TF39 was developed into the CF6 series of engines, and formed the basis of the General Electric LM2500 marine and industrial gas turbine.
The United States Air Force opened the "CX-X Program" in 1964, intending to produce a next-generation strategic airlifter. Of the several airframe and engine proposals returned for consideration, Lockheed's aircraft and General Electric's engine were selected for the new design in 1965.
The high-bypass turbofan was a huge leap in engine performance, offering a thrust of 43,000 pounds, while improving fuel efficiency by about 25%. The TF39 had an 8-to-1 bypass ratio, 25-to-1 compressor pressure ratio, a 2,500 °F (1,370 °C) turbine temperature made possible by advanced forced-air cooling. The first engine went for testing in 1965. Between 1968 and 1971, 463 TF39-1 and -1A engines were produced and delivered to power the C-5A fleet.
The TF39 is a revolutionary 1960s engine rated from 41,000 to 43,000 lbf (191 to 205 kN) of thrust. It employed a great deal of then-new technological
The Honeywell TFE731 is a family of geared turbofan engines commonly used on business jet aircraft. The engine was originally designed and built by Garrett AiResearch, and due to mergers was later produced by AlliedSignal and currently Honeywell Aerospace.
Since the engine was introduced in 1972, over 11,000 engines have been built, flying over 100 million flight-hours.
The TFE731 was based on the core of the TSCP700, which was specifically developed for use as the auxiliary power unit (APU) on the McDonnell Douglas DC-10. The design featured two important factors: low fuel consumption, and low noise profiles that met the newly established U.S. noise abatement regulations.
The first test run of the TFE731 occurred in 1970 at Garrett's plant in Torrance, California. The first production model, the TFE731-2, began rolling off the assembly line in August, 1972, and was used on the Learjet 35/36 and Dassault Falcon 10, both of which entered production in 1973.
The TFE731-3 was developed for use in the Lockheed JetStar re-engining program, and subsequent versions of it have been used on a number of aircraft, including the Learjet 55.
In 1975, the TFE731 was named Aviation Product of the
The Rolls-Royce Pegasus is a turbofan engine originally designed by Bristol Siddeley, and was manufactured by Rolls-Royce plc. This engine is able to direct thrust downwards which can then be swivelled to power a jet aircraft forward. Lightly loaded, it can also manoeuvre like a helicopter, vertically for takeoff and landings. In US service, the engine is designated F402.
The unique Pegasus engine powers all versions of the Harrier family of multi-role military aircraft. Rolls-Royce licensed Pratt & Whitney to build the Pegasus for US built versions. However Pratt & Whitney never completed any engines, with all new build being manufactured by Rolls-Royce in Bristol, England. The Pegasus was also the planned engine for a number of aircraft projects, among which were the prototypes of the German Dornier Do 31 VSTOL military transport project.
Michel Wibault, the French aircraft designer, had the idea to use vectored thrust for vertical take-off aircraft. This thrust came from four centrifugal compressors driven by a Bristol Orion turboprop, the exhaust from each could be directed by rotating the outlets. Gordon Lewis initially planned an engine with two thrust vectors, driven by the
The Ferrari 550 Maranello and 550 Barchetta are 2-seat grand tourers built by Ferrari. Introduced in 1996, the 550 was an upmarket front-engined V12 coupe of the kind not seen since the Daytona. It shared its platform and 5.5 L (5474 cc) engine with the 2+2 456 (Engine Code: F133) but was positioned as the company's highest-end model. The car used a transaxle layout, with the 6-speed manual gearbox located at the back, in-line with the driven wheels. The model number refers to total engine displacement (5.5 litres) and the model name of Maranello refers to the town where the Ferrari headquarters are located.
The demise that same year of the F512 M left the company with only the exotic F50 and V8 F355 as mid-engined models. Although the 550 was a softer GT model, it did take the place of the F512 M as the company's upmarket coupe, discounting the F50.
The 550 featured a luxurious and roomy interior. The (rear) trunk was tall and wide, though not very deep, and could accept a full set of golf clubs or standard overnight bags. 3,083 units were produced.
The 550 line was replaced by the Modificata 575 M Maranello in 2002.
The engine is a naturally aspirated V12 with 4 valves per
The "Ford V8" has historically referred to the Ford Flathead engine designed by Henry Ford. The Ford Flathead engine was introduced in the 1932 Model Year with its last year of production being 1953 for inclusion in U.S. manufactured Ford vehicles.
The General Electric TF34 is a military turbofan engine used on the A-10 Thunderbolt II and S-3 Viking. Developed by GE Aircraft Engines during the late 1960s, the original engine comprises a single stage fan, driven by a 4-stage low pressure (LP) turbine, supercharging a 14-stage high pressure (HP) compressor, driven by a 2-stage HP turbine. An annular combustor is featured. The TF34-GE-400A is rated at 9,275 lbf (41.26 KN) static thrust.
The civilian variant, the CF34, is used on a number of business and regional jets.
The CFE738 is a small turbofan engine aimed at the business/commuter jet market manufactured by the CFE Company, and is used on the Dassault Falcon 2000.
The success of the GE27/GLC38 gas generator development of the 1980s led to the formation of the CFE Company by GE and the Garrett Engine Division of Allied Signal(now Honeywell) in 1987.
The CFE738 consists of a single stage fan, driven by a 3-stage low-pressure (LP) turbine, supercharging a 5-stage high-pressure (HP) axial/centrifugal compressor driven by a 2-stage HP turbine. The engine has an overall pressure ratio of 35:1, which is extremely high for an engine with a centrifugal compressor. Other cycle parameters are a bypass ratio 5.3 and airflow of 240 lb/s. The take-off thrust is 5,600 lbf, flat-rated to ISA+15C.
General Electric GE90 is a family of high-bypass turbofan aircraft engines built by GE Aviation exclusively for the Boeing 777, with thrust ratings ranging from 74,000 to 115,000 lbf (329 to 512 kN). It was first introduced in November 1995 on British Airways' 777s. The engine is one of three options for the 777-200, -200ER, and -300, and the exclusive engine of the -200LR, -300ER, and -200F.
The GE90 was launched in 1990 by GE Aviation associated with Snecma (France), IHI (Japan) and Avio (Italy). Developed from the 1970s NASA Energy Efficient Engine, the 10-stage high pressure compressor develops a pressure ratio of 23:1 (an industry record) and is driven by a 2-stage, air-cooled, HP turbine. A 3-stage intermediate pressure compressor, situated directly behind the fan, supercharges the core. The fan/IPC is driven by a 6-stage low pressure turbine.
The higher-thrust variants, GE90-110B1 and -115B, have a different architecture from the earlier makes of GE90, with one stage removed from the HP compressor (probably from the rear, to increase core size), with an extra stage added to the IP compressor to maintain/increase overall pressure ratio to achieve a net increase in core flow.
The NPO Saturn AL-41F is a Russian variable-bypass ratio turbofan engine, designed for supercruise flight. It is considered by Jane's as the Russian counterpart to the General Electric YF120 engine which lost to the more conventional fixed-bypass YF-119 in the Advanced Tactical Fighter engine competition.
