Best Pet Breeds of All Time is a public top list created by Listnerd on Listnerd.com on November 27th 2012. Items on the Best Pet Breeds of All Time top list are added by the Listnerd.com community and ranked using our secret ranking sauce. Best Pet Breeds of All Time has gotten 318 views and has gathered 620 votes from 620 voters. Only owner can add items. Just members can vote.
Best Pet Breeds of All Time is a top list in the General category on Listnerd.com. Are you a fan of General or Best Pet Breeds of All Time? Explore more top 100 lists about General on Listnerd.com or participate in ranking the stuff already on the all time Best Pet Breeds of All Time top list below.
If you're not a member of Listnerd.com, you should consider becoming one. Registration is fast, free and easy. At Listnerd.com, we aim to give you the best of everything - including stuff like the Best Pet Breeds of All Time list.
Get your friends to vote! Spread this URL or share:
The Bengal is a hybrid breed of domestic cat. Bengals result from crossing a domestic feline with an Asian leopard cat (ALC), Prionailurus bengalensis bengalensis.
The Bengal cat has a desirable "wild" appearance with large spots, rosettes, and a light/white belly, and a body structure reminiscent of the ALC. The Bengal possesses a gentle domestic cat temperament, provided it is separated by at least three generations from the original crossing between a domestic feline and an ALC.
The name "Bengal cat" was derived from the taxonomic name of the Asian leopard cat (P. b. bengalensis), and not from the more distantly related Bengal tiger.
The earliest mention of an ALC/domestic cross was in 1889, when Harrison Weir wrote in Our Cats and All About Them :
However in 1927, Mr Boden-Kloss wrote to the magazine Cat Gossip regarding hybrids between wild and domestic cats in Malaya:
The earliest mention of a confirmed ALC/domestic cross was in 1934 in a Belgian scientific journal, and in 1941, a Japanese cat publication printed an article about one that was kept as a pet. Jean Mill (née Sugden), the person who was later a great influence of the development of the modern Bengal breed,
The French Spaniel (Epagneul Français) is a breed of dog of the Spaniel type. It was developed in France as a hunting dog, descended from dogs of the 14th century. Popular with royalty during the Middle Ages, it nearly became extinct by the turn of the 20th century but was saved by the efforts of Father Fournier, a French priest. One of the largest breeds of Spaniel, it typically has a white coat with brown markings. It is a friendly breed that has few health issues, but can be affected by a syndrome called acral mutilation and analgesia. The breed is recognised by Canadian and international kennel clubs but not by The Kennel Club (UK) or the American Kennel Club.
Spaniels were first mentioned in France during the 14th century in Gaston III of Foix-Béarn's work Livre de chasse, later translated into English as The Master of Game. They were speculated to have originated during the Crusades of the 11th century. The French Spaniel was referred to as a specific type of Spaniel by 1660 and was noted as being distinctive from the King Charles Spaniel of the Holland type.
The breed was popular during the Middle Ages with it used for falconry and as a settling dog for net hunting. They
Gull Dong, also known as the Pakistani Bull Dog, is a breed of dog used for protection and dog fighting. Now people have realized that this breed have much potential as a companion and guardian dog and some breaders recently are focusing on its docile characteristics.
The Gull Dong which is a cross of Pure Gull terr and a Pure Bullykutta must be fully white in color or with some black spots. Gull Dongs are mostly taller than other Pakistani dog breeds. The Gull Dong is average muscular and very powerful Molosser, strongly built and resilient, deep-chested and with a massive skull a very athletic and surprisingly agile breed. The coat is short, smooth and flat. The Head Profile should be unique with no Flat head and ears must be flat rather than straight. Gull Dongs with straight erect ears are not Original Gull Dongs.
The top line just like original bull dogs must be a little sway back. The top line must not be straight at all.
The Ears should not be erect. Viewing from front side top of the ears will be little lesser in height than the top outline of the skull. The ears should be way apart but should not be cropped or erected otherwise it is not a standard at all.
The Kelpie is an Australian sheep dog successful at mustering and droving with little or no command guidance. They are medium-sized dogs and come in a variety of colours. Kelpies have been exported throughout the world and are used to muster livestock, primarily sheep, cattle and goats.
The breed has been separated into two distinct varieties: the show or bench Kelpie and the working Kelpie. The show Kelpie is seen at conformation dog shows in some countries and is selected for appearance rather than working instinct. Working Kelpies are bred for working ability rather than appearance.
The Kelpie is a smooth-coated, medium sized dog generally with prick ears and an athletic appearance. Working Kelpies are bred for work and endurance, rather than physical appearance. Coat colors include: black, black and tan, red, red and tan, blue, blue and tan, fawn, fawn and tan, and cream (yellow).
Robert Kaleski published the first standard for the Kelpie in 1904. The standard was accepted by leading breeders of the time and adopted by the Kennel Club of New South Wales. Contemporary breed standards vary depending on whether the registry is for working or show Kelpies. It is possible for a dog
Malta /ˈmɒltə/, officially the Republic of Malta (Maltese: Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European country consisting of an archipelago situated in the centre of the Mediterranean, 80 km (50 mi) south of Sicily, 284 km (176 mi) east of Tunisia and 333 km (207 mi) north of Libya, with Gibraltar 1,755 km (1,091 mi) to the west and Alexandria 1,508 km (937 mi) to the east. Malta covers just over 316 km (122 sq mi) in land area, making it one of the world's smallest states. It is also one of the most densely populated countries worldwide. The de facto capital city of Malta is Valletta; the largest town, Birkirkara. The main island comprises many towns, which together form one Larger Urban Zone (LUZ) with a population of 368,250 according to Eurostat. The country has two official languages, Maltese (constitutionally the national language) and English.
Throughout history, Malta's location has given it great strategic importance, and a succession of powers including the Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Normans, Aragonese, Habsburg Spain, Knights of St John, French and the British ruled the islands. Malta gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1964 and became a republic in
The Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog (ABBB) is an American rare dog breed, believed to have been developed in the Alapaha River region of southern Georgia. They are recognized for intelligence, athleticism, and a protective nature. If raised correctly, they are noted for excellence in obedience, agility, weight-pulling, and Schutzhund.
Displaying a natural bulldog type, the Alapaha is nevertheless a sturdy, well-developed, and muscular breed. Descriptions of its size vary greatly, calling for males anywhere from 70 to 90 pounds (32 to 41 kg) give or take 10 lbs standing 20 to 25 inches (51 to 63 cm) at the withers, females smaller at 55 to 75 pounds (25 to 34 kg). Ears and tail are natural, with no cropping or docking. Colors of the Alapaha are varied, preferred to be at least 50% white with patches. They can be predominantly solid-colored with white, or solid white. Patches are generally merle, brindle, solid blue, black, chocolate, red, fawn, seal, or tri-colored. Some dogs are piebald spotted. They are more recently seen in blue merle, red merle as well as fawn or chocolate merle. Eye color can vary from brown to blue with some dogs having two-color eyes or one eye showing two colors.
The Formosan Mountain Dog (or Formosan) is a breed of small or medium dog indigenous to Taiwan. These dogs are also known as Taiwanese Dog/Canis (Chinese: 臺灣犬) or Taiwanese Native Dog (Chinese: 臺灣土狗). They are well-adapted to the uneven and thickly forested terrain of Taiwan, having become a semi-wild breed prior to the arrival of several colonial reigns and foreign powers. Notwithstanding these adaptations, Formosans retained the potential to be trained, and are now used as hunting dogs, guard dogs, stunt dogs, rescue dogs, or simply as companions. Formosans are classified into one medium type and two small types. However, now the pureblood Formosan Mountain Dog is still close to extinction due to limited conservation efforts of the Taiwanese and their government. Native Dog (Chinese: 土狗) is the common name in Taiwan nowadays to indicate that the dog is an offspring of Formosan with foreign dogs, it is commonly confused with Taiwan Native Dog (Chinese: 台灣土狗).
There are two small types of the Formosan Mountain Dog; one is about 40 centimetres (16 in) tall at the shoulder, and the other is around 30 centimetres (12 in). However, the latter one was not found during the research
China (/ˈtʃaɪnə/; Chinese: 中国; pinyin: Zhōngguó; see also Names of China), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is the world's most populous country, with a population of over 1.3 billion. Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometres, the East Asian state is the world's second-largest country by land area, and the third- or fourth-largest by total area, depending on the definition of total area.
The People's Republic of China is a single-party state governed by the Communist Party of China. It exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four directly controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and two mostly self-governing special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau). Its capital city is Beijing. The PRC also claims Taiwan—which is controlled by the Republic of China (ROC), a separate political entity—as its 23rd province, a claim controversial due to the complex political status of Taiwan and the unresolved Chinese Civil War. The PRC government denies the legitimacy of the ROC.
China's landscape is vast and diverse, with forest steppes and the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts occupying the arid north and
The Porcelaine is a breed of dog originating from France. It is believed to be the oldest of the French scent hounds. Its alternate name is the Chien de Franche-Comté, named after a French region bordering Switzerland. This caused some debate over the dog's origin, but it has been decided that it is a French dog.
The Porcelaine gets its name from its shiny coat, said to make it resemble a porcelain statuette. The fur is white, sometimes with orange spots, often on the ears. The skin should be white with black mottling that is visible through the white coat. The fur is incredibly short and very fine. The nose of a Porcelaine dog is black with very wide nostrils. It also has black eyes and long ears that droop down. The neck is long and the tail starts thick and narrows to a point at the end.
Porcelaine males range from 22 to 23 inches (about 56 to 58.5 centimeters) tall. Bitches are 21 to 22 inches (about 53.5 to 56 centimeters) tall. They weigh from 55 to 62 pounds (about 25 to 28 kilograms).
Porcelaines has a very high activity level and therefore needs a lot of exercise. Because of this, they are not recommended for people living in apartments because they cannot get sufficient
The Spanish Mastiff, or Mastín Español is a large breed of dog, originating in Spain, originally bred to be a Livestock guardian dog and a guard dog whose purpose is to defend livestock from wolves and other predators. The Mountain dog type has a heavier coat, and is more commonly exhibited at dog shows.
The Spanish Mastiff is thought to have descended from Greek dogs brought to Spain via Greek and Phoenician maritime traders starting around 1000 BC. The Greeks used similar dogs in battle because of their strength.
During the conquest of the Americas, Spanish conquistadors used Spanish Mastiffs and other Molossers in battle against Native Americans, like the Taínos, Aztecs, or Mayans. These specially trained dogs were feared by the Indians for their strength and ferocity.
The Spanish Mastiff is a very large and powerful dog, similar in appearance to the other Mastiff breeds. They have a large powerful head, with loose folds of skin and a double dewlap on the neck.
Males in this breed are at least 77 cm tall at the withers, and range from 80–120 kg. Females are at least 72 cm, and weigh 70–100 kg.
This dog has a long muzzle compared to many other mastiffs. It has small eyes and drop
Egyptian Maus are a small-medium sized short-haired cat breed. Along with the Bahraini Dilmun Cat, they are one of the few naturally spotted breeds of domesticated cat. The spots of the Mau occur on both the coat and their skin underneath. The spotted Mau is an ancient breed from natural stock; its look has not changed significantly as is evidenced by artwork over 3,000 years old. Unlike other spotted cats such as the Ocicat or Bengal cat, the Egyptian Mau is a natural breed. Other breeds are created from domestic breed outcross or, in the case of the Bengal cat, domestic outcrosses with wildcats. The Mau is significantly smaller than these other breeds.
The breed conformation is described by The Cornell Book of Cats as
The Egyptian Mau is the fastest of the domestic cats, with its longer hind legs, and unique flap of skin extending from the flank to the back knee, providing for greater agility and length of stride. Maus have been clocked running over 36 mph (58 km/h).
Maus often possess very musical voices. They are known to chirp, chortle and emit other distinctly unusual vocalizations when stimulated.
Another behavior, quite common in happy Maus, has been described as
Fawn is a light yellowish tan colour. It is usually used in reference to clothing, soft furnishings and bedding, as well as to a dog's coat colour. It occurs in varying shades, ranging between pale tan to pale fawn to dark deer-red. The first recorded use of fawn as a colour name in English was in 1789.
The fawn colour is the result of two recessive genes. It is achieved by breeding dogs that one way or another do carry the dilution gene either in its homozygous or heterozygous form, that is the "D" and the chocolate gene "B". Black to black or black to red, red to red or black to blue, or even blue to red colour can produce a fawn coloured offspring, but only if the genes pair correctly and if they are both carrying the recessive form of the "B" and "D" gene.
The Chilean Fox Terrier, also known as Ratonero (rat hunter), Chilean Rat Terrier or Chilean Terrier, is the first Chilean breed of dog existing from 1870 and standardised in the late 1990s for international recognition. Its base is made up of the Fox Terrier of the mid 19th century and Native American dogs.
The Ratonero has black and tan spots on a white fur, it is short-haired and has a grey undercoat which lets some dark spots visible on the white cover coat. The ears are set high, falling upwards in the form of a "V". Well-developed teeth, scissor bite. Males stand between 32 and 38 cm, while the male's ideal height is 35 cm. Females stand between 28 and 35 cm, while the female's ideal height is 32 cm. Males weigh between 5 and 8 kilograms, while the male's ideal weight is 5 to 6 kilograms. Females weigh between 4 and 7 kilograms, while the female's ideal weight is 5 kilograms.
The Chilean Fox Terrier is easy to train, active, affective, and one of the healthiest and cleanest dog breeds.
A famous Chilean Fox Terrier is Washington (from the comic "Condorito"), Condorito's dog. Though it's not recognised internationally, there have been several Ratoneros' exhibitions in Chile and
The Siberian is a domestic cat breed that has been present in Russia for centuries. The full name of the cat is the 'Siberian Forest Cat' although sometimes referred to as the 'Siberian' or the 'Siberian Cat'. The cat is an ancient breed that is now believed to be ancestral to all modern long-haired cats. The cat has similarities with the Norwegian Forest Cat, to which it is likely closely related. It is a natural breed of Siberia and the national cat of Russia.
There are claims that it is hypoallergenic and produces less Fel d1 than other cat breeds.
The cat was first mentioned in a book by Harrison Wier, which included information of the earliest cat shows in England in 1871. The cat was first imported to the United States in 1990 and, despite the popularity, the breed is rare in the US. The cat was registered by the Kotofei cat club in St. Petersburg in 1987. A Siberian cat, Dorofei, is owned by Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev and another by former Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev. WBZ-AM talk radio host Steve LeVeille mentions his Siberian "Max" on his Boston-based program.
Known to be an exceptionally agile jumper, the Siberian is a strong and powerfully built cat,
A working terrier is a small type of dog which pursues its quarry into the earth. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the name dates back to at least 1440, derived from early modern French (chien) terrier - from the medieval Latin terrarius from the Latin terra (earth).
With the growth of popularity of fox-hunting in Britain in the 18th and 19th centuries, terriers were extensively bred to follow the red fox, and also the Eurasian badger, into its underground burrow, referred to as "terrier work" and "going to ground". The purpose of the terrier is that it locate the quarry, and either bark and bolt it free or to a net, or trap or hold it so that it can be dug down to and killed or captured.
Working terriers can be no wider than the animal they hunt (chest circumference or "span" less than 35 cm/14in), in order to fit into the burrows and still have room to maneuver. As a result, the terriers often weigh considerably less than the fox (10 kg/22 lbs) and badger (12 kg/26 lbs), making these animals formidable quarry for the smaller dog.
Terrier work has been condemned by British animal welfare organizations such as the League Against Cruel Sports, the International Fund for
Working Group is the name of a breed group of dogs, used by kennel clubs to classify a defined collection of dog breeds. Most major English-language kennel clubs include a Working Group, although different kennel clubs may not include the same breeds in their Working Group. Working Group does not define one particular type of dog. It is not a scientific classification. Working Group is not a term used by the international kennel club association, the Fédération Cynologique Internationale, which more finely divides its breed groupings by dog type and breed history.
There are as many types of work for dogs as there are types of dogs. Lapdogs may work as therapy dogs, herding dogs may work livestock, and guard dogs may work at defense of people or property. Most dogs today are kept as pets rather than for any particular work. Modern purebred breeds developed from large guardian, herding and Spitz type dogs are usually quick to learn, and these intelligent, capable animals make solid companions. Their considerable dimensions and strength alone, however, make many working dogs unsuitable as pets for average families. By virtue of their size alone, these dogs must be properly trained.
The White Schnauzer is one of four FCI recognized color varieties of the Miniature Schnauzer. It is also the rarest color of the miniature schnauzers.
White Miniature Schnauzers have been in existence for over 100 years and can be traced to turn of the century Germany. "The first Miniatures appeared in Munich around the end of the last century, where the Monkey Pinschers (Affenpinscher) had been common for many years." The origin of the Miniatures cannot be traced from the Stud book. It is theorized that the first of them were the product of a cross between a small Schnauzer and the Monkey Pinscher. "Therefore we can assume that the Miniatures are not the result of medium sized Schnauzer matings but of an outcross of Schnauzers to Monkey Pinschers." from "History of the Schnauzer and Miniature Schnauzer" by Joseph Schwabacher, copyright 1930, page 35, translated from the German for the Schnauzer Club of America. Note that neither one of these breeds had white varieties.
From "The World of Schnauzers: Standard Giant Miniature" by Johan Gallant, copyright 1996, page 20, The First Breed Standard for the Schnauzer (1907) --- 1. Nature, Utility, and General Appearance. (first paragraph)
A Billy is a large hunting dog originating from Central western France in the 19th century. Billys are a combination of Montemboeuf, Ceris and Larye breeds which are now extinct. Foxblood has been introduced to the Billy to keep bloodlines fresh. Billys were first bred by Monsieur Gaston Hublot du Rivault, who lived at the Chateau de Billy, in Poitou. They were mainly used as pack hunting dogs to track Roe deer and Wild Boar, which they still continue to do in their native France. The standard for the breed was established in 1886. The Billy is not an apartment dog and needs a lot of exercise, like most large hounds they are difficult off the lead and extremely fast. They have been known to be same sex aggressive and do not always get along with other dogs, they are very intelligent and courageous and have been known to compete in obedience.
Billys can come in pure and off-white, possibly with orange or with lemon spots on the head and body; their coat is short and smooth. They can weigh between 52-70lbs and they stand around 60-70cm at the shoulder for males and 58-62cm for females. The Fédération Cynologique Internationale standard suggests the dog should gallop easily in its
The Drever (Swedish: Dachsbracke) is a breed of dog, a short-legged scenthound from Sweden used for hunting deer and other game. The Drever is descended from the Westphalian Dachsbracke, a type of German hound called Bracke. The breed name Drever was chosen through a contest in 1947.
The Drever's most noticeable characteristic are its long body and short legs, inherited from the Westphalian Dachsbracke, but as a working dog these features are not exaggerated. It has short fur, and is of any color with white markings (but not all white, which has been linked to deafness.) The breed has the typical drop (hanging) ears of a hound, and a long tail. The maximum height of a Drever is 38 cm (15 ins) at the withers, which is about 15 cm (approx. 6 ins) shorter than a long legged hunting hound with the same size body. The Westphalian Dachsbracke is about 2 cm (less than an inch) shorter than the Drever.
Most breeds with similar physical traits are bred for a single purpose, but the Drever has been bred to hunt all sizes of game, both hares and roe deer, and is also used to hunt fox and red deer. The Drever has a lot of stamina, and has become a popular hunting hound for deer hunters in
The Welsh Terrier is a Welsh breed of dog. It was originally bred for hunting fox, rodents and badger, but during the last century it has mainly been bred for showing. Despite this, it has retained its terrier strength of character and therefore requires firm, non-aggressive handling. The Welsh Terrier originates from Wales and has been claimed to be the oldest existing dog breed in the UK according to research. The Welsh Terrier was a latecomer to the British show-ring (being primarily a working dog) and was not officially registered as a breed until the 19th century. It is currently on the UK Kennel Clubs list of breeds that are in danger of dying out, having as few as 300 or so pups registered annually, as compared to the nation's most popular breeds that are registered in the tens of thousands each year.
The Welsh Terrier is colored tan on the head, legs and underbelly while having a black or sometimes grizzle saddle.This is not always the case with female terriers as they are sometimes a simple darker tan all over. The breed is a sturdy and compact dog of about medium size that can grow up to 15.5 in (39 cm) with a weight of 20–22 pounds (9.1–10.0 kg). The tail was usually
The English Toy Terrier (Black and Tan) is a small breed of terrier in the toy dog group.
According to the Kennel Club, the English Toy Terrier should be 25–30 cm (10–12 in) in height and 2.7–3.6 kg (6–8 lb) in weight. The only permitted color is black with defined tan markings on the legs, chest and face. The movement is described as being like the extended trot of a horse. Most English toy terriers are lovable, friendly, very loud and love to bark.
The English Toy Terrier (ETT) developed from the Old English Black and Tan Terrier and is closely related to the larger Manchester Terrier. Extremely fast and agile, the origins of this alert terrier are in the world of the rat pit, a sport popular in the cities of Victorian England where terriers were placed in a circle or pit with a number of rats and bets were taken as to which dog would kill its quota of rats in the fastest time. Small dogs were highly prized with the ideal being to produce the smallest dog still capable of killing its quota of rats in as short a time as possible. In 1848 a black and tan terrier weighing just 5½lb (2.5 kg) named Tiny is recorded to have killed 300 rats in less than an hour.
The outlawing of this
The Coolie also known as an Australian Koolie or German Collie is an Australian dog breed. Specifically, it is a herding dog, a subcategory of working dog.
Coolies are eye catching, well balanced, medium sized dogs, with unusual markings in form of patches and flecks of colour, creating a mottled effect. The two main colors are red and blue merle though they are also seen as solid and black and white varieties. Eyes can be blue, brown, green or black or a combination of blue and brown. Ears are moderately sized, triangular shaped and are usually pricked or semi-pricked. Colours: Predominantly red and blue merle. Solids are permissible. Dark merle is encouraged. Careful thought must be put into breeding certain colored dogs together due to possibility of deafness and other birth defects.
Coat: The coat can be short, medium or long with short being the preferred coat type.
The Coolie is active and intelligent with a strong herding instinct. The Coolie is renowned for its biddable and friendly nature and its easy-going, fun-loving personality makes the breed a great choice for a lively family or active individual. Coolies are responsive to commands, easy to train, loyal to their owner
The American Bulldog is a breed of working dog that was developed in the United States. There are generally considered to be three types of American bulldog: the Bully or Classic type (sometimes called the Johnson type ), the Standard or Performance type (also called the Scott type), and the Hybrid type. The names associated with the Bully and Standard types are those of the breeders who were influential in developing them, John D. Johnson (Bully) and Alan Scott (Standard). American Bulldogs are thought to be descended from working type bulldogs found commonly on ranches and farms in the Southern and Midwestern parts of the United States.
American bulldogs have many different colors.
The American bulldog is a stocky, well built, strong-looking dog with powerful jaws, a large head, and a muscular build. Its coat is short and generally smooth. The breed is a light to moderate shedder; however, they should be brushed on regular basis. Colors, while historically predominantly white with patches of red or brindle, have grown in recent years to include many color patterns including black, red, brown, fawn, and all shades of brindle. The color conformation is quite varied, but solid black
The Utonagan /ˌjuːtɵˈnɑːɡən/ is a breed of dog that resembles a wolf, but in fact is a mix of three breeds of domestic dog: Alaskan Malamute, German Shepherd, and Siberian Husky.
The Utonagan is medium/large in size and well-muscled, but possesses a slender build that lends to its wolflike resemblance. The breed has a thick double coat that appears quite different in winter and summer. The guard hair is straight and slightly coarse to the touch. The pelage can be silver grey, cream, or brown with black overlay and a characteristic wolf mask. It also comes in all white, all black and Ink Marked, meaning white with markings of brown, silver or black which look like ink spilled on blotting paper.
The Utonagan is a dog with a superb temperament; this in turn makes for a wonderful family dog and companion. They love the company of people and also socialize well with cats and smaller dogs. They are not a dog that likes to be left alone and problems may arise if they are, such as destructive behaviour and escaping. They have a high "pack" mentality, and it is best they have the company of another dog(s), unless you are able to give them your full time companionship. If trained
A Eurohound is a type of dog bred for sled dog racing. The Eurodog is typically crossbred from the Alaskan Husky and a Pointer.
According to Egil Ellis, a top sled dog racer, various types of pointers have been popular with Swedish sled dog racers for at least the last 50 years, and Alaskan Huskies were imported to Sweden in the 1980s; crossbreeding pointers and Huskies began "to come up with something new, something that the mushers did not have in Alaska". "A Eurohound is a cross between an Alaskan Husky and German Shorthaired Pointer... This cross first successfully entered the competitive sled dog racing world in Scandinavia." The Eurohound is not a purebred breed of dog but instead is continually crossbred from purebreds and mixes in order to produce dogs for specific running conditions.
Rather than inbreeding similar looking dogs in order to create a new breed with a consistent appearance, Eurohound racers crossbreed for specific working traits and health. Crossbreeding includes breeding between two established breeds, with two tightly bred but unrelated gene pools, and breeding the first generation cross back to one of the purebred breeds. Crossbreeding is also done for the
The Styrian Coarse-haired Hound (FCI No. 62), (German: Steirische Rauhhaarbracke) is a breed of medium-sized hound dog originated in the Austrian province of Styria. It is bred as a scenthound, for hunting boar in mountainous terrain. The breed is one of the large Austrian Bracke.
The Styrian Coarse-haired Hound is a medium sized hound, with height at the withers of 45-53 cm (17.5-21 in), and weight between 15-18 kg (33-40 lbs) with a well muscled body and a serious expression.
The breed name refers to the coat, which is harsh and rough (although not shaggy). Coat colours are red and fawn; a white mark on the chest may be present. The breed tolerates extremes of temperature well, and has remained a healthy breed through "refresher breeding" (Auffrischungszucht, outcrossing).
The breed was created in the 1870s by Karl Peintinger, an industrialist from Styria. Peintinger crossed his "Hela 1", from an old type of Hanoverian scent hound, with an Istrian Hound, and continued selective breeding until a rough-coated, hardy hunting dog was achieved. The breed is used by Austrians and Slovenians to hunt wild boar. It can also be used to track wounded animals through rough terrain and in
Mali /ˈmɑːli/, officially the Republic of Mali (French: République du Mali, French pronunciation: [maˈli]), is a landlocked country in West Africa. Mali is bordered by Algeria on the north, Niger on the east, Burkina Faso and Côte d'Ivoire on the south, Guinea on the south-west, and Senegal and Mauritania on the west. Its size is just over 1,240,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi) with a population of 14.5 million. Its capital is Bamako. Mali consists of eight regions and its borders on the north reach deep into the middle of the Sahara, while the country's southern part, where the majority of inhabitants live, features the Niger and Sénégal rivers. The country's economic structure centers around agriculture and fishing. Some of Mali's prominent natural resources include gold, uranium, and salt. About half the population live below the international poverty line of US$1.25 a day.
Present-day Mali was once part of three West African empires that controlled trans-Saharan trade: the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire (from which Mali is named), and the Songhai Empire. During its golden age, there was a flourishing of mathematics, astronomy, literature, and art. Mali was once the site of
The Turkish Van is a longhaired breed of domestic cat that is descended from the landrace of Van cats found near Lake Van in modern Turkey. The breed is rare, and is distinguished by the van color pattern, where the color is restricted to the head and the tail, and the rest of the cat is white; this is due to the expression of the piebald white spotting gene, a type of partial leucism. A Van may have blue or amber eyes, or one eye of each colour (heterochromia iridis). Also known for its unusual love of water and swimming, the Turkish Van is nicknamed the swimming cat. The breed was developed in Britain from a selection of Van cats obtained from Eastern Turkey in 1955. It was first recognized in Britain by the GCCF in 1969.
Breed standards allow for one or more body spots as long as there is no more than 20% color and the cat does not give the appearance of a bicolor. A few random spots are acceptable, but they should not detract from the pattern. The rest of the cat is white. Although red tabby and white is the classic van color, the color on a van's head and tail can be one of the following: Red, Cream, Black, Blue, Red Tabby, Cream Tabby, Brown Tabby, Blue Tabby, Tortoiseshell,
Puggle is the name for a crossbreed dog with a beagle parent and a pug parent. The name Puggle is a portmanteau, following a naming trend in "designer dog" crossbreeding.
Puggle crossbreeds were first bred in the U.S. state of Wisconsin, where dog breeder Wallace Havens experimented with various crossbreeds in the 1980s. Havens was the first person to register a dog called a Puggle with the American Canine Hybrid Club, a non-credited group that registers designer crossbreeds for a fee. Havens is also credited with creating the name Puggle. Havens began commercially breeding Puggles on a large scale in 2000. He later came under fire for operating a large scale puppy mill housing more than 1100 animals. Havens' was suspended by the American Kennel Club for ten years for refusing kennel inspections, and in 2008 his operation was shut down by the Wisconsin Humane Society. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has repeatedly cited him for inadequate care of animals. Legitimate breed associations such as the AKC, the UKC, and the CKC, do not recognize Puggles as a dog breed. Puggles are one of the top three designer dogs
Puggles tend to grow to a mature weight of 20 to 25 pounds (11
The Taigan (Kyrgyz: Тайган) also known as Kyrgyzskaya Borzaya Taigan is a sighthound breed from Kyrgyzstan, which is not yet recognized by the FCI. They have medium-length and slightly curly hair and are similar in shape to Greyhounds. They are a member of the sighthound family.
Same as Azawakh, Sloughi, Saluki, Afghan Hound and Mid-Asiatic Tazi, the Taigan is a member of the family of Eastern Sighthounds, which can be found from Northern Africa to Central Asia.
During most periods of their history, the Kyrgyz have been a predominantly nomadic people, which has migrated through vast parts of Siberia and Central Asia. Therefore it is very unlikely that the origins of the Taigan can be traced back to one single ancestor. However, the Taigan in its present form is a pronounced mountain breed, perfectly adapted to its work in the alpine regions of the Tian Shan mountain range.
In the 1930s, Soviet cynologists began to register the existing specimens in the Kyrgyz SSR, but this work had to be stopped after the German invasion of the USSR in 1941. In 1964, the USSR laid down the first standard for the breed. Different from many western countries, live coursing has always been legal in
A South Russian Ovcharka, also known as a Ukrainian Ovcharka, or South Russian Sheepdog, is a large, long-haired (12 centimeters), white sheepdog. Breeders have not yet developed a precise theory of the dog's origins. However, it is agreed that its ancestors lived in the Crimea region between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov.Standing about 36 inches tall it has a long head, with dangling, small, triangular ears. Its coat consists of long, usually white (although sometimes white with yellow, or with shades of grey), thick coarse hair, that is bushy and slightly wavy. An undemanding dog, it can adapt to most weather conditions.
The South Russian Ovcharka is robust and lean, with massive bone structure and strongly developed musculature. The coat is long 4-6 inches (10–15 cm), coarse, thick and dense. It is of equal length on head, chest, legs and tail, with a well-developed undercoat. The coat colors are most often white but also white and yellow, straw color, grayish (ashen gray) and other shades of gray; white lightly marked with gray, gray speckled. The head is an elongated shape with a moderately broad forehead; the occipital crest and the zeugmatic arches are strongly
The German longhaired pointer (GLP) is a breed of dog. It was developed in Germany, and is used as a gundog.
The GLP should be muscular, elegant, and athletic. It should not be bulky or cumbersome, and it should be able to move with great speed and freedom. It has moderate bone, but has substance, and must never look frail or weak. Its appearance should reflect its excitable, crazy temperament. Like all German pointers, they have webbed feet. Watch out for aggression in puppy years.
The coat is medium length, about 3 to 5 centimetres (1.2 to 2.0 in) long on the body, with the feathering somewhat longer. The coat is slightly wavy, but must not be curly. It is not silky or soft, but rather firm and shiny. It always has a double coat, with the undercoat being quite dense, but not so profuse as to make the guard hairs stand out from the body. The colour is solid dark chocolate with white permitted on the chest, paws, and down the top of the muzzle, or dark brown roan, with large patches of solid brown, especially on the head, ears, back, and base of the tail.
The GLP is between 60–70 centimetres (24–28 in) at the withers for males, and 58–66 centimetres (23–26 in) for females. It
The Carolina Dog, or American Dingo, is a landrace or naturally selected type of dog which was discovered living as a wild dog or free roaming dog by Dr Lehr. J. Brisbin. Carolina Dogs are now bred and kept in captive collections or packs. They were discovered during the 1970s living in isolated stretches of longleaf pines and cypress swamps in the Southeastern United States. Carolina Dogs are of medium size, with a fawn coat and frequently a melanistic mask.
Dr. I. Lehr Brisbin Jr., a Senior Research Ecologist at the University of Georgia's Savannah River Ecology Lab, first came across a Carolina Dog while working at the Savannah River site. Horace, a stray white dog with brown markings, was wandering the site's boundary when he caught Brisbin’s attention. Brisbin, who had seen many rural dogs chained to the back of porches and doghouses, assumed this was just a normal stray. Many of these dogs roamed the woods and would turn up in humane traps, and Brisbin began to wonder how many more of these were in the wild. On a hunch, he went to the pound and was surprised by the resemblance the dog had to dingoes.
Some ancient paintings and rock art of Native Americans depict dogs that
The Aidi or Chien de l'Atlas is a Moroccan dog breed used as a livestock guardian, protecting herds of sheep and goats. It also possesses hunting capabilities and good scenting ability. In its native Morocco it is often paired in hunting with the Sloughi, which chases down prey that the Aidi has located by scent.
The Aidi is recognized as coming from Morocco, probably originating in the Sahara. The dog has never worked as a sheepdog even though the 1963 standard was published under the name Atlas Sheepdog; this was corrected in 1969. A courageous dog, the Aidi lived and worked in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco, Libya, and Algeria protecting his owner and property from wildcats, other predators, and strangers. This breed has also been called the Berber, after the Berber tribes who utilized it, and bears some resemblance to the Pariah dog who is believed to share its ancestry. As a protector of the desert nomad tribes, the most alert and aggressive dogs were staked around the perimeter of the camp at night. The Aidi has not been highly regarded by the tribes historically, as are most dogs other than the Sloughi and other breeds regarded as noble. However, Moroccans have recently
The Large Munsterlander (or Großer Münsterländer) is a breed of gun dog originally from the Münster region in Germany.
The Kennel Club (KC) in England recognised the breed in 1919 and established the breed standard in 1921.
The Large Munsterlander should be athletic, intelligent, noble, and elegant in appearance. Its body should be the same length as its height at the withers. The dog should be muscular without being bulky. Its gait should be fluid and elastic.
Large Munsterlander should be 60 to 65 cm (24 to 26 in) at the withers for males, 58 to 63 cm (23 to 25 in) for females. It should weigh approximately 30 kg (66 lb).
The coat is black and white with hair of medium length. This dog has been bred for many decades for hunting and not show. Hence coat colour is highly variable, ranging from predominantly white to predominantly black. Markings occur as solid white patches, or ticked or roan regions.The head is usually predominantly black and the tip of the tail white, regardless of the distribution of black and white on the rest of the body. The coat is dense, but should be firm and sleek.
The UK Kennel club standard for the breed is:
The Large Munsterlander is one of several
The West Siberian Laika, also Zapadno-Sibirskaïa Laïka' or WSL, is a breed of hunting dog developed by the indigenous people of Northern Ural and West Siberia. They used Laikas mostly for treeing squirrels and hunting small predators with valuable fur.