The Al-41F program was launched in 1982, and the first prototype engine flew in a MiG-25 Foxbat testbed. Originally developed for the Mikoyan Project 1.44, 28 engines were built, however the engine did not advance beyond prototype stage and when the MiG 1.44 was cancelled, it was also cancelled.
Some of its technologies ended up in the 117S and 117 engines
A heavily-upgraded version of the Al-31F is being developed for the Su-35BM prototype and possibly to power the early flights of PAK-FA. This engine has been named the AL-41F1A. It is important to note that the AL-41F1A is not considered a part of the same AL-41 line as was planned for the Mikoyan Project 1.44 because it uses the core of the AL-31F, whereas the AL-41F utilizes an entirely new core. The designation appears to be present because the engine approaches the projected specifications of the new AL-41F class. It is also
The Pratt & Whitney Canada JT15D is a small turbofan engine built by Pratt & Whitney Canada. It was introduced in 1971 at 2,200 lbf (9,800 N) thrust, and has since undergone a series of upgrades to just over 3,000 lbf (13 kN) thrust in the latest versions. It is the primary powerplant for a wide variety of smaller jet aircraft, notably business jets. Over 6,000 JT15D's have been delivered since the 1970s, with over 30 million hours of operation.
The JT15D is rare among modern turbofans in that it uses a centrifugal compressor as its main high-pressure system. This was a common feature of early jet engines, but was quickly replaced by axial compressors in most roles due to its large frontal size. In the turbofan role most of the jet thrust is generated by the cold air blown past the engine, and the internal "jet" portion is quite small. In this role the high single-stage compression of the centrifugal design has advantages, and the main reason most small turbofans don't use them is that they are often developments of previous turbojet designs.
In the JT15D the fan blows about 70% of the air into the bypass duct, producing most of the overall thrust. On JT15D-4 models and above there
The Rolls-Royce/JAEC RJ500 was a 20,000 lbf (89 kN) civil turbofan which Rolls-Royce and the Japanese Aero Engine Corporation (JAEC) consortium hoped to develop for aircraft like the Boeing 737-300 and the McDonnell Douglas MD-80.
A single stage fan, driven by a three stage LP turbine, supercharged the 9 stage HP compressor, which was driven by 2 stage air-cooled HP turbine. The combustor was annular and the exhaust separate jets. The HP compressor was based on a scale-up of the Rolls-Royce RB401 HP compressor, with a ninth stage added at the rear. Fan diameter was restricted to 60in, because of the relatively short undercarriage of the 737. Even then, the engine nacelle required an oblate shape so as to improve ground clearance.
Although two prototype engines were built and ground tested, the project was cancelled in the early 1980s because Boeing favoured the CFM56-3.
The Tumansky R-29 is a Soviet aircraft turbojet engine that was developed in the early 1970s. It is generally described as being in the "third generation" of Soviet gas turbine engines which are characterized by high thrust-to-weight ratios and the use of turbine air cooling.
R-29-300 Original variant. Used in the MiG-23MF and related variants.
R-29B-200 Simplified variant of the engine intended for the MiG-27.
R-29PN Advanced variant that replaced the -300 model on non-export aircraft.
R-29BS-300 Variant with modified gearbox. Used in several export variants of the Sukhoi Su-17.
Data from Gunston
The Volvo RM8 is a low-bypass afterburning turbofan jet engine developed for the Saab 37 Viggen fighter. Basically a licensed-built version of the Pratt & Whitney JT8D with a Swedish-designed afterburner and thrust reversal, the RM8 was produced by Svenska Flygmotor (now Volvo Aero). In 1962, the basic JT8D-22 engine was chosen to power the Viggen in absence of a suitable and available engine designed for military use.
When the Viggen-project was given the go-ahead, there was only one engine available that fit the specification, the new P&W JT8D-22. As a civil engine, the JT8D could not handle the strains of supersonic flight and manoeuvring at higher altitudes so the engine would have to be modified. In order to make the JT8D satisfactorily handle turbulence, bird-strike and thermal strain, the engine had to be redesigned to the extent of leaving only nuts and bolts interchangeable between the JT8D and the RM8A. For example: a new first-stage fan to cope with bird-strike and turbulence, new materials in combustion and turbine sections to cope with higher thermal load and a new fuel system for reliable single-engine operation. In the end, the changes of the JTD8 needed for military
The Westinghouse J40 was to be a high performance afterburning turbojet engine. It was intended by the Bureau of Aeronautics in early 1946 to power several fighter aircraft, with a rating of 7,500 lbf (33 kN) of thrust at sea level static conditions, but a more powerful 11,000 lbf (49 kN) thrust version for McDonnell F3H Demon proved to be a failure. After a troublesome and delayed development program, failures in service led to the loss of aircraft and pilots and grounding of all J40 powered Demons.
After the program was called a "fiasco" and an "engine flop", the J40 program was terminated in 1955, by which time all the aircraft it was to power were either grounded, canceled or redesigned to use alternative engines. The J40's failure was among those that affected the most military programs and produced the most unflyable aircraft, and would lead to the downfall of the engine division of Westinghouse. In 1953 Westinghouse worked with Rolls-Royce to offer engines based on the Avon, but Westinghouse was out of the aircraft engine business when this engine also failed to find a United States market.
Westinghouse Electric Corporation established the Westinghouse Aviation Gas Turbine
The Williams F107 (company designation WR19) is a small turbofan engine made by Williams International. The F107 was designed to power cruise missiles. It has been used as the powerplant for the AGM-86 ALCM, and BGM-109 Tomahawk, as well as the experimental Williams X-Jet flying platform.
The initial version of this article was based on a public domain article from Greg Goebel's Vectorsite.
The CFM International LEAP (formerly called LEAP-X) is a high-bypass turbofan engine. It is currently under development by CFM International, a 50-50 joint venture company between GE Aviation of the United States and Snecma of France.
The LEAP ("Leading Edge Aviation Propulsion") incorporates technologies that CFM developed as part of the LEAP56 technology acquisition program, which CFM launched in 2005. The engine was officially launched as "LEAP-X" on 13 July 2008. It is intended to be a successor to the CFM56-5B and CFM56-7B. Currently proposed for the LEAP is a greater use of composite materials, a blisk fan in the compressor, a second-generation Twin Annular Pre Swirl (TAPS II) combustor, a bypass ratio around 10-11:1, and 16% lower fuel consumption.
The Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China (COMAC) has chosen the LEAP engine to provide the engines for its new COMAC C919 aircraft.
The company expects to receive certification for the first LEAP, the LEAP-1C, for China's 150-seat COMAC C919 twinjet. The aircraft is due to enter service in 2016. The engine will also be deployed in the same year on the new Airbus A320neo variant.
On July 20, 2011, American Airlines announced
The Honeywell HTF7000 is a turbofan engine produced by Honeywell Aerospace. Rated in the 6500-7500 lbf class, the HTF7000 is used on the Bombardier Challenger 300, and is planned for the new Gulfstream G280.
The engine was originally designated the AS907 which was changed in 2004 to HTF7000, the AS907 designation is still used for legal and regulatory use.