Communism in Russia destroyed the traditional way of life of these people and brought them and their hunting dogs to the brink of extinction. Industrialization in Siberia introduced many new breeds of dogs to this region. Crossbreeding with them completely wiped out the last remains of pure bred indigenous Laikas. Many Russian hunters from big cities such as Sverdlovsk and Moscow were aware of this process. They tried to save the last exemplars of Laikas. The first attempts to establish the West Siberians as a modern hunting breed was made in the 1920s. Two types of dogs: the Mansi Laikas, which had light bones and a narrow elongated head; and the so called Hanti Laikas with a powerfully built body and a shorter head, lay the foundations for the new breed. In the beginning of the 1930s and later the Soviet government began to establish Kennels and Clubs concerning the preservation and repopulating of Laikas to their previous regions.
The term Bandog (also known as Bandogge) originated around 1250-1300 in Middle England, referring to a mastiff type dog that was bound by a chain during the daytime and was released at night to guard against intruders. In 1570 Johannes Caius published a book in Latin which in 1576 was translated into English by Abraham Fleming under the name Of Englishe Dogges, in which he described Bandog as a vast, stubborn, eager dog of heavy body.
The original Bandogs were bred with a functional purpose, as were all working breeds, and for the Bandog this purpose revolved around guarding and protecting. The Bandogs of old were strictly working dogs, often of various crosses and various sizes. The name "Bandog" was then not a breed, it was a description of a duty or purpose. Usually these dogs were coarse-haired hunters, fighters and property protectors without a strictly set type, developed from eastern shepherds and mastiffs crossed with western Bullenbeissers and hounds, with a few local bloodlines eventually being established as specific types in some regions, such as Britain, Spain, Germany, Poland and elsewhere in Europe.
Early incarnations of the Bandog probably had bloodlines from bull
The Elo is an emerging breed of dog, with development beginning in 1987 in Germany. The breed name is trademarked and development has been closely supervised by the Elo Breeding and Research Association. The Elo is notable in that it is primarily selected and bred according to behavioral characteristics and social behavior, with the goal of creating the best family pet.
Bred to a behavioral rather than an appearance standard, the appearance of the Elo can vary from dog to dog, although the breed standard (breed standards describe a breed's external appearance) describes the size as 46 - 60 cm at the withers, and weighing 22 - 35kg, with a body that is slightly longer than tall, and a well plumed tail (meaning with lots of long fur) often carried in a curve over the back. The prick ears are furry, wide set, and slightly rounded at the ends. The coat comes in a long (Rauhaar) and medium (Glatthaar) length, both with a dense undercoat, with all colours allowed, with a white with brown, red, black, or gray spots particularly desired.
Marita and Heinz Szobries began crossing their Eurasiers and Bobtails (Old English Sheepdogs) in 1987, believing that, although very different in detail,
The Jagdterrier ( /ˈjɑːktɛriər/ YAHK-terr-i-ər) is a type of working terrier, originating in Germany, that is used for hunting quarry both above and underground. This breed of terrier is also called the German Hunt Terrier.
A typical appearance of a Jagdterrier is black, and tan with the tan being more of a rust colour on the muzzle and undercarriage, a light tan should be avoided and not within the breed standard. It can also be chocolate or liver brown with white markings although the white markings and the chocolate colouring should be avoided in breeding programs along with a brown nose. Black and tan/rust markings should be the goal. The breed standard calls for an animal that stands 33 to 40 cm (13 to 15.7 in) at the shoulders, with females weighing from 7.5 to 8.5 kg (16.5 to 18.7 lb), and males weighting from 9 to 10 kg (19.8 to 22 lb). The coat of a Jagdterrier can be either hairy, smooth or broken. All variates do shed. The tail is normally (but not always) cropped at 2/3 the natural length.
Jagdterriers were developed to be all around hunting dogs. Though often used for quarry that dens underground, especially badger, fox, and raccoon dog, Jadgterriers are also used to
The Artois Hound is a rare breed of dog, and a descendant of the Bloodhound. A scent hound 22-23 inches high at the withers, weighing anything between 55 and 65 pounds, it is a well constructed dog with a slow graceful gait. It has a large, strong head, a medium-length back and a pointed tail that tends to be long and sickle-shaped. Their ears are set at eye level; they have large prominent eyes and quite thick lips.
A well constructed dog, muscled and not too long, giving the impression of strength and energy.
Its back is broad and well supported. Its loins are slightly arched. The hips give a slight inclination to its croup, which is well muscled. Its chest is broad and long, rather let down so that the sternal line arrives at elbow level. Its ribs should be well sprung. Its belly flanks fully its body.
It is strong and quite long; there should be some longer and coarser, slightly offstanding hairs, (like ears of grain) towards the tip. It is carried in a sickle fashion, never falling forward.
A view of the ensemble indicates that its limbs are strong and vertical. Its shoulders are oblique and muscled. Its elbows are set well in the axis of the body. Its forearm should be
Poodles crossbreeds are purebred poodles that have been crossbred with another purebred dog breed. They may be described as a mixed breed dog, designer dog and sometimes as a hybrid dog. In biological terms, poodle crossbreeds are an intraspecies hybrid, rather than a hybrid between two different species, since all dog breeds belong to the species Canis lupus familiaris.
While some crosses are accidental, many crosses are intentionally bred. Among reputable breeders, cross-breeding is an attempt to breed dogs with positive characteristics of two recognized breeds. For example, the Labradoodle was originally bred in an attempt to create a dog with a Labrador temperament and a hypoallergenic poodle coat. The intent was to create guide dogs for people with allergies. However - as with all crosses - only some puppies from cross-breeding of two purebreds will inherit both desired traits, some will inherit one trait, and some neither. Even when crossbreed dogs manifest dominant traits, these dogs may not pass on the desired traits to offspring.
While cross-breeding does not guarantee better health, hybrids bred from parents with disparate gene pools may have far lower chances of
The Austrian Pinscher (Österreichischer Pinscher, FCI No. 64) is a medium large breed of pinscher-type dog from Austria, where dogs of the type were originally farm dogs, keeping barns free of rats and acting as home guards, livestock guardians, and drovers. The name originally given to the breed in 1928 was the Österreichischer Kurzhaarpinscher (Austrian Shorthaired Pinscher) to differentiate it from similarly named breeds, but today in its country of origin the breed is officially called the Österreichischer Pinscher, or Austrian Pinscher in English.
Like other farm dogs raised for work rather than for pets or show, the appearance can vary a great deal, although there is a definite breed standard. In general, the Austrian Pinscher is a normally proportioned strong and sturdy dog, 33 – 48 cm (13 - 19 inches) at the withers. The breed has button ears and a head described as being shaped like a pear. The double coat is short to medium long, in a variety of yellow, red or black and tan colours, usually with white markings on the face, chest, feet and tip of the tail. The long tail is held high, and dogs of this breed should look lively and alert. They are heavier, more rugged and
The Jack Russell terrier is a small terrier that has its origins in fox hunting. It is principally white-bodied smooth, rough or broken-coated which is commonly confused with the Parson Russell terrier (the American Kennel Club (AKC) and affiliate variant) and the Russell terrier (a shorter legged, stockier variety, whose name within the Fédération Cynologique Internationale is "Jack Russell terrier"), with the term "Jack Russell" commonly misapplied to other small white terriers. The Jack Russell is a broad type, with a size range of 10–15 inches (25–38 cm), the Parson Russell is limited only to a middle range with a standard size of 12–14 inches (30–36 cm), while the Russell terrier is smaller at 8–12 inches (20–30 cm), however each breed has different physical proportions according to the standards of their breed clubs.
Originating in the early 19th century from dogs bred and used by Reverend John Russell, it has similar origins to the modern Fox terrier. The Jack Russell is an energetic breed which relies on a high level of exercise and stimulation, and is relatively free from serious health complaints. It has gone through several changes over the years, through different use
Moscow Watchdog (Russian: московская сторожевая) is a breed of dog that was bred in the Soviet Union. It descends from crosses between the St. Bernard, Caucasian Shepherd, and Russian Spotted Hound breeds. The breed is very large and weight is between 100 and 150lbs. Unlike its modern St Bernard counterparts, the breed needs lots of vigorous exercise. They do not drool like many of the other molossers. Until recently, Moscow Watchdogs were very hard to find outside of the Soviet Union, however are now becoming more popular in Europe and have recently reached the United States.
The breed standard was first published in 1985 when it received "official status" in the Soviet Union. In 1992, the Federation of the Dog Breeders of Russia approved the standard and then in 1997 the Department of Animal Breeding and Pedigree of The Ministry of Agriculture of Russia. The standard was also approved by the Russian Kennel Club in 1997.
The Russian Kennel Club is working with the International Kennel Federation (FCI) to gain official recognition. Currently, the Moscow Watchdog is considered by the FCI as part of the 2nd group Molosser. In FCI sanctioned dog shows, they are shown in what is
The Prazsky krysarik (Prague Ratter) is a small breed of dog from the Czech Republic that is rarely seen outside its country of origin. It is the smallest breed in the world by breed standard, because of the maximum height of the dogs, unlike Chihuahua's who are measured by weight.
Also known as the Prazsky Krysarik, and often confused with the Chihuahua and the Miniature Pinscher,the dog's coat consists of short, glossy hair and the most common color is black and tan, which is also the original color. Lately, other colors have been approved: Brown and tan, Blue and tan, Lila and tan, Yellow, Red and Merle. It is 2 cm shorter in maximum height than the minimum height of the Miniature Pinscher. Ideal height is 20 cm to 23 cm. Adult weight is mostly between 1,5 kg to 3,5 kg. Generally the best weight is 2,6 kg.
Best known for its active and lively nature, the Prague Ratter is a spunky breed that is full of original character. These tiny dogs thrive on strong and dependable relationships with humans, love to receive affection and play the role of lap dog during down time. This breed is highly intelligent and generally responds well to basic training and commands. As a pet, the Prague
The Bavarian Mountain Hound (German = "Bayerischer Gebirgsschweißhund") is a breed of dog from Germany. It is a scent hound and has been used in Germany since the Middle Ages to trail wounded game. It is a cross between the Bavarian Hound and the Hanover Hound.
The Bavarian Mountain Hound's head is strong and elongated. The skull is relatively broad and slightly domed. It has a pronounced stop and a slightly curved nosebridge. The muzzle should be broad with solid jaws, and its lips fully covering mouth. Its nose is black or dark red with wide nostrils. Its ears are high set and medium in length. They are broader at the base and rounded at the tips, hanging heavily against the head. Its body is slightly longer than it is tall and slightly raised at the rump. The neck medium in length, strong, with a slight dewlap. Topline sloping slightly upward from withers to hindquarters. Chest well-developed, long, moderately wide and well let-down with a slight tuck-up. It has a long, fairly straight croup and solid back. While its tail is set on high, medium in length and hanging to the hock, carried level to the ground or hanging down.
Bavarian Mountain Hounds weigh between 20 to 25 kg,
The Bohemian Shepherd is a breed of dog also known as the Chodský Pes or the Chodenhund. The Bohemian Shepherd is recognized nationally in the Czech Republic but is not recognized by the FCI or any other major kennel club.
Chodský pes is an old sheepdog breed. They have been also guarding Czech southern borders and homes in the area. "Chodove", the local people living there, had an exceptional permission to hold large dogs for this purpose. Alois Jirasek, writing about a brave uprising of the local people, even assigned these dogs as a flag symbol of them. Though that is actually incorrect, the symbol became part of national knowledge due to drawings of a well known Czech painter Mikolas Ales. The symbol of the chodský pes is still on Czech young scouts badges.
As the breed of chodský pes is old, it is possibly also one of the predecessors to the German Shepherd. Chodský pes is known to exist in the Czech lands as far back as the 14th century, and having been professionally bred as early as the 16th century. A modern breeding program for this dog was started in 1984 and there are now many breeders. About 3500 registered pups have been born since the program started (1984–2009).
The Tahltan Bear Dog was a breed of dog that was indigenous to Canada. This breed is believed to be extinct by most authorities.
The Tahltan was built somewhere between the lines of the spitz and pariah types. The ideal dog was, above all else, athletic and agile
As they were always bred solely for hunting value, appearance could vary significantly between dogs.
A Tahltan Bear Dog was primarily black, dark brown or blue (lead), with some white patches on the chest and sometimes the feet. Standing 14 to 17 inches high at the shoulder, with relatively large, erect pointed ears, with a refined, pointed muzzle. The glossy coat was of average length, with guard hairs covering a thicker undercoat. Paws some what webbed and relatively large for the size of the dog. They were also double jointed and gaited, enabling them to switch gaits as they moved through different terrain or heavy brush, as all the aboriginal dogs of the north and South American continents; were bred for their ability to change gaits to adapt to different terrains or distances
Like others of their group, they had a peculiar yodel. Foxy in appearance, their main distinction among dogs is their novel tail. Short, bushy
Toy Group is the name of a breed Group of the smallest kinds of dogs, used by kennel clubs to classify a defined collection of dog breeds. Toy Group does not necessarily refer to one particular type of dog. Most major English-language kennel clubs include a Toy Group although different kennel clubs may not include the same breeds in their Toy Group. The international kennel club association, the Fédération Cynologique Internationale, includes toy dogs in Group 9 Companion and Toy Dogs, which is then further broken down into eleven Sections based on dog type and breed history.
The use of the term toy to refer to dogs is based on tradition, and is not a precise classification. Dogs traditionally referred to as toy dogs are usually the very smallest dogs. Toy dogs can be one of several dog types. Some are of ancient lap dog types, and some are small versions of hunting dog, Spitz, or terrier types, bred down in size for a particular kind of work or to create a pet of convenient size. The very smallest dogs are sometimes called Teacup, although no major dog registry recognizes that term.
In general, kennel clubs assign small breeds that are primarily kept as companions and pets to
The Himalayan cat is a breed of long-haired cat identical in type to the Persian, with the exception of its blue eyes and its point coloration, which were derived from the crossing of the Persian with the Siamese. Although similar breeds have existed for hundreds of years, the Colourpoint Persian, as they are commonly referred to in Europe, was only begun in the 1950s.
While the Himalayan is considered a breed separate from the Persian by The International Cat Association, it is grouped together with the Persian and Exotic Shorthair (shorthaired version of the Persian) under a "Persian Breed Group standard". The Cat Fanciers' Association considers the Himalayan a color variation of the Persian rather than as a separate breed, although they do compete in their own color division. It was for the color that the breed was named Himalayan: a reference to the coloration of Himalayan animals, in particular the Himalayan rabbit.
Like Persian cats, the Himalayan cat tends to have a round (cobby) body with short legs, which makes it harder for them to jump as high as other cats do. Some do have more of a Siamese like body, though, and can jump as high as seven feet.
Like the Persian, there
The Cordoba Fighting Dog is an extinct breed of dog. The Cordoba was a crossbreed of Mastiff, Bull Terrier, Boxer, and Old English Bulldog.
The Cordoba Fighting Dog originated in Córdoba, Argentina. The breed had such strong aggression toward other dogs that the males and females would rather fight than mate. In addition, many members of this breed died in the dog fighting pits, contributing to the breed's extinction.
The Cordoba was capable of hunting in a small pack of a male and female, otherwise they were more likely to turn on their packmates. The Cordoba was used as a contributing breed to create the Dogo Argentino.
Among the breed's ancestors, the most notable is the Bull Terrier, which at the time was still used in England for dog fights and which was responsible for the Cordoba Dog's coloration and fighting tendencies.
A dorgi is a dog which is a cross between a dachshund and a Welsh corgi. This hybrid is said to have been introduced by Queen Elizabeth II when one of her corgis was mated with a dachshund belonging to The Princess Margaret. The Queen currently (May 2007) owns four dorgis.
The Norwegian Forest Cat is a breed of domestic cat native to Northern Europe, and adapted to a very cold climate, with top coat of glossy, long, water-shedding hairs, and a woolly undercoat for insulation. Although this is uncertain, the breed's ancestors may have been short-haired cats brought to Norway by the Vikings around 1000 AD, and may also have included the long-haired Siberian and Turkish Angora. During World War II, the breed became nearly extinct until efforts by the Norwegian Forest Cat Club helped the breed by creating an official breeding program. It was not registered as a breed with the European Fédération Internationale Féline until the 1970s, when a local cat fancier, Carl-Fredrik Nordane, took notice of the breed and made efforts to register it. Currently, the Norwegian Forest Cat is very popular in Norway, Sweden, Iceland and France.
It is a big, strong cat, similar to the Maine Coon breed, with long legs, a bushy tail and a sturdy body. The breed is very good at climbing, since they have strong claws. The lifespan is usually 14 to 16 years, though kidney and heart diseases have been reported in the breed. Specifically in this breed, complex rearrangements of
The Miniature Siberian Husky is often mistaken for the Alaskan Klee Kai, with whom it shares similar qualities. However, the Alaskan Klee Kai was bred from the Alaskan Husky, Schipperke, and American Eskimo. Miniature Siberian Huskies are smaller versions of Siberian Huskies. They share the same basic genetics and temperament, and are not yet considered a separate breed.
Miniature Siberian Huskies have very few health issues, like their larger counterparts. The major health issues in the breed are eye troubles (cataracts, glaucoma, and corneal dystrophy, among others), allergies, and cancer in older animals. Hip dysplasia is a possible risk in all huskies, both miniature and standard. Obesity must be guarded against as well, as the dogs were originally bred to subsist on smaller quantities of food than dogs of a similar size. Huskies also can inherit epilepsy from parents and inbreeding. Before buying the dog ask for the breeders phone number to see the parents and look at their pedigrees and ask about health issues from past generations.
Smaller versions of the sled dog, technically classified as the "Tungus Spitz" by early explorers, were often described as being "the size of a
The Pungsan or Poongsan (Hangul: 풍산개; Hanja: 豊山개) is a breed of hunting dog from North Korea. They receive their name from the mountainous northern county of P'ungsan, now Kimhyŏnggwŏn, where they were first bred. They are a very rare dog, and are hardly known outside of North Korea.
The Pungsan is a mixed breed with wolf found in North Korea. Pungsan have a thick coat, usually white in color. They have a curled tail and pricked ears. The Pungsan's fur is very fine and thick to account for the cold winters in the northern Korean peninsula. Pungsan are a common breed in North Korea. Though this breed is extremely rare outside of North Korea, there are few breeders in South Korea and even in the United States.
Pungsan dogs are very strong and agile because of their past in mountainous regions. They have traditionally been used for hunting large animals, including Amur Tigers. They have a lot of stamina and therefore require extensive exercise.
Due to their hunting personality, Pungsan pups will have a tendency to chew on several things so it is recommendable to give the dog things to chew.
Pungsan tend to be loyal to their owners and whoever they are comfortable with. Everyone else
The Akita (秋田犬, Akita-inu) is a large spitz breed of dog originating from the mountainous northern regions of Japan. There are now two separate strains: Japanese, a/k/a "Akita Inu" or "Japanese Akita", and American, a/k/a "Akita" or "American Akita". The Japanese strain comes in selected colors only, with all other colors considered atypical of the breed, while the American strain comes in all dog colors. The Akita has a short double coat, similar to that of many other northern Spitz breeds, e.g., Siberian Husky, but long coated dogs can be found in many litters due to a recessive gene. The American strain of Akita is now considered a separate breed from the Japanese Akita in many countries around the world, with the notable exceptions of Australia, the United States and Canada. In the U.S. and Canada, both strains are considered a single breed with differences in type rather than two separate breeds. During a short period, the American strain of Akita was known in some countries as the "Great Japanese Dog". Both forms of Akita are probably best known worldwide from the true story of Hachikō, a loyal Akita dog who lived in Japan before World War II. The Akita is a strong,
The Bucovina Shepherd (Caine Ciobanesc de Bucovina) is a strong and rustic dog which was for many centuries the best partner and companion for the Romanian shepherds in the Carpathian Mountains. The original purpose of this Mountain dog was to guard and protect the herds against predators (wild animals or thieves). Bucovina Shepherd Dogs have become appreciated by people living in cities, who keep them as watch dogs or just as pets, because of their balanced temperament and the kindliness they show to children. There are three types of Romanian shepherd dogs: Mioritic (old name Barac), Carpatin (old name Zăvod) and Bucovina Shepherd.
The Bucovina Shepherd's head is massive, slightly elevated with respect to the back line. The skull is moderately wide. The stop is slightly marked. The nose is black well developed and wide. The muzzle has the shape of a truncated cone, of the same length as the skull, well developed. It becomes progressively narrow towards the extremity but it is never pointed. The lips are thick, well applied, with strong pigmentation. This breed should have strong jaws, with healthy white teeth and a scissors bite. Level bite is allowed. The cheeks are not
The Dutch Shepherd Dog is a breed of dog. The breed is an old herding breed of Dutch origin. In the old days shepherds and farmers needed a versatile dog, a jack-of-all-trades, with few demands and adapted to the harsh and meager existence of that time.
The Dutch Shepherd was discovered as a naturally occurring shepherd's dog type living in the rural areas of the larger region that today includes The Netherlands. When the first breed standard was written in 1898, the coat could be any color. But in 1914 it was decided to allow only brindle to distinguish the breed from the, then similar, German Shepherd and Belgian Shepherd. As time went by, the breeds diverged into the three distinct breeds that we know today. However, the Dutch Shepherd remains nearly the same dog it was more than 100 years ago. Today the Dutch Shepherd is distinguished from the Belgian and German Shepherds by the details put down in the breed standard, primarily of the head.
Originally the main function of the Dutch Shepherd Dog was that of a shepherd’s dog in the countryside. From early times, the Dutch had an arable culture that was – among other things – maintained by flocks of sheep. The dogs had to keep the
The Eurasier, sometimes referred to as Eurasian, is a breed of dog of spitz type that originated in Germany. It is widely known as a wonderful companion that maintains its own personality, has a dignified reserve to strangers, a strong bond to its family and that is relatively easy to train.
The Eurasier is a balanced, well-constructed, medium-sized Spitz (Spitzen) type dog with prick ears. It comes in different colors: fawn, red, wolf-grey, solid black, and black and tan. All color combinations are allowed, except for pure white, white patches, and liver color. Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) standards call for the Eurasier to have a thick undercoat and medium-long, loosely lying guard hair all over the body, with a short coat on the muzzle, face, ears, and front legs. The tail and the back of the front legs (feathers) and hind legs (breeches) should be covered with long hair. The coat on the Eurasier's neck should be slightly longer than on the body, but not forming a mane. The breed may have a pink, blue-black or spotted tongue.
The male has a height of 52 to 60 cm (20-23.5 inches) at the withers and weighs approximately 23 to 32 kg (50-70 lb).
The female has a
The Indian Spitz is a spitz-type dog breed belonging to the Utility Dog group. It is very similar to the German Spitz in appearance but is roughly 1.5-2.5 inches shorter at the withers and weighs around 10-15 Lbs less.
The Indian Spitz was one of the most popular dogs in India in the 1980s and the 1990s when India's import rules made it very difficult to import dogs of other breeds. Today, despite being overshadowed by other breeds like Pugs and Lhasa Apso, they dominate and thrive as one of the most economical and yet pleasant pets.
The Indian Spitz is often called Pomeranian though the two breeds are much different and the Indian Spitz belongs to the Spitz family along with the Elk-Hound, German Spitz, Samoyed and Finnish Spitz to name a few.
The Indian Spitz was introduced in India by the British who began breeding them from a stock of German Spitzes. Years of breeding produced the ideal dog suited for the plains of India and capable of withstanding India's sultry climate. These spitzes resembled Samoyeds and German Spitzes but had less thick coats and were smaller in size- ideal for the conditions.
Not recognized by any major Kennel Club, The Indian Spitz is identified as a
The Koolie or Coolie, also known as the Australian Koolie or the German Koolie is an Australian dog breed. Specifically, it is a herding dog, a subcategory of a working dog. Koolies have existed in Australia since the early 19th century, established through old photos owned by elder Koolie breeders and personal records such as diaries.
The Koolie Club of Australia defines the breed based on its ability to work rather than on its conformation. However, most Koolie breeders refer to the Koolie as a breed rather than as a type, and assert that it "breeds true", with various types or strains within the breed.
Many countries will gather their working dogs under the same category like Germany with their herding dog breeds all classed as Altdeutsche Hütehunde (heading dogs). New Zealand not only classify their breeds this way, but they also grade them by their working traits. Koolies in New Zealand are registered as a "heading dog": A dog which has a natural instinct to cast out (i.e., circle widely), round sheep and bring them back to their owner. The Koolie is known as a silent working dog. They are used for “heading” sheep and also for quiet careful work at close quarters at lambing
The rusty-spotted cat (Prionailurus rubiginosus) is the cat family's smallest member and found only in India and Sri Lanka. It has been listed as Vulnerable by IUCN in 2002 as the total effective population size is below 10,000 mature individuals, with a declining trend due to habitat loss, and no subpopulation containing more than 1,000 mature breeding individuals.
The rusty-spotted cat rivals the black-footed cat as the world's smallest wild cat. It is 35 to 48 cm (14 to 19 in) in length, with a 15 to 30 cm (5.9 to 12 in) tail, and weighs only 0.9 to 1.6 kg (2.0 to 3.5 lb). The short fur is grey over most of the body, with rusty spots over the back and flanks, while the underbelly is white with large dark spots. The darker colored tail is thick and about half the length of the body, and the spots are less distinct. There are a six dark streaks on each side of the head, extending over the cheeks and forehead.
Rusty-spotted cats have a relatively restricted distribution. They mainly occur in moist and dry deciduous forests as well as scrub and grassland, but are likely absent from evergreen forest. They prefer dense vegetation and rocky areas.
Two subspecies are recognized:
The American Curl is a breed of cat characterized by its unusual ears, which curl back from the face toward the center of the back of the skull. An American Curl's ears should be handled carefully because rough handling may damage the cartilage in the ear. The breed originated in Lakewood, California, as the result of a spontaneous mutation. In June 1981, two stray kittens were found and taken in by the Ruga family. The kittens were both longhaired, one black and the other black and white. The family named them Shulamith and Panda respectively, but Panda disappeared several weeks later, making Shulamith the foundation female of the American Curl breed.
In 1983, an American Curl was exhibited at a cat show for the first time, and in 1987, the longhaired American Curl was given championship status by The International Cat Association (TICA). In 1993, the American Curl became the first breed admitted to the Cat Fanciers' Association (CFA) Championship Class with both longhair and shorthair divisions.
The American Curl is a medium sized cat (5–10 lbs), and does not reach maturity until 2–3 years of age. They are strong and healthy, remarkably free of the genetic defects that affect
The Biewer (pronounced Bee-vair) Yorkshire Terrier a la Pom Pom, is generally thought of as a toy dog originating in Germany due to an unnatural genetic recessive trait. It is not recognized by any formal or major kennel club.
Mr. Werner and Mrs. Gertrud Biewer raised, bred and showed Yorkshire Terriers for twenty years. On January 20, 1984 one of their dogs gave birth to a blue, white, and gold puppy they later named Schneeflocken von Friedheck. This was the first recorded tri-colored Yorkshire Terrier. This started what is now known as the “Biewer Terrier.” While even after twenty-five years of the Biewer’s existence, it is still not recognized by any major kennel club, but that does not stop many adamant people in creating a club centered around them.
There is only one club that has the support and membership of Mrs. Gertrud Biewer and although she no longer breeds, she maintains active involvement with the BTCA board members in their efforts to establish the Biewer Terrier as a breed of its own. Mrs. Biewer considers the BTCA, Inc. to be the authority and protector of the Biewer breed.
BBCA = Biewer Breed Club of America
BTCA = Biewer Terrier Club of America
CBC = Canadian
The Chippiparai is a sight hound breed of dog from the south of India. Thought to be a descendant of the Saluki, today it is found in the area around Periyar Lake. It is used primarily for hunting wild boar, deer and hare. It is also used for guarding the home. Bred by royal families in Chippiparai near Madurai district Tamil Nadu, it was kept as a symbol of royalty and dignity in tirunelveli and madurai rulers.
The typical color is a fawn, reddish brown, slight black tinged coat, silver-grey, with very limited or no white markings and long curved tail. Other colors, particularly variations of grey and fawn, also occur. This is a medium dog, around 25 inches at the withers. It has a short coat that is very close; on the whole the coat if kept groomed has a shine on it. A shining, shell-like appearance is greatly desired. This kind of coat makes it ideal for hot climates. This hound is also less prone to ticks and fleas, with their short coat providing easy detection. The overall appearance is very similar to that of the Sloughi, or the Rampur Greyhound.
The Chippiparai is a robust animal needing little or no veterinary care. It does need lots of exercise, as it was and is a breed
Korats (Thai: โคราช, มาเลศ, สีสวาด, RTGS: Khorat, Malet, Sisawat) are a slate blue-grey short-haired breed of domestic cat with a small to medium build and a low percentage of body fat. Their bodies are semi-cobby, and surprisingly heavy for their size. They are intelligent, playful, active cats and form strong bonds with people. Among Korats' distinguishing characteristics are their heart-shaped heads and large green eyes. They are one of a few breeds where individuals have only one color.
The Korat, a natural breed is one of the oldest stable cat breeds. Originating in Thailand, it is named after the Nakhon Ratchasima province (typically called "Korat" by the Thai people). In Thailand it is known as Si-Sawat, meaning "Color of the Sawat Seed". They are known colloquially as the "Good Luck Cat" and are given in pairs to newlyweds or to people who are highly esteemed, for good luck. Until recently, Korats were not sold, but only given as gifts.
The modern Korats now exist due to the diligent efforts of a few breeders inside and outside of Thailand.
The first mention of the Korat is in "The Cat-Book Poems" authored between 1350 and 1767 AD in Thailand, now in the national library in
The Mioritic is a large breed of livestock guardian dog that originated in the Carpathian Mountains of Romania.
The Mioritic stands about 65–85 centimetres (26–33 in) tall at the withers and weighs 50–65 kilograms (110–140 lb). This massive dog is covered in thick fluffy hair. It may be white, with or without pale grey or cream patches, or cream or pale grey all over.
This Mountain dog has discipline as one of their main characteristics. It is a calm and well-mannered dog. As this dog was used as a herd protector, he is very attached to family and goes all the way when protecting those he is attached to. Because of this dog's ability to bond strongly with his master, training should only be started once the Mioritic puppy is already accustomed to the owner/trainer.
The breed was officially recognized by the FCI on July, 6th, 2005 in Buenos Aires.
The breed has a life expectancy of about 12-14 years.
2. Mioritic Shepherd
The Papillon (from the French word for butterfly, pronounced: [papiˈjɔ̃]), also called the Continental Toy Spaniel, is a breed of dog of the Spaniel type. One of the oldest of the toy spaniels, it derives its name from its characteristic butterfly-like look of the long and fringed hair on the ears. A papillon with dropped ears is called a Phalène (French for moth). The small head is slightly rounded between the ears with a well defined stop. The muzzle is somewhat short, thin tapering to the nose. The dark, medium sized, round eyes have thin black rims, often extending at the junction of the eyelids towards the ears. The large ears can either be erect or dropped with rounded tips. The teeth meet in a scissors bite. The long tail is set high carried over the body, and covered with long, fine hair. Dewclaws are sometimes removed. The straight, long, fine, single coat has extra frill on the chest, ears, back of the legs and the tail. Coat color is white with patches of any color. A mask of a color other than white covers both ears and eyes from back to front.
The Papillon is a very intelligent dog that has a very easy time learning new tricks. This dog is great with kids, strangers,
The Russian Blue is a cat breed that has a silver-blue coat. These cats are known to be highly intelligent and playful, but tend to be timid around strangers. They also develop close bonds with their human companions and are highly sought after due to their personalities and unique coat.
The Russian Blue is a naturally occurring breed that is believed to have originated in the port of Arkhangelsk, Russia. They are also sometimes called Archangel Blues. It is believed that the first Russian Blues were brought from the Archangel Isles to England and Northern Europe in the 1860s by sailors. The first recorded showing of the breed was in 1875 at the Crystal Palace in England as the Archangel Cat. The Russian Blue competed in a class including all other blue cats until 1912, when it was given its own class.
The breed was developed mainly in Russia and Scandinavia until after World War II. Prior to this, a lack of numbers of Russian Blues led to cross breeding with the Siamese. Although Russian Blues were in America before the war, it was not until the post-war period that American breeders created the modern Russian Blue that is seen in the US today. This was done by combining the
A Shih Tzu ( /ˈʃiːtsuː/ SHEET-soo; Mandarin: [ʂɨ́tsɨ]) is a breed of dog weighing 4–7.25 kilograms (8.8–16.0 lb) with long silky hair. The breed originated in China. Shih Tzu were officially recognized by the American Kennel Club in 1969. The name is both singular and plural.
The name Shih Tzu comes from the Chinese word for "lion" because this kind of dog was bred to resemble "the lion as depicted in traditional oriental art," such as the Chinese guardian lions. (There is also the Pekingese breed, called "lion dog" in Chinese). "Shih Tzu" is the Wade-Giles romanization the Chinese characters 獅子, meaning lion; Wade-Giles romanization was in use when the breed was first introduced in America, but in modern times Pinyin romanization is used, rendering it shīzi. The Mandarin Chinese pronunciation is approximately SHIRR-tsə. The Shih Tzu is also known as the "Xi Shi dog" (西施犬) because Xi Shi was regarded as one of the most beautiful women of ancient China. Shih Tzus were nicknamed the Chrysanthemum Dog in England in the 1930s. The dog may also be called the Tibetan Lion Dog, but whether or not the breed should be referred to as a "Tibetan" or "Chinese" breed is a source of argument,
The Toy Bulldog, also known as the Miniature Bulldog, is an extinct breed of small Bulldog that averaged 8 pounds in weight. These Bulldogs are bred with the Pug. Many of them were pushed out of Britain during the mid-to-late 19th century, sa seen as a threat to the Bulldog breed. They were used to create the French Bulldog. Contrary to popular belief the French Bulldog was not contrived in France. The French Bulldog was bred originally in England in the 19th century by lace makers and artisans.
The Boston Terrier was developed by crossing the Toy Bulldog with the white English Terrier, along with an infusion of French Bulldog.
In the early 21st century, breeders were advertising "Miniature Bulldogs", but these would seem to be newly created Bulldog - Pug crossbreeds.
The Alaskan Klee Kai is a northern breed of dog of spitz type. The term "Klee Kai" was derived from Alaskan Athabaskan words meaning "small dog". The breed was developed to create a companion sized version of the Alaskan Husky (a mixed breed of dog used for sled racing), resulting in an energetic, intelligent, apartment-sized dog with an appearance that reflects its northern heritage.
The Alaskan Klee Kai should look like a miniature husky. Although their standard is based on that of the Siberian Husky, there are physical differences, such as a shorter muzzle, larger ears, and higher tail set, that make them easily distinguishable from the Siberian.
They come in three sizes based on their height:
(*An Eliminating Fault is a Fault serious enough that it eliminates the dog from obtaining any awards in a conformation event.)
The three sizes of Alaskan Klee Kai also have different weight requirements:
Alaskan Klee Kai come in three recognized color varieties: black and white, gray and white, or red and white (which may appear as a cinnamon or a dark auburn). Solid white Alaskan Klee Kai also exist but this coat color variety is considered a disqualification by the breed standard. Solid
Japan /dʒəˈpæn/ (Japanese: 日本 Nihon or Nippon; formally 日本国 Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku, literally the State of Japan) is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south. The characters that make up Japan's name mean "sun-origin", which is why Japan is sometimes referred to as the "Land of the Rising Sun".