The Kuznetsov NK-86 is a low bypass turbofan engine used on the Ilyushin Il-86 rated at 28,000 lbf (125 kN) thrust. It is made by the Soviet Kuznetsov Design Bureau. It is the upgraded version of the Kuznetsov NK-8
The Rolls-Royce BR700 family of engines was developed by BMW and Rolls-Royce plc through the joint venture company BMW Rolls-Royce to power regional and corporate jets. Rolls-Royce took full control of the company in 2000, which is now known as Rolls-Royce Deutschland.
The company was established in 1990 and the first engine run (BR710) took place in September 1994.
The engine is manufactured in Dahlewitz, Germany.
The BR710 is a twin shaft turbofan, entered service on the Gulfstream V in 1997 and the Bombardier Global Express in 1998. This version has also been selected to power the Gulfstream G550.
Another rerated version, with a revised exhaust system, was selected for the now cancelled Royal Air Force Nimrod MRA4s.
The BR710 comprises a 48in diameter single stage fan, driven by a two stage LP turbine, supercharging a ten stage HP compressor (scaled from the V2500 unit) and driven by a two stage, air-cooled, HP turbine.
The BR715 is another twin shaft turbofan, this engine was first run in April 1997 and entered service in mid-1999. This version powers the Boeing 717.
A new LP spool, comprising a 58in diameter single stage fan, with two stage LP compressor driven by a three
The Williams FJ44 is a family of small, two-spool, turbofan engines produced by Williams International/Rolls-Royce for the light business jet market. Until the recent boom in the Very Light Jet market, the FJ44 was one of the smallest turbofans available for civilian applications. Although basically a Williams design, Rolls-Royce was brought into the project, at an early stage, to design, develop and manufacture an air-cooled HP turbine for the engine. The FJ44 first flew on July 12, 1988 on the Scaled Composites/Beechcraft Triumph aircraft.
The Williams FJ33 is a smaller engine based on the basic FJ44 design.
Production started in 1992 with the 1900 lbf (8.45 kN) thrust FJ44-1A, which comprises a 20.9 in (531 mm) diameter single stage blisk fan plus a single intermediate pressure (IP) booster stage, driven by a 2 stage low pressure (LP) turbine, supercharging a single stage centrifugal high pressure (HP) compressor, driven by a single stage uncooled high pressure (HP) turbine. The combustor is an impingement cooled annular design. Fuel is delivered to the combustor through an unusual rotating fuel nozzle system, rather than the standard fuel-air mixers or vapourisers. The bypass
The T-54 and T-55 tanks were a series of main battle tanks designed in the Soviet Union. The first T-54 prototype appeared in March 1945, just as the Second World War ended. The T-54 entered full production in 1947 and became the main tank for armored units of the Soviet Army, armies of the Warsaw Pact countries, and others. T-54s and T-55s were involved in many of the world's armed conflicts during the late 20th and early 21st century.
The T-54/55 series eventually became the most-produced tank in history. Estimated production numbers for the series range from 86,000 to 100,000. They were replaced by the T-62, T-64, T-72, T-80, and T-90 in the Soviet and Russian Armies, but remain in use by up to 50 other armies worldwide, some having received sophisticated retrofitting.
Soviet tanks never directly faced their NATO Cold War adversaries in Europe. However, the T-54/55's first appearance in the west in 1960 spurred the United States to develop the M60 Patton.
The Soviet T-34 medium tank of the 1940s is considered to have the best balance of firepower (85mm gun), protection and mobility for its cost of any tank of its time in the world. Its development never stopped throughout the
The Fairchild J83 turbojet was developed starting in 1955 to power cruise missiles used as un-armed decoys for bomber aircraft. The engine's development was terminated in November 1958.
In March 1953, the United States Air Force released General Operaional Requirement (GOR) 16, which called air and ground launched decoy missiles to increase the effectiveness of Strategic Air Command bombers by confusing and saturating a air defense system. In December 1955, Fairchild was awarded a contract to develop the ground-launched decoy Weapon System 123A which included the XSM-73 Goose. McDonnell Aircraft was chosen in February 1956 to build the ADM-20 Quail air-launched decoy.
Two engine contracts were awarded in November 1954 to minimize development risk for both decoys. Each engine was in the 2,450 lbf (10.9 kN) thrust class with a thrust to weight ratio goal of 10:1. General Electric was awarded a contract for the development of the J85 and Fairchild was awarded a contract for a competing engine, the J83. Fairchild proposed a lightweight engine of conventional design. GE used a more advanced design which yielded a higher thrust to weight ratio.
A J83 was operating by early 1957. A B-57
The Pratt & Whitney J75 (company designation: JT4A) was an axial-flow turbojet engine first flown in 1955. A two-spool design in the 17,000 lbf (76 kN) thrust class, the J75 was essentially the bigger brother of the Pratt & Whitney J57 (JT3C). It was known in civilian service as the JT4A, and in a variety of stationary roles as the GG4 and FT4.
In military use, the J75 was used on the Lockheed U-2, the Republic Aviation F-105 Thunderchief, and the Convair F-106 Delta Dart. It was also utilized in the prototype and experimental Lockheed A-12, North American YF-107, Vought XF8U-3 Crusader III, P6M SeaMaster, and CF-105 Arrow.
Before the arrival of the Pratt & Whitney JT3D turbofan engine, the JT4A was used to power certain Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8 models. It brought improved field performance in the medium-range Boeing 707-220 and Douglas DC-8-20, and gave intercontinental range in the original Boeing 707-320 and the Douglas DC-8-30.
After its relatively short lifetime in the aircraft role, the JT4 found more enduring use in the naval role, where the FT4 was produced in a variety of models between 18,000 and 22,000 hp. Well-known uses include the first all-turbine warships, the
The Snecma M88 is a French afterburning turbofan engine developed by Snecma for the Dassault Rafale fighter.
The M88 Pack CGP (for "total cost of ownership") or M88-4E is based on a study contract, development and production reported in 2008 by the General Delegation for Armament and is to introduce technical improvements to reduce maintenance costs. The purpose of this release is to reduce cost of ownership of the M88 and longer inspection intervals of the main modules by increasing the lifetime of the hot and rotating parts. It has been tested in flight for the first time March 22, 2010 at Istres, the Rafale's M02 CEV.
The General Electric J73 turbojet was developed by General Electric from the earlier J47 engine. Its original USAF designation was J47-21, but the innovative features (variable inlet guide vanes, and single-shell combustor case) led to its redesignation as J73.
Data from Flight.
National Museum of the USAF - J73 factsheet
The General Electric YJ93 turbojet engine was designed as the powerplant for both the North American XB-70 Valkyrie bomber and the North American XF-108 Rapier interceptor. The YJ93 was a single-shaft axial-flow turbojet with a variable-stator compressor and a fully variable convergent/divergent exhaust nozzle. The maximum sea-level thrust was 28,800 lbf (128 kN).
The YJ93 started life as the General Electric X275, an enlarged version of the J79 turbojet. This evolved to the X279 when Mach 3 cruise became a requirement, and ultimately became the YJ93.
The engine used a special high-temperature JP-6 fuel. The six YJ93 engines in the XB-70 Valkyrie were capable of producing a thrust to weight ratio of 5, allowing for a speed of 2,000 mph (3,200 km/h) (approximately Mach 3) at an altitude of 70,000 feet (21,000 m).