Japan is an archipelago of 6,852 islands. The four largest islands are Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu and Shikoku, together comprising about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area. Japan has the world's tenth-largest population, with over 127 million people. Honshū's Greater Tokyo Area, which includes the de facto capital city of Tokyo and several surrounding prefectures, is the largest metropolitan area in the world, with over 30 million residents.
Archaeological research indicates that people lived in Japan as early as the Upper Paleolithic period. The first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD. Influence from other nations followed by long periods of
The Wetterhoun (FCI No.221, translated into English as the Frisian Water Dog) is a breed of dog traditionally used as a hunting dog for hunting small mammals and waterfowl in the province of Friesland in the Netherlands. The name of the dog comes from the West Frisian Wetterhûn meaning "water dog." Plural of Wetterhoun is Wetterhounen in Dutch. The breed may also be called the Otterhoun (not to be confused with the Otterhound) or Dutch Spaniel, although it is not a Spaniel-type dog.
The Wetterhoun is a medium sized dog between 55 and 59 centimeters (21.6-23 inches) at the withers. They weigh between 25 and 35 kilo, 55 and 77 pounds]). Their coat is thick and curly except for the head, ears and legs, where the coat is smoother; the water repellant coat is described as having a greasy feel. Coat colour may be solid black or brown, or black with white, or brown with white, with or without white ticking or roan marks. The texture of the coat should not be woolly, as such fur will not resist water. The ears are low set and hang flat to the head, and the tail curls tightly over the back. The breed has an unusual, somewhat grim expression due to the shape of the eyes, which marks it as
The American Pit Bull Terrier (APBT) is a medium-sized, solidly built, short haired dog whose early ancestors came from England and Ireland. It is a member of the molosser breed group.
During the 19th century, England, Ireland, and Scotland began to experiment with crosses between bulldogs and terriers, looking for a dog that combined the gameness, speed, and agility of the terrier with the strength and athleticism of the bulldog.
In the late 19th century to early 20th century, two clubs were formed for the specific purpose of registering APBTs: the United Kennel Club and the American Dog Breeders Association. The United Kennel Club was founded in 1898, and was the first registry to recognize the breed, with the owner assigning the first number to his own APBT.
The dog was bred first to bait bulls and bears. When baiting bulls was deemed inhumane, ratting (a sport where a number of rats were placed in a pit for a specified time with the dog) and dog fighting became more popular. The APBT was used in both sports, and its prevalence in being put in pits with rats, or other dogs led to "pit" being added to its name. With time, the dogs became more commonly domesticated due to their
The Croatian Sheepdog is a dog breed from Croatia.
The Croatian sheepdog is a weatherproof, adaptable breed. They are of low to medium height and the base color is always black, although there may be very small patches of white on its chest and/or toes. A characteristic is the short hairs on its somewhat fox-like head and legs. The remainder of the coat is longer and wavy or curly. The height at the withers in both sexes is between 16 to 21 inches and the length exceeds the height by approximately 10%. Nowadays, some dogs are even taller; that is probably due to better nutrition and an easier life - they grow to their full genetic potential. Traditionally the tail is docked very short but, if undocked, it is carried curled over the dog's back.
Generally: The head is relatively light, lean and wedge shaped. The ratio between the muzzle and the skull is 9 : 11. The total length of the head is about 20 cm. Skull: Slightly rounded skull tapering towards the nose. The eyebrow arches are not pronounced. The cheeks are rounded. The occiput can be distinct. Stop: Slightly pronounced.
Nose: Always black and in the line with the nose ridge. Muzzle: Lean, nose ridge looking from the profile
England /ˈɪŋɡlənd/ is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, while the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separate it from continental Europe. Most of England comprises the central and southern part of the island of Great Britain in the North Atlantic. The country also includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.
The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but it takes its name from the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in AD 927, and since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world. The English language, the Anglican Church, and English law—the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world—developed in England, and the country's parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations. The Industrial
A Goldendoodle is a cross-breed dog obtained by breeding a golden retriever with a poodle. The name, which was coined in 1992, gets the first part, "golden", from golden retriever and the second part, “doodle”, from "poodle".
In the 1990s, breeders in both North America and Australia began crossing golden retrievers with standard poodles. The original purpose of the cross was to attempt to develop guide dogs suitable for visually impaired individuals with allergies
The Goldendoodle is usually bred to be a family companion dog. It may suit families with mild dog allergies, if the puppy has inherited hair characteristics of its poodle parent. Some are bred for careers in service to humans as guide dog, therapy dogs, or other types of assistance dogs, especially for people with allergies.
A person may select a goldendoodle because he or she loves golden retrievers, but would prefer a dog that sheds less hair. Although not all goldendoodles exhibit the low shedding coat type of the Standard Poodle, some people with allergies may need a dog that does not shed. The standard goldendoodle may shed less than a golden retriever, but the degree of shedding will vary from dog to dog.
The Silken Windhound is a rare American breed of dog, a member of the sighthound family.
The Silken Windhound is a graceful, small to medium-sized sighthound with a moderately long silky coat. This breed owes its unique appearance, elegant build, and the athleticism of a true coursing dog to champion Borzoi and Whippet ancestors. The Silken Windhound can be any combination of coat colors and markings, from spotted to solid, black and tan, saddled, brindle and sable, pure white and reds to deep black and blues, and a rainbow of colors in between.
Silken Windhounds are as comfortable in the sporting fields as they are on the couch at home with their humans. They are generally affectionate and playful, and make ideal family companions and good playmates for gentle children. They are unsuited as guard dogs due to their trusting and friendly nature. Like all sighthounds, Silkens excel in racing or lure coursing but have also proven to be intelligent and responsive enough to also enjoy less typical sighthound activities. They are successful in agility, therapy, flyball and obedience. They do well with smaller household pets indoors if socialized to them properly, but their sighthound
Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent. At about 30.2 million km² (11.7 million sq mi) including adjacent islands, it covers six percent of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4 percent of the total land area. With 1.0 billion people (as of 2009, see table), it accounts for about 14.72% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, both the Suez Canal and the Red Sea along the Sinai Peninsula to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagoes. It has 54 fully recognized sovereign states ("countries"), 9 territories and three de facto states with limited recognition.
Africa, particularly central Eastern Africa, is the origin of humans and the Hominidae clade (great apes), as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors, as well as later ones that have been dated to around seven million years ago – including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster – with the earliest Homo sapiens (modern human) found in
The American Shorthair (ASH) is a breed of cat believed to be descended from European domestic cats brought to North America by early settlers to protect valuable cargo from mice and rats. According to the Cat Fancier's Association, during 2011, it was the 8th most popular breed of cat in the United States.
When settlers sailed from Europe to North America, they carried cats on board to protect the stores from mice. Many of these cats "settled" in the New World, interbred, and developed special characteristics to help them cope with their new life and climate. Early in the twentieth century, a selective breeding program was established to develop the best qualities of these cats. Both the American and the Domestic Shorthairs are called mousers because they caught mice on ships.
A very athletic cat, the American Shorthair has a larger, leaner, and more powerfully built body than its relation, the British Shorthair. It is also known as a "working cat."
American Shorthairs are a pedigreed cat with strict standards and a distinctive appearance, as set by the various Cat Fanciers' Associations worldwide.
Originally known as the Domestic Shorthair, the breed was renamed in 1966 as the
The Central Asian Ovcharka ( /ɒvˈtʃɑrkə/; Russian: среднеазиатская овчарка [srʲɪdnʲɪazʲɪˈatskəjə əfˈtʃarkə]) is recognized by FCI, as a Molossoid type dog breed of Russian origin. Most breed representatives reside in Russia, and local kennel club officials refer to Central Asians as one of the most popular dog breeds in the country, often rating it as the #1 breed.
Central Asians most likely originated in a geographical area between the Ural, Caspian Sea, Asia Minor, and the Northwest border of China. Aboriginal Central Asians as well as mixes still can be found in its countries of origin, such as Kyrgyzstan, Tadzhikistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan and surrounding countries. Some serve as livestock guardians, some protect their owners, and some are used for dog fighting, which is a national tradition in many countries of that region.
Russian biologists and scientists have studied the local dog population since the 18th century. After the Communist revolution, the Soviet government focused on working dog breeds for the Red Army, and imported the best breed representatives to Russia as per military dogs' and guard dogs' requirements. Over the decades, this
The Japanese Bobtail is a breed of domestic cat with an unusual "bobbed" tail more closely resembling the tail of a rabbit than that of other cats. The short tail is a body-type mutation caused by a recessive gene. The variety is native to Japan and Southeast Asia, though it is now found throughout the world. The breed has been known in Japan for centuries, and it frequently appears in traditional folklore and art.
As in most other breeds, Japanese Bobtails may have almost any color (or colors, arranged in any number of patterns). Predominantly-white calicoes (三毛, mi-ke, literally 'triple-hair') are especially favored by the Japanese and by cat fanciers, and strongly represented in folklore, though other colorations are also accepted by breed standards.
One theory of short-tailed cats in Japan indicates that they arrived from the Asian continent at least 1,000 years ago. In 1602, Japanese authorities decreed that all cats should be set free to help deal with rodents threatening the silk worms. At that time, buying or selling cats was illegal, and from then on, bobtailed cats lived on farms and in the streets. Japanese Bobtails thus became the "street cats" of Japan.
Around 1701, in
The Swedish Lapphund is a breed of dog of the Spitz type from Sweden, one of three Lapphund breeds developed from a type of dog used by the Sami people for herding and guarding their reindeer. The expression "the black beauty of Norrland" is very often attributed to the Swedish lapphund, which is most likely one of Sweden's oldest breeds. The Swedish name of the breed is Svensk lapphund.
The Swedish lapphund has its origins among the ancient hunting tribes of northern Scandinavia, from the land that the Sámi people call Sapmi.
One assumes that the lapphund followed the first Sámi, who migrated to Scandinavia in the neolithic era, about 9,000 BCE.
In Sámi mythology it is said that the lapphund sought the post of worker amongst the Sámi people in exchange that it would always be well-treated.
The lapphund has been used mainly for hunting and guarding, but studies have also shown that during the Stone Age, dogs were kept as pets. When the Sámi people started to keep domestic reindeer in the mid-18th century, the lapphund's repertoire was expanded to include herding.
Historians and archaeologists have long agreed that the Swedish lapphund has an ancient ancestry—a belief supported by
The Tamaskan Dog is a rare dog breed of sleddog type, originating from Finland. It is a highly versatile breed that can excel in agility, obedience and working trials. It is also capable of pulling sleds, which is inherited from its Siberian Husky and Alaskan Malamute ancestors. Morphologically, Tamaskans have been bred to look like wolves and have a notable lupine appearance. Although there are a little over 400 registered Tamaskan Dogs worldwide, increasing interest has resulted in their spread throughout continental Europe, the UK and the USA, as well as Canada and Australia.
Tamaskans are large, athletic dogs; slightly taller in size than German Shepherds. With regards to build, they are substantially larger than their Siberian Husky ancestors but smaller than the Alaskan Malamute. They resemble the grey wolves.
On average, Tamaskan adults measure around 24-28 inches (60–70 cm) tall at the shoulder and typically weigh between 55-88 pounds (25-40 kg)–the heaviest recorded Tamaskan males (to date) weigh just under 50 kg. Females are usually slightly smaller and lighter than males, with a distinct feminine appearance. Males are more heavyset with broader heads and a heavier bone
The Welsh Sheepdog is a breed or landrace of herding dog from Wales. (Welsh: Ci Defaid Cymreig, pronounced [kiː dɛˈvaɪd kəmˈrɛɨɡ].)
Like other types of working dog, Welsh Sheepdogs are normally bred for their herding abilities rather than appearance, and so they are generally somewhat variable in build, colour and size. Welsh Sheepdogs are of collie type, usually black-and-white, red-and-white or tricolour, and merle markings may occur over any of these combinations. The coat may be short or fairly long, and the ears are pricked, but usually folded at the tip. They are longer in leg, broader in chest and wider in muzzle than the Border Collie. They are extremely active and intelligent, and therefore need much exercise and mental stimulation, if they are to be kept as pets. Welsh Sheepdogs are more commonly known as Welsh Collies, however these are the same breed.
Over many decades the Welsh Sheepdog has been widely replaced in Wales for working sheep by the Border Collie, but in more recent years efforts have been made to maintain the indigenous Welsh Sheepdog as a distinct type.
Welsh Sheepdogs are usually of loose-eyed action, not fixing the stock with their gaze like the
The Alaskan husky is not a breed of dog rather it is a type or a category. It falls short of being a breed in that there is no preferred type of and no restriction as to ancestry; it is defined only by its purpose, which is that of a highly efficient sled dog. Specializations in type exist within the category, such as freighting dogs (Mackenzie River husky, Malamute), sprint Alaskans (Eurohound), and distance Alaskans. Most Alaskan Huskies have pointy ears and a tail that curls over their backs, meaning they are in fact classified as a spitz-type dog.The huskies life span is to 10 or 15 years.
The Alaskan is the sled dog of choice for world-class dog sled racing sprint competition. None of the purebred northern breeds can match it for sheer racing speed. Demanding speed-racing events such as the Fairbanks, Alaska Open North American Championship and the Anchorage Fur Rendezvous are invariably won by teams of Alaskan huskies, or of Alaskans crossed with hounds or gun dogs. Hounds are valued for their toughness and endurance. Winning speeds often average more than 19 miles per hour (31 km/h) over three days' racing at 20 to 30 miles (32 to 48 km) each day.
Alaskan huskies that
The Jämthund, also called the Swedish Elkhound, is a breed of dog of the Spitz type that are found in Northern Europe. The Jämthund is eponymous to Jämtland, a province in the middle of Sweden. The dog is described as having a wolf-like appearance.
The dog has a tightly curled or a scimitar-like curve in the tail. It has erect ears; medium to long muzzle; strong, long endurance; and has a double coat of usually two colours. The eyes are brown. The size of the male is usually between 57 and 65 centimetres (roughly 22 to 26 inches), weighing 30 to 35 kilograms (66 to 77 pounds). Females are usually between 52 to 60 centimetres (20 to 24 inches), weighing 25 to 30 kilograms (55 to 66 pounds).
Although calm and affectionate with its family, the Swedish Elkhound can be dominant with other dogs and has a strong prey drive. A truly all-around canine, it can go from a hunting trip and back to the family hearth with great aplomb. It takes things in stride and does not get ruffled easily, making it a steady partner in the field or at home.
The Swedish Elkhound is a happy learner who loves to please its owner.
As with most breeds developed for hunting, the Swedish Elkhound requires a lot of
The term Mackenzie River Husky describes several overlapping local populations of arctic and subarctic sleddog type dogs, none of which constitutes a breed. Most prominent and current of these are the sleddogs of Donna Dowling and others in the interior of Alaska. These dogs are described as standing 26 to 29 inches (66 to 74 cm) in height and weighing 63 to 104 pounds (29 to 47 kg). Usually long-coated, they are rangy, deep-chested and long-legged, built for heavy freighting in single file through deep snow. Their colors are the usual northern-dog range of black and white, shades of grey and sable, tan, or blonde.
Historically, the term has been variously applied to different dog populations in the Arctic and subarctic regions of Alaska and Canada. Dogs from Old Crow, Fort McPherson, Arctic Red River, Porcupine River, Hay River and Mackenzie River regions, although distinguished by locals, were collectively termed “Mackenzie River” dogs by outsiders; crosses of these local freighting huskies with large European breeds such as St. Bernards, Newfoundlands, or Staghounds were sometimes called “Mackenzie River Hounds,” giving rise to great confusion surrounding the name. Some
The Plummer Terrier is a working terrier, and like all working terriers, it is a composite animal.
The Plummer Terrier is mostly made out of Jack Russell Terrier, with a strong dash of Beagle (added for nose, voice and coat color), and Bull Terrier (added for toughness and head size). A red Fell Terrier was mixed in to improve the overall appearance.
After a long period of inbreeding and culling, obvious genetic problems were worked out of the breed (they are as healthy as any today), but a new problem worked its way in—today's dogs are sometimes too big for truly tight underground work. Perhaps that is not a problem if you are developing a dog just for ratting, which was Brian Plummer's passion, whom the terrier was named after That said, early dogs were smaller than today's dogs—a common problem in the world of working terriers.
The Plummer Terrier is a very attractive smooth-coated dog with a fiery red and white coat and head, a white collar at the neckline, or a full cape. The ears fold over like most terriers, and the nose and eye are typically black, and the jaw has a good scissors bite.
A generally game working dog, the Plummer Terrier is not a Kennel Club breed, and most
A rare working dog breed, the Seppala Siberian Sleddog is developed for the purpose of pulling a sled in cold country. It is a moderate-sized dog averaging 40 to 50 pounds (18 to 23 kg) weight and 22 or 23 inches (56 to 58 cm) height. Colours and markings are considered of little importance; eyes may be brown, blue or any combination of the two colours. Seppalas are active and energetic but very docile and trainable.
Seppalas show a primitive canine type, never having been bred or selected for beauty or for the show ring. The breed shares its ancestral base with the Siberian Husky and for half a century shared the same registry with that breed, but was bred always exclusively as a working sleddog breed in its own right and kept apart from show bloodlines. In the late 1990s, it was recognised by Canadian agricultural authorities as a new “evolving breed” and in 2002 a similar separate breed initiative was started in the USA.
Seppalas of today differ markedly from many other Siberian Husky bloodlines in physical appearance, being in general less flashily marked, longer in leg and body length, and lighter in weight and physical build than most Siberian Husky show dog lines.
The Brazilian Terrier, commonly called Fox Paulistinha, is a breed of dog developed in Brazil. It is one of several terriers probably descended from the combining of the Fox Terrier with other small breeds.
The Brazilian Terrier is one of the two native breeds of Brazil. Jack Russell Terriers were brought to Brazil from Europe in the 1800s and served as the nearest ancestor of the Brazilian Terrier. Breeds such as Miniature Pinschers and large Chihuahuas were also crossed with J.R. Terriers to develop this dog. It is said that this kind of breed is rarely found outside Brazil.
This terrier stands between 14-16 in (35.5-40.5 cm) at the withers. Its coat is always tri-color (white and tan with black). A docked tail, narrow chest, flat triangular skull and a well balanced body are the most common characteristics.
The temperament of this breed is very similar to a Jack Russell Terrier, very alert, perky, intelligent and alert. Very friendly, loves to play and dig holes. Spirited and obedient but fearless, as watchdogs they will only bark to get your attention and then leave the rest up to you. This breed needs a firm, consistent and confident pack leader, otherwise, they will become
The Burmese (Thai: ศุภลักษณ์ RTGS: Suphalak meaning fortunate, beautiful, and splendid appearance) is a breed of domesticated cats split into two subgroups: the American Burmese and the British Burmese (and are not to be confused with "Sacred Cat of Burma," in respect of which, see Birman). Most modern Burmese are descendants of one female cat called Wong Mau, which was brought from Burma to America in 1930. Most cat registries do not recognise a split between the two groups, but those that do formally refer to the type developed by British cat breeders as the European Burmese.
Originally, Burmese cats were exclusively dark brown (sable), but years of selective breeding have produced a wide variety of colours. Different associations have different rules about which of these count as Burmese. Burmese cats are known for being sociable and friendly with humans, as well as very intelligent. They are also very vocal, and often call to their owners.
The accepted eye colour for the breed is gold or yellow. The coat is known for being glossy, with a satin-like finish. As with most short-hairs, it requires no additional grooming. The shape of the British breed is more moderate but must not
A Cockapoo is a cross breed dog. It is the cross of an American Cocker Spaniel or English Cocker Spaniel and a poodle (in most cases a miniature poodle or toy poodle), or of two cockapoos.
A Cockapoo can be the result of mating either the American Cocker Spaniel or English Cocker Spaniel with a Poodle. They have been known in the United States since the 1950s. The earliest known dictionary reference was a 1960 OED citation.
Purebred breed associations such as The Kennel Club, the American Kennel Club, the United Kennel Club, or the Canadian Kennel Club, do not recognize the Cockapoo, or any other crossbreed.
Overall Cockapoos are usually healthy and happy dogs. As with a lot of smaller dogs they tend to be quite long-lived, and it's not unusual for cockapoos to live to 15 years or more.
However, both purebred poodles and cocker spaniels can suffer from luxating patellas (loose knees), and this can be passed on to their offspring. For this reason, an OFA (Orthopedic Foundation for Animals) exam is recommended to check for this problem before dogs are bred.
Purebred poodles and cocker spaniels can also suffer from a number of eye disorders, including progressive retinal atrophy
The Korean Jindo Dog (Hangul: 진돗개; Hanja: 珍島개) is a breed of hunting dog known to have originated on Jindo Island in South Korea. Brought to the US with Korean immigrants, it is celebrated in its native land for its fierce loyalty and brave nature. The Jindo breed became recognized by the United Kennel Club on January 1, 1998 and by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale in 2005.
Jindos are medium-sized, double-coated spitz-type dogs. Much as the Dingo developed in Australia, the Jindo Gae is the natural or feral dog of a particular island of Korea. Distinguishing the Jindo breed from mixes and other breeds is often done by close examination of cranial and facial features and by analyzing the proportion of the head to the body. In addition, the breed exhibits sexual dimorphism with females having more angular heads than males. The keen and alert appearance of the Jindo gives the impression of intelligence, strength, and agility. Their posture and build is similar to the akita. It also shares similar physical traits (e.g.: fully perked ears,smooth coat, etc.), though noticeably different in size.
Korean Jindo owners have traditionally divided Jindos into two body types:
The Austrian Black and Tan Hound is a breed of dog originating in Austria.
It is thought to be the true descendant of the original Celtic Hound, although there is no known history of the Austrian Black and Tan Hound until after the middle of the 19th century. This large sized hound was used for tracking wounded game, most commonly hare, in high altitudes.
Colouring in this breed is highly important; they must be black with small, clearly defined, light to dark fawn markings. Two fawn marks above the eyes must be present. The coat is smooth, dense and short (about 2 cm in length). The long tail is slightly bent and the ears are medium in length and lie flat with rounded tips. Males are 51 to 56 cm (20-22 inches), while females are 48 to 53 cm (19-21 inches). They weigh 15 to 22 kg (33-49 pounds).
It has a keen sense of smell. Its an elegant runner, used in all sorts of game. It has a lovely voice, and makes an great pet due to its good-natured personality. It is not a dog wanting to be in a city. A suitable home will be in a rural area where the dog will have lots of space to run unrestricted by a leash. It loves to work.
It needs daily exercise. The breed will only require a
The Berger Blanc Suisse (German: Weisser Schweizer Schäferhund, White Swiss Shepherd Dog) is a breed of dog from Switzerland. It is of the same origins as the White Shepherd Dog and the German Shepherd Dog, but has been recognized as a separate breed by the FCI.
On 3 April 1899, the first German Shepherd Dog as we know the breed today is officially registered. This dog was a completely white coated male, and was used by cattle and sheep herders at that time, they used this white dog to distinguish them from wolves.
The first ever registered German Shepherd was Horand Von Grafrath. Neither he nor any of his documented progeny were WHITE. Although his great-grand sire on his mother's side was white.
After the creation of the German Shepherd breed, all colours were accepted. It was in the first decades of the 20th century, when the white exemplaries were excluded, therefore persecuted and almost wiped out in Europe.
The first White Shepherd club was founded in the 1970s in America. Meanwhile the breed appeared again in Europe. At first in Switzerland and Denmark, Germany came next. Slowly, the European cynological societies began to open their stud books to the White Shepherd.
The White Shepherd Dog (previously called the White Canadian Shepherd) emerged from white coat lines of the German Shepherd Dog. The White Shepherd breed was officially recognized by the United Kennel Club on April 14, 1999. It was awarded provisional recognition as a breed by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale on November 26, 2002 as the Berger Blanc Suisse. Provisional was changed to official recognition on July 5, 2011 and the Berger Blanc Suisse breed is eligible for CACIB as of July 6, 2011. It is also sometimes called a White Swiss Shepherd.
In German Shepherd Dogs the recessive gene for white coat hair was cast in the breed gene pool by the late 19th and early 20th century breeding program that developed and expanded the German Shepherd Dog breed in Germany. A white herding dog named Greif was the grandfather of Horand von Grafrath, the dog acknowledged as the foundation of all contemporary German Shepherd Dog bloodlines.
Information provided in early books on the German Shepherd Dog make mention of Greif and other white German herding dogs, with upright ears and a general body description that resembles modern German Shepherd Dogs, shown in Europe as early as 1882.
The Pomeranian (often known as a Pom or Pom Pom) is a breed of dog of the Spitz type, named for the Pomerania region in Central Europe (today part of northern Poland and eastern Germany). Classed as a toy dog breed because of its small size, the Pomeranian is descended from the larger Spitz type dogs, specifically the German Spitz. It has been determined by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale to be part of the German Spitz breed, and in many countries, they are known as the Zwergspitz (Dwarf Spitz).
The breed has been made popular by a number of royal owners since the 17th century. Queen Victoria owned a particularly small Pomeranian and consequently the smaller variety became universally popular. During Queen Victoria's lifetime alone, the size of the breed decreased by 50%. Overall, the Pomeranian is a sturdy, healthy dog. The most common health issue is Luxating patella. Tracheal collapse can also be an issue. More rarely, the breed can suffer from a skin condition colloquially known as "black skin disease", or alopecia ex. This is a genetic disease which causes the dog's skin to turn black and lose all or most of its hair. The breed is currently among the top 15 most
The Toy Fox Terrier is a small terrier breed of dog, directly descended from the larger Fox Terrier but considered a separate breed.
Toy Fox Terriers are small dogs with a muscular and athletic appearance. Notable characteristic traits include a short glossy and predominantly white coat, coupled with a predominantly solid head, and a short, high-set tail. The breed has been deemed elegant and graceful with V-shaped ears and large eyes. The tail can be short and straight or long and shiny, and breeders often shorten the tail a few days after birth by clipping it about three-fifth of the way from the tip (at the third or fourth joint). The coat is short, fine, and glossy in black with tan, with areas of tan on the face; there are two other variants, one with 'chocolate' replacing the black in areas (the UKC does not allow this variant to be shown), and another which is all white and tan with no black at all. These variants are often known as 'Tri-Color', 'Chocolate', and 'Tan and White', respectively. The height ranges from 8.5–11.5 inches at the shoulder (21.5–29.2 cm) and weight from 3.5-9 pounds. They are in many ways similar to the Miniature Fox Terrier.
Toy Fox Terriers, like
The Alaunt is an extinct breed of dog. A number of modern dog breeds are believed directly descended from the Alaunt. The original Alaunt is thought to have resembled a Caucasian Shepherd Dog. They were large, short coated dogs of varying type. The Alaunt was bred by the Alani tribes, the nomads of Indo-European Sarmatian ancestry who spoke an Indo-Iranian language. The Alans were known as superb warriors, herdsmen, and breeders of horses and dogs. The Alans bred their dogs for work and had developed different strains within the breed for specific duties.
As far as is known, the Alaunt's primary ancestors are working dogs such as the Armenian Gampr dog, the Sarmatian Mastiff from the Caucasus and the Alabai from Central Asia, but also the shorthaired hounds of South Asia, Persia, and Europe. However, the Ayran Flock Guardian or Sage Koochi steppe type that descends from the steppes of Asia, brought by the steppe nomads, used to domesticate the horse, control and defend large livestock far predates these breeds in working type, giving evidence of the genetic template of the Alaunt. The steppe nomads, including the Kurgan culture, introduced the use of the horse and chariot, as well
The Italian Greyhound is a small breed of dog of the sight hound type, sometimes called an "I.G.", .
The Italian Greyhound is the smallest of the sighthounds, typically weighing about 8 to 18 lb (3.6 to 8.2 kg) and standing about 13 to 15 inches (33 to 38 cm) tall at the withers. Though they are in the "toy" group based on their weight, they are larger than other dogs in the category due to their slender bodies, so owners must be careful when sizing clothing or accommodations.
The Italian Greyhound's chest is deep, with a tucked up abdomen, long slender legs and a long neck that tapers down to a small head. The face is long and pointed, like a full sized greyhound. Overall, they look like "miniature" Greyhounds, though many Italian Greyhound owners dispute the use of the term "miniature Greyhound", in reference to the breed itself. By definition of the American Kennel Club - they are true genetic greyhounds, with a bloodline extending back over 2000 years. Their current small stature is a function of selective breeding. Their gait is distinctive and should be high stepping and free, rather like that of a horse. They are able to run at top speed with a double suspension gallop, and
The Karakachan is a breed of dog that originated in Bulgaria as a mountain livestock guardian dog. Other names are Bulgarian Shepherd and Thracian Mollos. The dog is named after the Karakachans, Balkan Greek nomadic shepherds. Due to their conservative stock-breeding traditions, they have preserved some of the oldest breeds of domestic animals in Europe: the Karakachan sheep, Karakachan horse and the Karakachan dog.
In the past, this Mountain dog was widely used in Bulgaria as a border army watchdog. Nowadays it is used primarily as a livestock guardian dog and property guard dog. The most numerous populations of working purebred livestock guarding Karakachan dogs are found in Bulgaria and the United States. The Karakachan was officially approved as a Bulgarian old native breed in 2005. The Karakachan dog may be a descendant of ancient Balkan domestic dogs, possibly since the time of the Thracians. In ancient Thracian treasures, figures were found of big, longhaired guardian dogs with curled tails. The Karachan is part of the origin of the Bulgarian Shepherd dog, with which it should not be confused.
The official breed standard was written in 1991 and approved in 2005 by the State
The Non-Sporting Group of dogs is a kennel club dog breed Group designation. How Non-Sporting is defined varies among kennel clubs, and different kennel clubs may not include the same breeds in their Non-Sporting Group. Some kennel clubs do not use the Non-Sporting classification. Non-Sporting Group is not a term used by the international kennel club association, the Fédération Cynologique Internationale, which more finely divides its breed groupings by dog type and breed history.
For the American Kennel Club and the Canadian Kennel Club, the Non-Sporting Group is a diverse classification. Here are sturdy animals with as different personalities and appearances as the Chow Chow, and Keeshond. The breeds in the Non-Sporting Group are a varied collection in terms of size, coat, personality and overall appearance.
The Canadian Kennel Club recognizes most of the same breeds as the American Kennel Club as Non-Sporting, with a few exceptions.
A Pudelpointer is a versatile hunting dog breed from Germany. They are a pointing breed that came from a cross between the German hunting poodle (pudel) and the English Pointer.
The breed weighs between 44 and 66 pounds (20 and 30 kg), stands 21 to 26 inches (53 to 66 cm) at the shoulder, and comes in liver, chestnut, and occasionally black coats. The ideal coat is harsh, wiry, and dense. They also shed very little.
In 1881, a German breeder, Baron von Zedlitz, worked on producing his ideal tracking, pointing, and retrieving gun dog, suitable for work on both land and water. From seven specific Poodles and nearly 100 different pointers, he developed the Pudelpointer. The original sire was Tell, an English Pointer belonging to Kaiser Frederick III and the original dam was a German hunting pudel named Molly who was owned by Hegewald, an author known for works on hunting dogs.
The goal was to produce a dog that was willing and easy to train, intelligent, and loved water and retrieving, like the poodle, and add to that a great desire to hunt, a strong pointing instinct, and an excellent nose, like in the English Pointer, as well as being an excellent companion in the home.
A schnauzer ( /ˈʃnaʊzər/) (German: [ˈʃnaʊtsɐ], plural schnauzer) is a dog breed that originated in Germany in the 15th and 16th centuries. The term comes from the German word for "mustache", because of the dog's distinctively bearded snout. Some authorities, such as Encyclopædia Britannica, also claim that the name is derived from the word's secondary meaning of "moustache". Although the schnauzer is considered a terrier-type dog, they do not have the typical terrier temperament.
The schnauzer type consists of three breeds: the giant, standard, miniature. Toy and teacup are not breeds of schnauzer, but these common terms are used to market undersized or ill-bred miniature schnauzers. The original schnauzer was of the same size as the modern Standard Schnauzer breed, and was bred as a rat catcher, yard dog and guard dog. The Miniature Schnauzer is the result of crossing the original schnauzer with breeds including the poodle and the affenpinscher.
Miniature Schnauzers are around 1 ft (30 cm) tall at the shoulder and weigh between 14 and 20 lb (6.4 and 9.1 kg) They have high energy levels and are very intelligent dogs. The American Kennel Club (AKC) approves salt and pepper, black,
The Akbash Dog (from Turkish: Akbaş, literally "white head" ) is native to western Turkey in the region known as the Akbaş, and it is primarily used as a livestock guardian dog.
The Akbash Dog is thought to be a Turkish version of white livestock guardian breed similar to those found in and around the northern Mediterranean Basin. The Akbash Dog has its unique combination of molosser and sighthound qualities.
This breed was developed at least 3,000 years ago. Their white color distinguishes them from predators.
Archeological evidence suggests that the earliest civilizations arose in the parts of the world currently occupied by Turkey 10,000 years ago and began to domesticate animals and cultivate (or domesticate) plants. In short order there would have been a need for livestock protection dogs to care for the livestock.
The other white breeds of livestock protection dogs from around the world include, but may not be limited to:
The Akbash is a large dog, weighing from 75 to 140 pounds (34 to 64 kg), averaging 90 pounds for the female, and 120 pounds for the male. Akbash dogs range from about 27 to 34 inches (69 to 86 cm) tall. The Akbash is leaner than other Turkish livestock
The Combai is a bear hound found in the south of India.
The Combai is usually tan or red brown with a black mask, and with a dark line along the back. The chief differences between the Rajapalayam and the Combai breeds are that the Combai has more powerful jaws, often with a black mouth, much more pendent ears, a more savage temper, and a tendency to be much more active than the rajapalayam. It is also slightly shorter than the Rajapalayam, but appears heavier because of its powerful build. Their coats are easily maintainable, and are less prone to skin disorders, fungal and yeast infections, and parasite infestation. The breed, having evolved naturally many centuries ago, is more immune to most diseases compared to the human-designed breeds.
As a guard dog, the Combai is superior to the Rajapalayam. The Combai were used for hunting and keeping watch. Nowadays, these are mostly used as guard dogs in farm houses. Years ago they were used to guard people's cattle from tigers and leopards. A Combai is as intelligent and sensible a family dog as a German shepherd, and as ferocious as Rottweiler to intruders. It is an athletic and intelligent breed. Against the popular belief of its
Dansk/svensk gårdshund (Danish–Swedish Farmdog) is a breed of dog that has its origin in Denmark and southern Sweden, but now has become popular all over Scandinavia. DSF is an old native breed which historically lived on farms in the eastern part of Denmark and southernmost part of Sweden (ie on both sides of Öresund, the strait that separates Sweden and Denmark), serving as a farmdog, guarding their people, farmed animals and the farm itself from strangers and intruders, catching rats and as a hunting dog. There are some indications that the breed originates from the Pinscher breeds and the British white hunting terriers. DSF has a soft and gentle temperament, but still has the strength to guard its family.
The Danish–Swedish Farmdog became a recognized breed in Denmark and Sweden in 1987. At that time, the two countries got together and agreed on the name of the breed. The DSF was used as a working dog on farms for many hundreds of years. As it has always been a breed that has worked on farms, the name was only a natural extension of the breed's job (before becoming a recognized breed it was known under the local name "rottehund", "rat dog").