The XF-108 interceptor was cancelled outright and the B-70 project was reoriented to a research project only.
The Kuznetsov NK-25 is a turbofan engine used in the Tupolev Tu-22M strategic bomber. It can equal the NK-321 engine as one of the most powerful supersonic engines in service today. It is rated at 245 kN (50,000 lbf) thrust. The three shaft engine we call the NK-25 was designed in the years 1972-1974. It was superior to many other engines because of its improved fuel economy. It is made by the Soviet Kuznetsov Design Bureau.
NK-25 on LeteckeMotory.cz (Czech)
The Power Jets W.2 was a British turbojet engine designed by Frank Whittle and Power Jets (Research and Development) Ltd. The W.2 was built under contract by the Rover Car Company in the early 1940s. Although the engine was flight tested it did not enter series production.
In 1940 the Air Ministry placed a contract with the Gloster Aircraft Company for prototypes of a new twin-engined jet fighter aircraft to the requirement of F.9/40, this aircraft became the Gloster Meteor. At the same time Power Jets was authorised to design a new engine that was intended to power the same aircraft. Due to development problems the first prototype of the Meteor was powered by the Rolls-Royce Welland, itself a development of the W.2.
Like the earlier Power Jets W.1 the design featured a simple double-sided centrifugal compressor, reverse-flow annular combustion chambers and an air-cooled axial-flow turbine section. Later versions of the W.2 used direct-flow combustion chambers.
The following aircraft were used for test purposes only:
The W.2B/700 was to be used in the Miles M.52 supersonic research aircraft. In order to achieve the thrust required for supersonic flight, a version of the engine was
The Pratt & Whitney F100 (company designation JTF22) is an afterburning turbofan engine manufactured by Pratt & Whitney which powers the F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon.
In 1967, the United States Navy and United States Air Force issued a joint engine Request for Proposals (RFP) for the F-14 Tomcat and F-15 Eagle fighters. The combined program was called Advanced Turbine Engine Gas Generator (ATEGG) with goals to improve thrust and reduce weight to achieve a thrust-to-weight ratio of 9. The program requested proposals and would award Pratt & Whitney a contract in 1970 to produce F100-PW-100 (USAF) and F401-PW-400 (USN) engines. The Navy would cut back and later cancel its order, choosing to continue to use the Pratt & Whitney TF30 engine from the F-111 in its F-14.
The F100-100 first flew in an F-15 Eagle in 1972 with a thrust of 23,930 lbf. Due to the advanced nature of engine and aircraft, numerous problems were encountered in its early days of service including high wear, stalling and "hard" afterburner starts which are commonly referred to as A/B blowouts by the Air Force mechanics who service the engines. These "hard" starts could be caused by failure of the afterburner to
The M45SD-02 was a derivative of the Rolls-Royce/SNECMA M45H-01 turbofan, designed to demonstrate ultra-quiet engine technologies, needed for STOL aircraft operating from city centre airports.
A geared, variable pitch, fan replaced the first stage of the -01 LP compressor. A modest fan pressure ratio, consistent with the high bypass ratio, meant a low fan tip speed could be employed. A low hot jet velocity was another major design feature.
In reverse thrust, intake air entered the bypass duct, via a gap in the cold nozzle outer wall, and went through the fan, to be expelled through the intake. A small proportion of the bypass duct air entered the IP compressor, via a special diverter valve, to sustain the gas generator. Reverse thrust was obtained by the fan going through fine (rather than feather) pitch.
Engine testing took place in the mid 1970's.
The General Electric GEnx (General Electric Next-generation) is an advanced dual rotor, axial flow, high-bypass turbofan jet engine in production by GE Aviation for the Boeing 787 and 747-8. The GEnx is intended to replace the CF6 in GE's product line.
The GEnx and the Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 were selected by Boeing following a run-off between the three big engine manufacturers. The GEnx uses some technology from the GE90 turbofan, including composite fan blades, and the smaller core featured in earlier variants of the engine. The engine carries composite technology into the fan case.
Both engine types will have a standard interface with the aircraft, allowing any 787 to be fitted with either GE or RR engines at any time. The engine market for the 787 is estimated at US$40 billion over the next 25 years. A first is the elimination of bleed air systems using high temperature/high pressure air from the propulsion engines to power aircraft systems such as the starting, air-conditioning and anti-ice systems. The GEnx and the Trent 1000 allow a move towards the electric airplane.
The GEnx is expected to produce thrust from 53,000 to 75,000 lbf (240 to 330 kN) with first tests commencing
The Klimov RD-500 was an unlicensed Soviet copy of the Rolls-Royce Derwent Mk.V turbojet that was sold to the Soviet Union in 1947. The Klimov OKB adapted it for Soviet production methods and materials.
Producing metric drawings and analyzing the materials used in the Derwent went fairly quickly, but find a substitute for the high-temperature, creep-resistant Nimonic 80 steel alloy was a more difficult challenge. Eventually an alloy that matched Nimonic 80's high-temperature properties was found in KhN 80T, but it was not creep-resistant. The first Derwent copy, designated as the RD-500 (Reaktivnyy Dvigatel' — jet engine) after the Factory No. 500 where the engine was first produced, was being tested on 31 December 1947, but problems cropped up quickly. Combustion was uneven and this cracked the combustion chambers. This may have had something to do with the modifications made by the Soviets to the fuel, speed and starter systems. But these problems were resolved by September 1948 when the engine passed its 100-hour State acceptance test.
RD-500 was a close copy of the Derwent with a single-stage centrifugal compressor, nine combustion chambers and a single-stage turbine. It
The Kuznetsov NK-32 is a military specification afterburning 3-spool low bypass turbofan jet engine which powers the Tupolev Tu-160 supersonic bomber, and was fitted to the later model Tupolev Tu-144LL supersonic transport. It is the largest and most powerful engine ever fitted on a combat aircraft (however, higher thrust engines are fitted to civil aircraft such as General Electric GE90. Such engines sacrifice exhaust speed for higher thrust and hence cannot accelerate to supersonic speeds).
It produces 55,000 lbf (245 kN) of thrust in maximum afterburner.
NK-32 on LeteckeMotory.cz (Czech)
RD-0410 (РД-0410, GRAU index: 11B91) was a Soviet nuclear thermal rocket engine developed from 1965 through the 1980s using liquid hydrogen propellant. The engine was ground-tested at the Semipalatinsk Test Site, and its use was incorporated in the Kurchatov Mars 1994 manned mission proposal.
The hydrogen boost turbopump was designed by KBKhA.
The Rolls-Royce Olympus (originally the Bristol B.E.10 Olympus) was the world's first two-spool axial-flow turbojet aircraft engine, originally developed and produced by Bristol Aero Engines. First running in 1950, its initial use was as the powerplant of the Avro Vulcan V bomber. The design was further developed for supersonic performance as part of the BAC TSR-2 programme. Later it saw production as the Rolls-Royce/Snecma Olympus 593, the powerplant for Concorde SST. Versions of the engine were licenced to Curtiss-Wright in the USA as the TJ-32 or J67 (military designation) and the TJ-38 'Zephyr'. The Olympus was also developed with success as a marine and industrial gas turbine.