The FCI standard says that a DSF
The Olde English Bulldogge is a purebred breed of dog. It is a re-creation of the bull-baiting dog that existed in England during the English Regency period of 1811-1820.
The Olde English Bulldogge is a muscular, medium sized dog of great strength, stability and athleticism. It is well balanced and proportioned with no exaggerated features. It has the appearance of a dog capable of doing its original job of bull baiting. Excessive height would have been detrimental for the old working bulldog as it had to “play low” to avoid the bull’s horns and fasten onto its nose. A heavyweight dog would also have been at a disadvantage, as the bull 's nose would have been likely to rip sending the dog flying.
The disposition of the Olde English Bulldogge is confident, courageous and alert. Olde English Bulldogges are very friendly and loving. They are extremely strong so socialization and obedience training are important. It is best to channel high energy dogs to some type of work and exercise.
Several of the breed's main attributes from the recently revised breed standard of the Olde English Bulldogge, written (August 2007) by the Olde English Bulldogge Kennel Club and Leavitt Bulldog
The pug is a toy dog with a wrinkly, short-muzzled face, and curled tail. The breed has a fine, glossy coat that comes in a variety of colors, and a compact square body with well-developed muscle. They have been described as multum in parvo ("much in little"), referring to the pug's personality and small size. Known in ancient China as lo-sze, they may have been responsible for the English Bulldog, the modern Pekingese and King Charles spaniel. They have Chinese origins, but were popularized in Western Europe by the House of Orange of the Netherlands and the House of Stuart of England, Ireland and Scotland.
They can suffer from a variety of health issues, including overheating, obesity, pharyngeal reflex and two fatal conditions which are necrotizing meningoencephalitis and hemivertebrae. In addition, care must be taken by their owner to clean their ears, and the folds of skin on their face.
The breed is often summarized as multum in parvo ("much in little"), describing the pug's remarkable personality despite its small size. While the pugs appearing in eighteenth century prints tended to be long and lean, modern breed preferences are for a square, cobby body, a compact form, a
The Serbian Hound (Serbian: Српски гонич / Srpski gonič), previously known as the Balkan Hound (Балкански гонич / Balkanski gonič), is a pack hunting dog breed used in Serbia. It is red or tan with a black saddle, neck and cranium and red or tan face. Its head is flat and sloping, its muzzle pointed, with drop ears of the usual scent hound type. The Balkan Hound stands 17 to 21 inches (44–56 cm) in height and weighs about 44 pounds (20 kg). It is smooth-coated and coarse-haired. Described as pleasant natured and obedient, the breed is thought to descend from dogs left in the Balkan region by the Phoenicians in ancient times.
The FCI changed its official designation of this breed to the Serbian Hound in 1996.
The Serbian Hound is a very kind breed of dog, forming bonds with its family and owners. It is a lively breed and loves to walk and play with loved ones. The Serbian Hound is a very good worker with a tenacious nature that will not let it give up until it finds its quarry.
The Serbian Hound is one of a group of scent hounds that spread throughout the Balkans. The first record of the Balkan Hound comes from the 11th century where a man called Frank Laska described the breed in
A Cornish Rex is a breed of domestic cat. The Cornish Rex has no hair except for down. Most breeds of cat have three different types of hair in their coats: the outer fur or "guard hairs", which is about 5 cm long in shorthairs and 10cm+ long in longhairs; a middle layer called the "awn hair"; and the down hair or undercoat, which is very fine and about 1 cm long. Cornish Rexes only have the undercoat. The curl in Cornish Rex fur is caused by a different mutation and gene than that of the Devon Rex. It originates from Cornwall, England.
The coat of a Cornish Rex is extremely fine and sometimes curly, the softest of any cat breed. However, their light coat means that they are best suited for indoor living in warm and dry conditions, as they might get hypothermia if they stay outdoors in the winter. Their body temperature of 39 °C (102 °F) is slightly higher than that of most cats, with Cornish Rexes tending to hang around warm places such as computer monitors, light bulbs, laps and shoulders. Some Cornish Rexes also have a mild cheesy smell peculiar to the breed; this odor comes from scent glands in the paws.
Often the breed is referred to as the Greyhound of the cats (source:
The Russian Spaniel is a type of spaniel first standardised in 1951 in the Soviet Union after World War II by cross breeding English Cocker Spaniels, English Springer Spaniels and other spaniel breeds. Physically it is similar to a Cocker Spaniel, but has a shorter, tighter coat and a longer body. Developed and used as hunting dogs, this breed does not suffer from any major health complaints other than those normally associated with spaniels. Popular in its native Russia, the breed was only introduced overseas in the 1990s, and is not yet recognised by any major kennel clubs.
The Russian Spaniel is a small, sturdy dog with a short, tight, silky coat with feathering on the ears and legs. Colors can vary greatly, and can include solid colors without white markings, piebald, speckled, black and tan, and combinations. The head and ears are also usually dark.
The Russian Spaniel resembles the English Cocker Spaniel, with a body similar to the field lines of that breed though with the longer ears of the show line. The body of the Russian Spaniel tends to be longer than that of the English Cocker however, and the breed has only one line rather than being split into separate specific show
The Berger Picard (pronounced 'Bare-ZHAY Pee-CARR') or Picardy Shepherd is a French breed of dog of the herding group of breeds. These dogs nearly became extinct after both World War I and World War II and remain a rare breed to this day. This breed of dog is people-oriented, loyal, and can make a good family pet if properly socialized early in life. The producers of the 2005 American movie Because of Winn-Dixie brought five Picards over from Europe ("Scott", "Laiko" and "Tasha" performed in the movie). The trainer wanted a dog that resembled the scruffy mutt on the original book's cover but needed several that looked alike so that production could continue smoothly, thus he decided on this rare purebred dog from France. It is this breed's rustic mutt-like appearance that has prevented it from being rapidly popularized and exploited in the United States by the movie release, as has been the fate of some other breeds. People are often fooled into thinking "Winn-Dixie" is a mixed breed. Like any breed of dog, the Picardy Shepherd is not for everyone, and much thought must be devoted to choosing the right dog. As more Picard puppies are imported into the U.S. from France and other
The Tornjak is a mountain sheep dog native to Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia. FCI #355 as bosnian-croatian sheep dog Tornjak.
Tornjaks are large and powerful dogs, with well proportioned, almost square bodied features and agile movements. The dog's bones are not light, but nevertheless not heavy nor coarse. They have long and thick double coat which a thick undercoat. The bodies of these dogs are strong and well built, with harmonious and dignified movements. The dogs have long and thick hair and this adequately protects the animals against poor weather conditions. The dogs typically possess shaggy tails, kept high like a flag. Tornjaks have a clear, self-confident, serious and calm disposition. In general the Tornjak is a long coated dog with short hair over the face and legs. The topcoat is long, thick, coarse and straight. It is specially long on the upper part of the croup, over the shoulders and the back it can be slightly wavy. On the muzzle and the forehead, up to the imaginary line connecting the ears, over the ears and on the front parts of legs and feet it is short. It is especially abundant around the neck (mane), dense and long over the upper thighs (breeches). It
Bull and Terrier is a breed of dog.
The Bull and Terrier is a cross between the Old English Bulldog and a variety of Terriers. The anatomy of the Bull and Terrier is the result of selective breeding for the purpose of hunting, dog fighting and baiting.
Most terriers, of the past and present, carried or carry a quarter to an eighth Old English Bulldog blood in them in order, allegedly, to give courage to bear the bites of the prey they are meant to attack. Terriers who were not developed from crosses between the Old English Bulldog and earth-working dogs were of inferior quality and were valued far less.
There are earth-working dogs who by default and definition are called terriers because they have the ability to go to ground; however, the best earth-working and hunting terriers are the progeny of bulldogs bred to earth-working dogs (terriers), also known as the 'Bull-Terrier' or 'half-bred' dog.
John Henry Walsh wrote in 'The dog, in health and disease, by Stonehenge' (1859):
The terrier as used for hunting is a strong useful little dog, with great endurance and courage, and with nearly as good a nose as the Beagle or Harrier. From his superior courage when crossed with the
The Devon Rex is a breed of intelligent, short-haired cat that emerged in England during the 1960s. They are known for their slender bodies, wavy coat, and large ears. These cats are able to be taught tough tricks.
The Devon Rex is a breed of cat with a curly, very soft short coat similar to that of the Cornish Rex. They are often associated with being one of the most hypo-allergenic cats available because of their type of coat.
The first Devon was discovered by Beryl Cox in Buckfastleigh, Devon, UK in 1960 amongst a litter of kittens near a disused tin mine. The breed was initially thought to be linked with the Cornish Rex; however, test mating proved otherwise. Cats have three types of hair: guard hair, awn hair, and down hair. The Devon Rex's coat is unusual because there is little guard hair (see Cornish Rex and Sphynx for more information on hair-deficient genetics in cats).
The curl in Devon Rex fur is caused by a different mutation and gene than that of the Cornish Rex and German Rex, and breeding of a Devon with either of those cats results in cats without rexed (curled) fur. Devons, which are medium sized cats, are often called "pixie cats" or "alien cats" because of their
The Drentsche Patrijshond is a versatile spaniel-type hunting dog from the Dutch province of Drenthe. Called the Dutch Partridge Dog (or "Drent" for Drenthe) in English, approximately 5,000 dogs are registered with the breed club in the Netherlands, and breed clubs operate in Belgium, Denmark, Scandinavia and North America. The Drentsche Patrijshond bears some resemblance to both spaniel and setter types of dog. An excellent pointer and retriever, this dog is often used to hunt fowl and adapts equally well to the field or marshes.
Valid color is white with brown or orange markings. Mostly white with large brown plates (spots.) There is usually one plate that covers the backside above the tail. A mantle (large marking across the back) is permissible, but generally less desired. The coat is medium long, with feathers on the leg and longer hair on the front of the chest, giving the impression of a longer haired coat. The Drentsche Patrijshond is 55 to 63 cm (22 to 25 in). at the withers.
The origins of the Drentsche Patrijshond are in the 16th century, from the Spioenen (or Spanjoelen) which came to the Netherlands through France from Spain, and is related to the Small Münsterländer
The Kangal Dog is regarded as the national breed of Turkey, originating from the Kangal district in Sivas Province. The Kangal, which weighs 100–175 lbs (45–80 kg) fully grown, was originally used as a livestock guardian dog. It is of an early mastiff type with a solid, pale tan or sabled coat, and with a black mask.
While the Kangal is often referred to as a sheep dog, it is not a herding dog, but rather a flock guardian that lives with the flock of sheep to actively fend off wolves, bears and jackals. The Sivas Kangal Dog's protectiveness, loyalty and gentleness with small children and animals has led to its growing popularity as a guardian for families as well, as it regards people as its "flock" and guards them with extreme devotion.
At maturity, at least two years old, Kangals measure at the withers, from 75-90cm for males and 65-80cm for females. A male Kangal Dog in good condition should weigh between 55 and 80kg, with a record of 91kg for a big male. A female should weigh between 41 and 55kg . The Kangal Dog is not as heavy as some other mastiff breeds, allowing it greater speed and agility than larger dogs. Kangal dogs can reach speeds of up to 50 km (30 miles) per
Mexico (/ˈmɛksɨkoʊ/; Spanish: México, IPA: [ˈmexiko] ( listen)), officially the United Mexican States (Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos (help·info)), is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States of America; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost two million square kilometres (over 760,000 sq mi), Mexico is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the thirteenth largest independent nation in the world. With an estimated population of over 113 million, it is the world's eleventh most populous country and the most populous Spanish-speaking country. Mexico is a federation comprising thirty-one states and a Federal District, the capital city.
In pre-Columbian Mexico many cultures matured into advanced civilizations such as the Olmec, the Toltec, the Teotihuacan, the Zapotec, the Maya and the Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, Spain conquered and colonized the territory from its base in México-Tenochtitlan, which was administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain. This
The Pandikona is a primitive-type hunting dog from Pattikonda taluk-Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh state, India. "Pandikona" is a medium size sight hound which is adapted to harsh climatic conditions of Kurnool district. This breed is associated with shepherd families of that region. PandiKona dogs need very little care.
The Pandikona shows wide variations in size as the local breeders never chain their dogs and are not given to selective breeding. The dogs are always left untied and can range from 20-26 inches (males) and 19-24 inches (females).
The breed is essentially short-haired with colours varying from solid fawn, shades of cream, white to black with white patches. All colours are seen with brindle being the rarest.
The Pandikona has an exceptional instinct for guarding and hunting. They are fearless and show a surprising instinct even as puppies of being territorial. They are very faithful and good with children though not overly playful. They are used for hunting wild boar, hare and even rabbits. They are also known to kill snakes and rodents.
Bitches are known to come into heat twice a year and litter sizes range from generally 4-7 puppies. In the native village
The Šarplaninac or Šarplaninec (in Macedonian: Шарпланинец; Serbian Cyrillic: Шарпланинац, literal translation: [Dog] of the Šar Mountains or Šar Mountain Dog, also known as Sharplaninac/Sharplaninec or Yugoslav Shepherd Dog-Šarplanina) is a dog breed of the livestock guardian type originally from Serbia and Macedonia.
The Šarplaninac is a large, strongly built dog. The body is slightly longer than the height at the withers, and the front legs account for approximately 55% of the height. The head is large but proportional to the body, with dark eyes.
The Šarplaninac is a robust, well proportioned dog with plenty of bone, of a size that is well above the average and with a thick, long, rather coarse coat that emphasizes the short coupled appearance. They are about 38–55 kg and 70 to 82 cm. Although much larger dogs do exist which can reach up to 80 kg - most of these "giants" are probably of mixed breed origins and probably not pure.
The coat is dense, about 4 inches (10 cm) in length, and can be rough or smooth.
All Šarplaninac are solid in colour: fawn, iron grey, white or almost black; usually sable or gray with darker "overalls" on the head and back, the undercoat being paler.
The Welsh corgi ( /ˈkɔrɡi/) is a small type of herding dog that originated in Wales. Two distinct breeds are recognized: the Pembroke Welsh corgi and the Cardigan Welsh corgi, with the Pembroke being the more common.
There are two breeds of Welsh corgis, the Cardigan and the Pembroke, each named for the counties in Wales where they originated. The difference between the two breeds include bone structure, body length, and size.
Cardigans are the larger of the two breeds, with large rounded ears and a foxy, flowing long 12 inch tails of length set in line with the body. Most people have this cut off right after the dogs are old enough. Though it is allowed more colours than the Pembroke, white should not predominate the coat. The Cardigan is a double-coated dog where the outer coat is dense, slightly harsh in texture, and of medium length. The dog's undercoat is short, soft, and thick. The breed stands about 12 inches (30 cm) at the shoulder and weighs about 30 pounds (14 kg). The Cardigan is sturdy, tough, mobile, alert, active, intelligent, steady, and neither shy nor aggressive.
Pembrokes feature pointed ears and are somewhat smaller in stature than the Cardigan. Considered a
The American Hairless Terrier is a breed of dog that was formerly considered a variant of Rat Terrier. As of January 1, 2004, the United Kennel Club deemed the AHT a separate terrier breed. An intelligent, social and energetic working breed, the American Hairless Terrier is often listed as a potential good breed choice for allergy sufferers.
The American Hairless Terrier's American ancestry begins with the mixed breed terriers called Feists brought from Europe to the North America as early as the 18th century. In the late 1800s the Rat Terrier breed was developed from the Feist by the addition of Beagle, Italian Greyhound and Miniature Pinscher bloodlines.
The distinct American Hairless Terrier breed began in 1972 when one hairless puppy appeared in a Rat Terrier litter in the state of Louisiana, United States. Owners Edwin and Willie Scott liked the dog's look and temperament, and upon maturity bred her hoping to reproduce the hairless quality. They were eventually successful; a litter produced in 1981 provided the foundation stock of the breed.
In 1998 the breed gained recognition as the American Hairless Terrier by the American Rare Breeds Association and the National Rat
A domestic short-haired cat is a cat of mixed ancestry – thus not belonging to any particular recognised cat breed – possessing a coat of short fur. In the cat fancy, such cats are designated Domestic Shorthair (DSH), a pseudo-breed, for registry classification purposes (uncommonly, some such cats are actually pedigreed). In British English, they are often referred to as moggies. Domestic short-haired cats should not be confused with the British Shorthair, American Shorthair or other breeds with "Shorthair" names, which are breeds recognised by various registries.
Domestic short-haired cats are characterised by a wide range of colouring and typically "revert to type" after a few generations, which means they express their coats as a tabby cat. This can be any colour or combination of colours. They also exhibit a wide range of physical characteristics and, as a result, domestic short-haired cats in different countries tend to look different in body shape and size, as they are working from differing gene pools. DSH cats in Asia tend to have a build similar to a purebred Siamese cat or Tonkinese cat, while European and American varieties have a thicker, heavier build. DSH cats have a
The Beagle Harrier is a scenthound. It is a breed of dog originating from France.
The Beagle Harrier appears to be either a larger Beagle or a smaller Harrier. It is a medium sized dog, between 45 and 50 centimeters (18 to 20 inches) tall at the withers, and it weighs between 19 and 21 kilograms (42 to 46 pounds). Its coat is usually tricolor, featuring the colors fawn, black, tan, or white. Grey coated (tricolor) Beagle Harriers may also be found due to there being grey coated Harriers. The Beagle-Harrier's body is usually muscular and its coat smooth and thick.,
The Beagle Harrier is generally good with children and other pets. They are loyal, have lots of determination and are calm and relaxed when at home, making them a good family pet. They are a hunting breed and so require a lot of exercise and space.
The Beagle Harrier is generally very healthy and has a life span of 12 to 13 years. Hip dysplasia could cause a problem.