Bristol Aero Engines (formerly Bristol Engine Company) merged with Armstrong Siddeley Motors in 1959 to form Bristol Siddeley Engines Limited (BSEL) which in turn was taken over by Rolls-Royce in 1966.
As of 2012, the Olympus remains in service as both a marine and industrial gas turbine. It also powers the restored Avro Vulcan XH558.
At the end of World War II, the Bristol Engine Company’s major effort was the development of the Hercules and Centaurus radial piston engines. By the end of 1946, the
The Rolls-Royce Trent 500 is a turbofan engine, developed from the RB.211 and is one of the family of Trent engines.
In 1995, Airbus began considering an engine for two new long-range derivatives of its four-engined A340 aircraft, designated A340-500/-600. The existing -200 and -300 models were powered by CFM International CFM56 engines (which had been selected in April 1987 before the Trent family was launched). However, the CFM56 was at the limit of its development capability, and would be unable to power the new A340-500/-600. In April 1996, Airbus signed an agreement with General Electric to develop a suitable engine, but decided not to proceed when GE demanded an exclusivity deal on the A340. After a contest with Pratt & Whitney, Airbus announced on 15 June 1997 at the Paris Air Show that it had selected the Trent 500 to power the A340-500 and -600.
The Trent 500 first ran in May 1999 and achieved certification in December 2000. It entered service on the A340-600 with Virgin Atlantic Airways in July 2002 and on the ultra-long range A340-500 with Emirates in December 2003. As at January 2009 a total of 15 customers have placed firm orders for 139 A340s powered by Trent 500s;
The General Electric YF120 was a variable cycle turbofan engine designed by GE Aircraft Engines in the late 1980s/early 1990s for the United States Air Force's Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF) project (which resulted in the F-22 Raptor). GE lost the engine competition for this aircraft to Pratt & Whitney F119.
General Electric began developing the YF120 for the ATF competition in the early 1980s. Unlike competitor Pratt & Whitney, GE elected against developing a conventional low bypass turbofan and instead chose to design a variable cycle engine. This decision was made as a result of the challenging ATF requirement of supercruise. This meant the engine had to produce a large amount of dry thrust (without afterburner) and therefore have high off-design efficiency ("design" being standard cruise conditions).
The core technology used in the YF120 was developed during two industry-government programs, the Advanced Technology Engine Gas Generator (ATEGG) and Joint Technology Demonstration Engine (JTDE) programs.
The YF120's variable cycle system worked by varying the bypass ratio of engine for different flight regimes, allowing the engine act like either a low bypass turbofan or nearly a
The IHI Corporation F7 is a small turbofan engine developed specifically for the Kawasaki P-1 maritime patrol aircraft by IHI Corporation.
IHI started development work on the high bypass ratio turbofan engine in 1998, based on the low bypass ratio engine XF5-1. and the first prototype XF7-1 was tested from 2000 to 2002. The flight test XF7-10's testing started in 2002.
XF7-10's PFRT (Preliminary Flight Rating Test) started in second quarter 2002, and was completed August 2007 before the XP-1 first flight. PFRT was based on the Military Specification MIL-E-5007D and the original standard about the FADEC system.
Take off thrust is 60kN(6,100kg/13,500lbs), bypass ratio is 8.2, and SFC is 0.34 kg/hr/daN. Exhaust emission is under the ICAO's standard, NOx is 54%, CO is 33%, UHC is 0.5%, smoke is 74% when standard is 100%.
Strong alloy materials were selected for high corrosion resistance in salt environments, and a sound absorbing panel is mounted. Noise level is 5~10dB lower than P-3's T56, measurements is 76dB when idling, 70.6dB at take off.
P-1's F7-10 is installed thrust reversal with GE's cowl opening systems.
The Pratt & Whitney JT9D engine was the first high bypass ratio jet engine to power a wide-body aircraft. Its initial application was the Boeing 747-100, the original "Jumbo Jet". It was the company's first high-bypass-ratio turbofan and also the first of today's generation of large commercial turbofan engines to be produced.
The JT9D was developed as part of the design phase of the C-5 Galaxy. A contract was awarded to Pratt & Whitney to study the type of large engine needed, but the production contract was eventually awarded to General Electric and their TF39 turbofan. The JT9D was, however, chosen by Boeing to power the 747, with that aircraft's first flight taking place on 9 February 1969. Flight testing of the engine had begun in June 1968, using a Boeing B-52E as a testbed.
The JT9D-3, which entered service in 1970, was constructed using titanium and nickel alloys. The engine featured a single stage fan, a three stage low pressure compressor and an eleven stage high pressure compressor coupled to a two stage high pressure turbine and four stage low pressure turbine. This version of the JT9D weighed 8,608 lb (3,905 kg) and produced 43,500 lbf (193,000 N) thrust. Production
Rolls-Royce Trent is the name given to a family of high bypass turbofan aircraft engines manufactured by Rolls-Royce plc. All are developments of the RB211 with thrust ratings of 53,000 to 95,000 pounds-force (240 to 420 kN). Versions of the Trent are in service on the Airbus A330, A340, A380, Boeing 777, and 787, and variants are in development for the forthcoming A350 XWB. The Trent has also been adapted for marine and industrial applications.
First run in August 1990 as the model Trent 700, the Trent has achieved significant commercial success, having been selected as the launch engine for both of the 787's variants, the A380 and A350. Its overall share of the markets in which it competes is around 40%. Sales of the Trent family of engines have made Rolls-Royce the second biggest supplier of large civil turbofans after General Electric, relegating rival Pratt & Whitney to third position.
Singapore Airlines is currently the largest operator of Trents, with five variants in service or on order.
When Rolls-Royce was privatised in April 1987, its share of the large civil turbofan market was only 8%. Despite increasing sales success with the RB211, General Electric and Pratt &
The Turboméca Astafan is a single-spool, variable-pitch turbofan engine developed from the Turboméca Astazou. Despite successful flight-testing, an efficient, quiet and clean design (compared to turbojets and conventional turbofans) and some commercial interest, the Astafan never entered series production. The engines were only flown on the Fouga 90 prototype and Turboméca's two test aircraft.
The engine combines an Astazou-derived centrifugal compressor with up to three axial compressor stages (depending on the version of the engine), driven by a common driveshaft. The fan section is composed of a unique variable-pitch fan and fixed stator blades mounted at the front of the engine. Blade pitch is varied by a hydraulic piston mounted in the fan hub, while the fan itself is powered via a reduction gear from the main driveshaft.
The engine is designed to operate at a constant speed, no matter the thrust output—a characteristic permitted by the Astafan's use of precise fuel metering and fan blade pitch adjustment. To control the engine, the pilot first sets the speed lever, which adjusts fuel flow in proportion to the selected engine speed. Then the pilot moves the thrust lever
The BMW 003 was an early axial-flow turbojet engine produced by BMW AG in Germany during World War II. It and the Junkers Jumo 004 were the only German turbojet engines to reach production during World War II.
Work had begun on the design of the BMW 003 before its contemporary, the Junkers Jumo 004 engine, but prolonged developmental problems meant that the BMW 003 entered production much later, and the aircraft projects that had been designed with it in mind were re-engined with the Jumo powerplant instead. The most famous case of this was the Messerschmitt Me 262, in two of the V-series prototypes and in the two experimental A-1b aircraft, and the same was true of the Arado Ar 234 and Horten Ho 229. The only production aircraft to use the BMW 003 were the Heinkel He 162 and late, four-engined versions of the Arado Ar 234.
Some 500 BMW 003 engines were built in Germany, but very few were ever installed in aircraft. The engine also formed the basis for turbojet development in Japan during the war, and in France and the Soviet Union following the war.
The practicality of jet propulsion had been demonstrated in Germany in early 1937 by Hans von Ohain working with the Heinkel company.
The Bristol Odin is a ramjet engine originally developed by Bristol Siddeley Engines, later taken over by Rolls-Royce. Odin was specifically designed to power the Sea Dart missile. Unlike the earlier Thor ramjet powering the Bristol Bloodhound missile, Odin is an integral part of the Sea Dart airframe. A biconic intake at the front of the missile transfers air, via a transfer duct, to the ramjet combustor, which is located towards the rear of the missile. Thrust is provided by the combustion products exiting the engine at high velocity, via a fixed area ratio convergent-divergent nozzle. The only significant moving part in the engine is the turbopump. This extracts 'ram' air in the transfer duct to drive an air-turbine, which is connected to the fuel pump. The air exiting the turbine is dumped overboard.
The CFM International CFM56 (U.S. military designation F108) series is a family of high-bypass turbofan aircraft engines made by CFM International (CFMI), with a thrust range of 18,000 to 34,000 pounds-force (80 to 150 kilonewtons). CFMI is a 50–50 joint-owned company of SNECMA, France and GE Aviation (GE), USA. Both companies are responsible for producing components and each has its own final assembly line. GE produces the high-pressure compressor, combustor, and high-pressure turbine, and SNECMA manufactures the fan, gearbox, exhaust and the low-pressure turbine, while some components are made by Avio of Italy. The engines are assembled by GE in Evendale, Ohio, and by SNECMA in Villaroche, France. The completed engines are marketed by CFMI.
The CFM56 first ran in 1974 and, despite initial political problems, is now one of the most common turbofan aircraft engines in the world, with more than 20,000 having been built in four major variants. It is most widely used on the Boeing 737 airliner and, under military designation F108, replaced the Pratt & Whitney JT3D engines on many KC-135 Stratotankers in the 1980s, creating the KC-135R variant of this aircraft. It is also the only
The iPod Touch (stylized, and marketed as iPod touch; also colloquially but incorrectly referred to as the iTouch, by analogy to the iPhone) is a portable media player, personal digital assistant, handheld game console, and Wi-Fi mobile device designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The iPod Touch adds the multi-touch graphical user interface to the iPod line. It is the first iPod with wireless access to the iTunes Store, and also has access to Apple's App Store, enabling content to be purchased and downloaded directly on the device. As of March 2011, Apple has sold over 60 million iPod Touch units.
The iPod Touch runs iOS. The first major update after the initial release was iPhone OS 2.0. This update introduced the App Store, which allowed third-party applications for the first time. iPhone OS 2.0 debuted July 11, 2008. iPhone users received the update for free, whilst iPod Touch users had to pay for the update. The second major update to the operating system, iPhone OS 3.0, was released June 17, 2009. iPhone OS 3.0 added features such as cut, copy, and paste, data tethering and push notification support. As with the prior major release, iPhone users received the update for free,
The Pratt & Whitney JT12 and J60 are small turbojets. Turboshaft versions for naval use are known as the FT12. The JFTD12 (military designation T73) is a related turboshaft engine.
The J60 conception and project design began in July 1957 at United Aircraft of Canada (now Pratt & Whitney Canada) in Montreal. The project design details were transferred to the main P&W company in East Hartford. In May 1958, the first prototype, with military designation YJ60-P-1, was decided jointly with the USAF and US Navy.
Flight tests were completed in early 1959; followed by the delivery of the new JT12A-5 engines in July 1959. These were for the two Canadair CL-41 prototype trainers with a rating of 12.9 kN (2,900 lb st). The modified JT12A-3 turbojets with a basic rating of 14.69 kN (3,300 lb st) were tested in the two Lockheed XV-4A Hummingbird VTOL research aircraft. The next version, JT12A-21, had an afterburner which delivered a maximum thrust of 17.91 kN (4,025 lb st).
The Pratt & Whitney J57 (company designation: JT3C) was an axial-flow turbojet engine developed by Pratt & Whitney in the early 1950s. The J57 was the first 10,000 lbf (45 kN) thrust class engine in the United States. The J57/JT3C was developed into J75/JT4A turbojet, and the JT3D/TF33 turbofan.
The J57 was a development of the XT45 (PT4) turboprop engine intended for the XB-52. As the B-52 power requirements grew, the design evolved into a turbojet, the JT3. The prestigious Collier Trophy for 1952 was awarded to Leonard S. Hobbs, Chief Engineer of United Aircraft Corporation, for "designing and producing the P&W J57 turbojet engine". On May 25, 1953, a J57-powered YF-100A exceeded Mach 1 on its maiden flight. The engine was produced from 1951 to 1965 with a total of 21,170 built.
One XT57 was installed in the nose of a C-124 (BuNo 52-1069), and tested in 1956.
The Pratt & Whitney JT3D is an early turbofan engine derived from the Pratt & Whitney JT3C turbojet. It was first run in 1958 and was first flown in 1959 under a B-45 Tornado test aircraft. Over 8,000 JT3Ds were produced between 1959 and 1985. Most JT3D engines still in service today are used on military aircraft, where the engine is referred to by its USAF designation of TF33.
In 1959, important orders for the engine were the Boeing 707-120B and Boeing 720B when American Airlines ordered one 707 powered by JT3D turbofans and KLM ordered a JT3D powered Douglas DC-8. The earlier 707s had been powered by the turbojet JT3C and the improved efficiency of the turbofan soon attracted the airlines. A JT3D powered 707-123B and 720-023B (the suffix B was to indicate a turbofan powered aircraft) entered service with American Airlines on the same day, March 12, 1961.
The Boeing KC-135 Stratotankers were all originally powered by turbojet engines. With the demise of many airline 707s the United States Air Force took the opportunity to buy the surplus airframes and use the engines to re-engine the KC-135As used by the Air National Guard and reserve squadrons with the civilian JT3D (designated
The Allison J102 was a turbojet engine developed as a supersonic missile engine by the Allison Engine Company.
The J102-100 is an axial flow turbojet that was first run in March 1991. In 1997 it was being considered for use in a sea-skimming supersonic target for the United States Navy. .
The Armstrong Siddeley Adder was an early British turbojet engine developed by the Armstrong Siddeley company and first run in November 1948.
The Adder, a pure-jet derivative of the Armstrong Siddeley Mamba, was originally developed as an expendable engine to power the Jindivik 1 target drone. The engine was then developed into a longer-life engine before evolving into the more-powerful Armstrong Siddeley Viper.
The ASA.1 Adder was flight tested in the rear-turret position of the Avro Lancaster III SW342, the aircraft also having been previously modified and used for icing trials of the Mamba by Armstrong Siddeley's Flight Test Department at Bitteswell.
The Bristol Siddeley Orpheus was a single-spool turbojet developed by Bristol Siddeley for various light fighter/trainer applications such as the Folland Gnat and the Fiat G91. Later, the Orpheus formed the core of the first Bristol Pegasus vectored thrust turbofan as used for the Hawker Siddeley Harrier "jump jet".
The engine had its genesis in a 1952 request by Folland for an engine in the 5,000 pounds (22 kN) class to power a new trainer and lightweight fighter-bomber they were developing. Stanley Hooker, relatively new to the company after an earlier career at Rolls-Royce, took the project under his wing. He delivered a relatively simple and easy to maintain engine, which was put into use in the Folland Gnat, flying in 1955. Developing a Sea Level Static thrust of 4,520 lbf (20.1 kN), the Orpheus 701 had a 7 stage axial compressor driven by a single stage turbine.
Other users, mostly trainers, soon followed, including the Fuji T-1, Hindustan Marut, HA-300,and the experimental Hunting H.126 and Short SB5. In 1957 NATO ran a competition for a light fighter design, asking for entries in both engine and airframe categories. The Orpheus was the unanimous winner of the engine
The de Havilland Goblin, originally the Halford H-1, is an early turbojet engine designed by Frank Halford. The Goblin built by de Havilland was the second British jet engine to fly, and the first to pass type tests and receive a "Gas Turbine" class type rating.
The Goblin was the primary engine of the de Havilland Vampire, and was to have been the engine for the F-80 Shooting Star (as the Allis-Chalmers J36) before that design switched engines due to production delays. The Goblin also powered the Saab 21R, Fiat G.80 and de Havilland Swallow. The Goblin was later expanded into the larger de Havilland Ghost, with the model numbers continuing from the last marks of the Goblin.
Design of the engine was carried out by Frank Halford at his London consulting firm starting in April 1941. It was based on the basic design pioneered by Frank Whittle, using a centrifugal compressor providing compressed air to sixteen individual flame cans, from which the exhaust powered a single-stage axial turbine. Compared to Whittle designs, the H-1 was "cleaned up" in that it used a single-sided compressor with the inlet at the front, and a "straight through" layout with the flame cans exhausting straight
The General Electric CJ805 is an axial-flow turbojet engine. It was developed by General Electric Aircraft Engines as a simplified civilian version of its J79. The basic CJ805 powered the Convair 880, while an aft-turbofan derivative, the CJ805-23 (military designation TF35), powered the Convair 990 airliners and a single Sud Aviation Caravelle intended as a prototype for the US market.
Data from FAA Type Certificate Data Sheet, E-306
The Ivchenko AI-25 is a family of military and civilian twin-shaft medium bypass turbofan engines developed by Ivchenko OKB of the Soviet Union and was the first bypass engine ever used on short haul aircraft in the USSR. The engine is still produced by Ukrainian based aircraft engine manufacturing company, Motor Sich.
The AI-25 was designed to power the Yakovlev Yak-40 tri-jet airliner, often called the first regional jet transport aircraft, and is the starting point for the Lotarev DV-2 turbofan engine. The project was launched in 1965, with the AI-25s first test flight in 1966, and finally cleared for production in 1967. In 1972, the AI-25 was selected for the Polish PZL M-15 Belphegor, the world's only jet-powered biplane. Development of the AI-25 continued and the uprated AI-25TL was designed for use by the Czechoslovak Aero L-39 Albatros military trainer with the first flight occurring in 1968. The L-39, would go on to become one of the most popular, and widespread trainer aircraft in the world, with over 3,000 L-39s produced, and with 2,900 examples still in active service today. A smaller version of the AI-25TL, the AI-25TLK has equipped the People's Republic of Chinas
The Lyulka TR-1 was a turbojet designed by Arkhip Lyulka and produced by his Lyulka design bureau. It was the first indigenous Soviet jet engine.
In May 1944 Lyulka was ordered to begin development of a turbojet with a thrust of 12.3 kN (2,800 lbf). He demonstrated an eight-stage axial-flow engine in March 1945 called the S-18. In early 1946 the Council of Ministers ordered that the S-18 be developed into an operational engine with a thrust of 15.5 kN (3,500 lbf). The TR-1 was developed in early 1946 and had its first static run on 9 August. It was tested in the air on a pylon fitted to a Lend-Lease B-25 Mitchell piston-engined bomber.
The TR-1 was not a success, proving to have less thrust and a higher specific fuel consumption than designed. Its failure led directly to the cancellation of the first Soviet jet bomber, the Ilyushin Il-22. Lyulka further developed the engine into the TR-1A of 20.5 kN of thrust, but its specific fuel consumption was very high and it too was cancelled.
Data from Gordon, OKB Ilyushin: A History of the Design Bureau and its Aircraft.
The RD-0146 is a Russian cryogenic rocket engine. It is said to be the Russian version of the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne RL10 engine. The RD-0146 engine was developed by KBKhA design bureau in Voronezh, Russia, in cooperation with the American Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne company. In 2009, it came into prominence, as Russian space agency chose it for the second-stage of the Rus-M launch vehicle designed to carry the future Russian PPTS manned spacecraft.
In 1999, Khrunichev requested KBKhA to develop RD-0146U version of the engine for Proton and Angara rockets. The development of the engine was partially financed by Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne. Pratt & Whitney signed a preliminary marketing agreement on April 7, 2000 with Russia’s Chemical Automatics Design Bureau giving Pratt & Whitney exclusive international marketing rights to the RD-0146.
The RD-0146 is the first Russian rocket engine not to feature a gas generator and to be equipped with extendable nozzle extension without a cooling system. The engine is capable of multiple firings and thrust control in two planes. According to the developer, the lack of generator ensures high reliability of the engine for multiple firings.
The Rolls-Royce Avon was the first axial flow jet engine designed and produced by Rolls-Royce. Introduced in 1950, it went on to become one of their most successful post-World War II engine designs. It was used in a wide variety of aircraft, both military and civilian, production of the Avon aero engine ending after 24 years in 1974.
The current version of the Avon, the Avon 200, is an industrial gas generator that is rated at 21-22,000shp. As of 2011, 1,200 Industrial Avons have been sold, and the type has established a 60,000,000 hour class record for its class.
The Avon design team was headed by Cyril Lovesey, who had previously been in charge of Merlin development. The engine was intended both as an experiment in axial-flow engines, as well as (if successful) a replacement for the 5,000 lbf (22 kN) Nene. Originally known as the AJ.65 for Axial Jet, 6,500 lbf which was originally designed by Alan Arnold Griffith, the engine developed as a single-spool design with an eight, later 10 stage compressor, mass flow rate of 150 lb/s (68 kg/s) and a pressure ratio of 7.45. Development started in 1945 and the first prototypes were built in 1947. Introduction was somewhat slowed by a
The Rolls-Royce RB.80 Conway was the first by-pass engine (or turbofan) in the world to enter service. Development started at Rolls-Royce in the 1940s, but it was used only briefly in the late 1950s and early 1960s before other turbofan designs were introduced that replaced it. The Conway powered versions of the Handley Page Victor, Vickers VC10, Boeing 707-420 and Douglas DC-8-40. The name "Conway" is an Anglo-Saxon permutation of River Conwy, in Wales, in keeping with Rolls' use of river names for jet engines.
In early jet engines the exhaust was much faster and hotter than it had to be (contrary to the ideal Froude efficiency) for efficient thrust; capturing some of that energy would improve the fuel economy of the engine. The turboprop is an obvious example, which uses a series of additional turbine stages to capture this energy to power a propeller. However there is a tradeoff in propeller efficiency compared to forward speed, so while the turboprops are efficient engines, they are only efficient at speeds of up to 500 mph (800 km/h; 430 kn). This meant there was a sweet spot between the high efficiencies of the turboprop at low speeds and the jet at high speeds that was not
The Rolls-Royce RB.108 was a British jet engine designed in the mid-1950s by Rolls-Royce specifically for use as a VTOL lift engine, i.e., an engine intended primarily for providing upwards thrust rather than for horizontal propulsion.
Of squat, compact design for mounting vertically, the RB.108 differed from conventional turbojet engines in having its bearings and oil system designed for prolonged operation in the vertical attitude. First bench-tested in 1955 by Alan A. Griffith, who had conceived the idea of a specialised lift jet in 1941, thrust was 2,130 lbf (966.15 kg) from a weight of 269 lb (122 kg), giving a thrust/weight ratio of 8:1.
The RB.108 was used in the Short SC.1, which used four for lift with an additional one mounted at an angle at the rear for propulsion, and the Mirage Balzac, which used eight vertically-mounted RB.108s for lift. The Vereinigte Flugtechnische Werke (VFW) SG 1262 used five RB.108s, three mounted in tandem on the centreline, with one RB.108 either side.
The RB.108 was also the intended powerplant for several other VTOL aircraft designs, including one by Dornier.
A similar lift jet was designed by Bristol Siddeley, the BS.59, with a thrust of
The Rolls-Royce RB211 is a family of high-bypass turbofan engines made by Rolls-Royce plc and capable of generating 37,400 to 60,600 pounds-force (166 to 270 kilonewtons) thrust. Originally developed for the Lockheed L-1011 (TriStar), it entered service in 1972 and was the only engine to power this aircraft type. Although the costs of development forced Rolls-Royce Limited into bankruptcy and nationalisation by the British government, the company survived and the RB211 became the first true three-spool engine, which also turned Rolls-Royce from a small player in the airline industry into a global competitor.
The RB211 was officially superseded in the 1990s by the Rolls-Royce Trent family of engines, the conceptual offspring of the RB211.
In 1966 American Airlines announced a requirement for a new short-medium range airliner with a focus on low-cost per-seat operations. While they were looking for a twin-engined plane, the aircraft manufacturers needed more than one customer to justify developing a new airliner. Eastern Airlines were also interested, but needed greater range and needed to operate long routes over water; at the time this demanded three engines in order to provide
The Rolls-Royce Trent 900 is a series of turbofan engines, developed from the RB211 and is one of the family of Trent engines.
In the early 1990s, Airbus had begun development of a larger successor to the Boeing 747, an aircraft designated A3XX, which was later to be formally launched as the A380. By 1996, its definition had progressed to the extent that Rolls-Royce was able to announce that it would develop the Trent 900 to power the A380. In October 2000, the Trent 900 became the A380's launch engine when Singapore Airlines specified the engine for its order for 10 A380s; this was quickly followed by Qantas in February 2001.
Rolls-Royce has seven risk and revenue sharing partners on the Trent 900: Industria de Turbo Propulsores (low pressure turbine), Hamilton Sundstrand (electronic engine controls), Avio S.p.A. (gearbox module), Marubeni Corporation (engine components), Volvo Aero (intermediate compressor case), Goodrich Corporation (fan casings and sensors) and Honeywell (pneumatic systems). In addition, Samsung Techwin, Kawasaki Heavy Industries and Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries (IHI) are programme associates.
The Trent 900 made its maiden flight on 17 May 2004 on
The Rolls-Royce/SNECMA M45H was a medium bypass ratio turbofan produced specifically for the twin-engined VFW-Fokker 614 aircraft in the early 1970s.
The design was started as a collaborative effort between Bristol Siddeley and SNECMA.
The single-stage fan, together with a five-stage LP compressor, was driven by a three-stage LP turbine, whilst the seven-stage HP compressor was driven by a single-stage, air-cooled, HP turbine. An annular combustor and an unmixed exhaust, with a plug-type primary nozzle, were other design features.
The engine was developed at the time of the Rolls-Royce bankruptcy which resulted in delays in developing the engine.
The M45SD-02 or RB.410 was a derivative of the M45H-01 turbofan, designed to demonstrate ultra-quiet engine technologies, needed for STOL aircraft operating from city centre airports.
A geared, variable pitch, fan replaced the first stage of the low pressure (LP) compressor. A modest fan pressure ratio, consistent with the high bypass ratio, meant a low fan tip speed could be employed. A low hot jet velocity was another major design feature.
In reverse thrust, intake air entered the bypass duct, via a gap in the cold nozzle outer wall, and
The SNECMA Turbomeca Larzac is a military turbofan manufactured by GRTS (Groupement Turbomeca-SNECMA), a consortium between the two French companies, SNECMA and Turbomeca. Its main application was on the Dassault/Dornier Alpha Jet.
The Westinghouse J34, company designation Westinghouse 24C, was a turbojet engine developed by Westinghouse Aviation Gas Turbine Division in the late 1940s. Essentially an enlarged version of the earlier Westinghouse J30, the J34 produced 3,000 pounds of thrust, twice as much as the J30. Later models produced as much as 4,900 lbs with the addition of an afterburner. It first flew in 1947. The J46 engine was developed as a larger, more powerful version of Westinghouse's J34 engine, about 50% larger.
Built in an era of rapidly advancing gas turbine engine technology, the J34 was largely obsolete before it saw service, and often served as an interim engine. For instance, the Douglas X-3 "Stiletto" was equipped with two J34 engines when the intended Westinghouse J46 engine proved to be unsuitable. The Stiletto was developed to investigate the design of an aircraft at sustained supersonic speeds. However, equipped with the J34 instead of its intended engines, it was seriously underpowered and could not exceed Mach 1 in level flight.
Developed during the transition from piston-engined aircraft to jets, the J34 was sometimes fitted to aircraft as a supplement to other powerplants, as with
The Westinghouse J46 was an afterburning turbojet engine that was developed to power several United States Navy aircraft in the 1950s. It was intended to power the improved, swept wing, F3D-3 Skyknight (swept-wing version ultimately canceled). It also powered the F2Y Sea Dart and the F7U Cutlass jets, and Walt Arfon's Wingfoot Express land speed-record car.
The J46 engine was developed as a larger, more powerful version of Westinghouse's J34 engine, about 50% larger. The development program ran into many problems with this engine, including combustion instability and control issues at altitude.
The engine featured an 11-stage compressor that was driven by two turbine stages on a single spool. The engine also featured an early afterburner, which was a simple "eyelid" design that was actuated by a long control rod that ran the length of the engine.