Beagle Harriers were bred in France in the 19th century by Baron Gerard. Hunting. Retrieved 5 March 2007. The Beagle Harrier could be a mixture of the two breeds, the Beagle and the Harrier,or the midpoint in breeding between the two breeds. It was
The Polish Greyhound (Polish: Chart Polski, pronounced HEART POLL-ski) is a Polish sighthound breed. It is known as the Polish Greyhound, although it is not a direct relative of the Greyhound dog.
Polish Greyhounds have a short, smooth fur that comes in many colors. The coat is somewhat heavier than a Greyhound's. They have an undercoat that gets thicker in the winter. Polish Greyhounds have a longer brush on the tail and have culottes at the rear of the thighs. The average Polish Greyhound weighs about 65–95 pounds, and ranges from 27–32 inches tall. The Chart Polski has a smooth double coat, regardless of season, which is harsh to the touch while offering excellent insulation.This Regal canine, is not actually a Greyhound, rather a different breed on its own. While it may seem similar in looks, the Chart Polski standard deems that this dog is much stronger, and less slight, or thin. This is a persistent hunter, with a long muscular neck, unlike the greyhound, and the head is carried high. Large almond eyes are set in a slant, and the points of the hip bones are wide apart. The hind legs move closer together when the dog is moving at a short trot: this is called "lacing".
The Collie is not a specific breed but is a distinctive type of herding dog, including many related landraces and formal breeds. It originates in Scotland and Northern England. It is a medium-sized, fairly lightly built dog with a pointed snout, and many types have a distinctive white pattern over the shoulders. Collies are very active and agile, and most types have a very strong herding instinct. The collie type has spread through many parts of the world (especially Australia and North America) and has diversified into many varieties, sometimes with mixture from other dog types. Some of the collie types have remained as working dogs, used for herding cattle, sheep and other livestock, while others are kept as pets, show dogs or for dog sports, in which they display great agility, stamina and trainability.
Common use of the name "Collie" in some areas is limited largely to certain breeds – such as to the Rough Collie in parts of the United States, or to the Border Collie in many rural parts of Great Britain. Many collie types do not actually include "collie" in their name.
The exact origin of the name "Collie" is uncertain, although it may derive from the Scots word for "coal" –
The Glen of Imaal Terrier is a breed of dog of the terrier category and one of four Irish terrier breeds. It is sometimes called the Irish Glen of Imaal Terrier or the Wicklow Terrier, and the name of the breed is often shortened by fanciers to just Glen.
The breed originates in the Glen of Imaal in County Wicklow, Ireland. The breed was recognized first by the Irish Kennel Club in 1934 and most recently by the American Kennel Club in 2004.
The breed came into existence during the reign of Elizabeth I, who hired French and Hessian mercenaries to put down civil unrest in Ireland. After the conflict, many of these soldiers settled in the Wicklow area. They brought with them their low-slung hounds, which they bred with the local terrier stock, eventually resulting in a distinctive breed found only in the Glen of Imaal. Some say that the breed is related to the Soft-Coated Wheaten Terrier, another Irish terrier breed.
The Glen of Imaal Terrier was developed as a general working dog for herding and for eradicating vermin such as fox, badger, and otter. When hunting, Glens work "mute to ground," silently digging out their quarry, as they are a strong dog and not a sounding
Italy /ˈɪtəli/ (Italian: Italia [iˈtaːlja]), officially the Italian Republic (Italian: Repubblica italiana), is a unitary parliamentary republic in Southern Europe. To the north, it borders France, Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia along the Alps. To the south, it consists of the entirety of the Italian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia–the two largest islands in the Mediterranean Sea–and many other smaller islands. The independent states of San Marino and the Vatican City are enclaves within Italy, while Campione d'Italia is an Italian exclave in Switzerland. The territory of Italy covers some 301,338 km (116,347 sq mi) and is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. With 60.8 million inhabitants, it is the fifth most populous country in Europe, and the 23rd most populous in the world.
Rome, the capital of Italy, has for centuries been a political and religious centre of Western civilisation as the capital of the Roman Empire and site of the Holy See. After the decline of the Roman Empire, Italy endured numerous invasions by foreign peoples, from Germanic tribes such as the Lombards and Ostrogoths, to the Byzantines and later, the Normans, among others. Centuries later, Italy became
The Kishu (紀州犬, Kishū-inu), sometimes called Kishu Ken or Kishu Inu, is a Japanese breed of dog, developed there for thousands of years. It is descended from ancient medium-sized breeds and named after the Kishu region, now Wakayama Prefecture. This breed is similar to the Akita Inu and the Shiba Inu but predates both breeds. Sometimes it is mistaken for the white variant of Hokkaido or a white Japanese Spitz because of very similar appearance. The Japanese originally used this breed of dog for boar and deer hunting. Like the Shiba, they are often quiet. Kishu will stalk prey quietly rather than bark.
The Kishu stands 17-22 inches tall, averages 30-60 pounds and is considered a medium sized dog. The coat color is generally white. There are still occasional brindle or red Kishus in Japan, but the preferred coat color, and the only one seen in show dogs, is white. The nose color is primarily black, but with the white coat the nose can be brownish or pink in color. The bite is either scissor or a level bite. The tail is curled over the back like that of an Akita or Shiba Inu. The coat is short, straight, and coarse with a thick undercoat. There is fringe on the cheeks and tail. The
The Staffordshire Bull Terrier (informally: Staffie, Stafford, Staffy or Staff) is a medium-sized, short-coated breed of dog. It is an English dog, the fifth most popular breed, and related to the bull terrier. Descended from dog-fighting ancestors, it is muscular and loyal. It is the subject of breed specific legislation in some jurisdictions.
The Staffordshire Bull Terrier is a medium-sized, stocky, and very muscular dog, with a similar appearance to the American Staffordshire terrier and American pit bull terrier. It has a broad head (male considerably more so than female), defined occipital muscles, a relatively short foreface, dark round eyes and a wide mouth with a clean scissor-like bite (the top incisors slightly overlap the bottom incisors). The ears are small. The cheek muscles are very pronounced. The lips show no looseness. From above, the head loosely resembles a triangle. The head tapers down to a strong well-muscled neck and shoulders placed on squarely spaced forelimbs. They are tucked up in their loins and the last 1-2 ribs of the ribcage are usually visible. The tail resembles an old fashioned pump handle. The hind quarters are well-muscled and are what give the
The Foundation Stock Service (FSS) Program is a breed registry of the American Kennel Club in which breeders can record the birth and parentage of a rare breed they are working to establish in the United States. These dogs provide the foundation stock from which an AKC fully recognized breed might result. These breeds cannot participate in AKC events until at least 150 individual dogs are registered. Thereafter, provisional competition in various events is allowed.
As of April 2011, 60 breeds are recognized in the Foundation Stock Service (FSS) Program.
In the summer of 2006, the AKC/FSS rejected inclusion of the Volpino Italiano, citing similarities with the American Eskimo Dog. The Volpino is recognized internationally by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale and its member kennel clubs. In the United States, the breed is recognized for conformation showing by the United Kennel Club and the American Rare Breed Association.
The Greenland Dog (Danish: Grønlandshunden, also known as Greenland Husky) is a large breed of husky-type dog kept as a sled dog and for hunting polar bear and seal. This is an ancient breed, thought to be directly descended from dogs brought to Greenland by the first Inuit settlers.
The Greenland Dog is a powerful, heavy-built dog. It has a broad, wedge-shaped head, slightly tilted eyes and small, triangular ears covered with thick fur that prevents frostbite. It has strong, muscular, short-haired legs. The tail is usually rolled along/across its back, but it may also hang down in a wolflike manner. When it lies down and curls up to rest, the tail often covers the nose. Its coat is of medium length and consists of two layers. The inner layer consists of short wool-like fur, the outer layer of longer, coarser, water-repellent fur.
A characteristic of most Greenland Dogs is the "úlo", a triangular shaped area on the shoulders. It is named after a common woman’s-knife from Greenland which is of the same shape.
Male are significantly larger than females at between 58 and 68 cm (23–27 in) at the withers; females are between 51 and 61 cm (20–24 in).
In Greenland this breed exists in
The Lapponian herder (Lapinporokoira or Lapp Reindeer dog or Lapsk Vallhund) is a breed of dog from Finland, one of three Lapphund breeds developed from a type of dog used by the Sami people for herding and guarding their reindeer.
The Lapinporokoira is a medium sized dog, with medium length fur in a double coat. Ears are pricked (standing up; drop ears are a disqualifying fault.) Colour is generally black or dark grey or brown, with a lighter shade on the head and lower parts of the body, often with white markings. The dog is longer than tall. Height should be 51 cm (20 in) at the withers for males, 46 cm (18 in) for females. Males and females should look distinctly different. It weighs approximately 70 pounds
The breed standard states that the dog should be calm, friendly, and docile, but also energetic. Most herding breeds need to be given regular exercise. The temperament of individual dogs may vary.
The Lapponian Herder can participate in dog agility trials, carting, mushing, obedience, Rally obedience, showmanship, flyball, tracking, and herding events. Herding instincts and trainability can be measured at noncompetitive herding tests. Lapponian Herders exhibiting basic
The Maltese is a small breed of dog in the toy group. It descends from dogs originating in the Central Mediterranean Area. The breed name and origins are generally understood to derive from the Mediterranean island nation of Malta; however, the name is sometimes described with reference to the distinct Adriatic island of Mljet, or a defunct Sicilian town called Melita.
This ancient breed has been known by a variety of names throughout the centuries. Originally called the "Canis Melitaeus" in Latin, it has also been known in English as the "ancient dog of Malta ," the "Roman Ladies' Dog," the "Maltese Lion Dog." The origin of the common name "Cokie" is unknown, but is believed to have originated in the mid-1960s on the U.S. East Coast and spread in popular use. This breed has been referred falsely as the "Bichon", as that name refers to the family ("small long-haired dog") and not the breed. The Kennel Club settled on the name "Maltese" for the breed in the 19th century.
The Maltese is thought to have been descended from a Spitz-type dog found among the Swiss Lake Dwellers and was selectively bred to attain its small size. There is also some evidence that the breed originated in
The Siamese (Thai: วิเชียรมาศ, RTGS: Wichianmat) is one of the first distinctly recognized breeds of Oriental cat. The breed originated in Thailand (formerly known as Siam), where they are one of several native breeds and are called Wichian Mat (วิเชียรมาศ, a name meaning "moon diamond" ). In the 20th century the Siamese cat became one of the most popular breeds in Europe and North America.
The pointed cat known in the West as "Siamese", recognized for its distinctive markings, is one of several breeds of cats from Siam described and illustrated in manuscripts called "Tamra Maew" (Cat Poems), estimated to have been written from the 14th to the 18th century.
It is often said that the breed was first seen outside their Asian home in 1884, when the British Consul-General in Bangkok, Edward Blencowe Gould (1847–1916), brought a breeding pair of the cats, Pho and Mia, back to Britain as a gift for his sister, Lilian Jane Veley (who went on to co-found the Siamese Cat Club in 1901). However, in 1878, U.S. President Rutherford B. Hayes received "Siam", a gift from the American Consul in Bangkok; this cat was also the first documented Siamese to reach the United States, and predates the
A Morkie is a small dog, a cross between a Maltese and a Yorkshire Terrier. The name Morkie is a portmanteau combining the two breed names. As a hybrid dog breed, the Morkie may exhibit characteristics of both of its parent breeds. While the term Morkie can stand for any dog that has heritage in only the Yorkie and Maltese breeds, first generation Morkies are the offspring of one purebred Maltese and one purebred Yorkshire Terrier. The further a Morkie is from the first generation Morkie, the less pronounced the characteristics of the Yorkie and Maltese will be in the puppy.
Morkies generally fall into two main categories in terms of their appearance: black and tan, or butterscotch. Black and tan Morkies look very similar to a Yorkshire Terrier, although their coloring may be more muted.
As a hybrid, the Morkie may exhibit a temperament like either parent, or a combined type. Yorkshire Terriers are from the Toy Group but are terriers nonetheless. They are determined, investigative and energetic. Maltese are usually more gentle mannered. They are known for being lively, playful and fearless despite their small size.
As is the case with all dog hybrids, Morkies inherit any number of
The Munchkin is a relatively new breed of cat characterized by its very short legs, which is caused by a naturally occurring genetic mutation. Named after the short-statured characters from Wizard of Oz, the breed was developed in the 1980s in the United States. Much controversy erupted over the breed when it was recognized by The International Cat Association in 1995 with critics voicing concern over potential health and mobility issues.
Short-legged cats have been documented a number of times around the world since the 1940s. A British veterinary report in 1944 noted four generations of healthy short-legged cats which were similar to normal cats except for the length of the legs. This line disappeared during the Second World War but other short-legged cats were spotted in Russia during 1956 and the United States in the 1970s. In Russia the cat earned the nickname "Stalingrad Kangaroo cat".
In 1983 Sandra Hochenedel, a music teacher in Louisiana, found 2 pregnant cats who had been chased by a bulldog under a truck. She kept one of the cats and named her Blackberry and half of her kittens were born short-legged. Hochenedel gave a short-legged male kitten from one of Blackberry's
Scottish Collie or Scotch Collie was a Victorian-era term originally given to the collie dog derived from Scotland and nearby regions. Diversity of type was much more common during the 17th to very early 20th centuries. Type was varied, but the dogs could easily be discerned as being Collie dogs. "Scotch" was for the most part dropped from the name by the late 20th century. A small group of fanciers of the old-fashioned collie type have attempted to resurrect this type of dog, and utilize the name of Scotch Collie. Unfortunmately, only a small number of "throwbacks" to the old-fashioned type exist, and so the fanciers have often resorted to using other breeds of the Collie family (most notably English shepherds, Australian shepherds or Border Collies) to help bring back the type they desire.
Scotch Collie was the name given to what is now commonly known as the Collie (Rough-coated and Smooth-coated). Certain other breeds, most notably Collie descendants such as the English Shepherd, Australian Shepherd, and Border Collie, have sometimes also been referred to as the Scotch Collie. During the Victorian and Edwardian era the name was used to describe nearly all types of Collie dogs of
The Shiloh Shepherd is a rare breed of dog that is still under development. Developed in the 1970s, they are meant to resemble an older variety of German Shepherd. Shilohs are not recognized by any major kennel club, but may be shown in rare breed organizations.
Shilohs are larger and have a straighter back than most modern Alsatians and German Shepherds, they are bred for intelligence, size, and stable temperaments. Their coats can be a variety of colors and color mixes. They compete in obedience and agility. They work as therapy dogs, search and rescue dogs, livestock guardians and service assistance.
According to the breed standard, the Shiloh Shepherd should have a regal bearing that shows intelligence and strength. The balance between elegance and strength is the key to their distinct appearance and fluid movement. Their larger size should not impede their movement or grace.
The head should be broad and slightly domed with a gradually tapering muzzle; bite alignment is important since either an over or undershot bite is a disqualifying fault. Muzzles and lips should be black, though pink has been seen, it is a fault. Ears should be firm, triangular and well cupped; they are
Alano Español, sometimes called the Spanish Bulldog in English, is a large breed of dog of the molosser dog type, originating in Spain. The breed is best known for its former use during Spanish bullfights.
The Alano Español is a very large dog of the Molosser type, with a large, strong head. Males should be no smaller than 58 centimetres (23 in) at the withers, and should weigh 34–40 kilograms (75–88 lb) with females somewhat smaller.
The coat is short and thick but never velvety, and is most often a brindle of any color; leonardo (fawn);black and brindle; sable wolf. White chest flashes are acceptable but prevalence of white is not. The face may or may not have a black mask.
The muzzle is short with the lower jaw slightly concave, and has a very large, broad, black nose. The ears are set high and may be drop or cut short. The skin is very thick, with neck folds and some wrinkles on the face.
The name of the breed comes from the Alani, nomadic pastoralists who arrived in Spain as part of the transhumance in the 5th Century. These peoples were known to keep large livestock guardian dogs and pursuit dogs which became the basis for the many regional Alaunt types. The first formal,
The American Bobtail is a relatively new and uncommon breed of cat which appeared in the late 1960s. It is most notable for its stubby "bobbed" tail about one-third to one-half the length of a normal cat's tail. This is the result of a cat body type genetic mutation affecting the tail development, similar to that of a Manx. The cat is not related to the Japanese Bobtail despite the similar name and physical type—the breeding programs are entirely unrelated and the mutation causing the bobbed tail is different because the mutation causing the American Bobtail's tail is dominant, whereas the Japanese Bobtail tail mutation is recessive.
American Bobtails are a very sturdy breed, with both short- and long-haired coats. Their coat is shaggy rather than dense or fluffy. They can have any color of eyes and fur, with a strong emphasis on the "wild" tabby appearance in show animals.
Bobtails are said to be the result of a crossbreeding between a domestic tabby cat and a bobcat. Yodie, a short-tailed brown tabby male, mated with a seal point Siamese colored (cat) female to create the Bobtail's original bloodline. Most of the early bloodlines have been eliminated. Although this is genetically
The Ariegeois is a breed of dog from the département of Ariège in the Midi-Pyrenées region of southern France. It is a medium-sized pack-hunting scenthound deriving from crossing of Grand Bleu de Gascogne and Grand Gascon Saintongeois hounds with local Briquet dogs. It is used both as a courser and for driving game to waiting guns. While most successful with hares, it is also used for hunting deer and boar. It is distinguished by its friendly nature with other hounds and affection for human companions.
This breed originated in France in 1912, making it a fairly new breed. It is not yet well known outside of its own region. The breed is registered with the Fédération Cynologique Internationale.
The Ariegeois normally weighs approximately 28–30 kg. Males should stand 52–58 cm tall, and females 50–56 cm. The coat is smooth and short, white with clearly defined black markings; it is sometimes mottled, and there may be tan points at the head. The head of the dog is lean and elongated. There are no wrinkles. The eyes are dark and gentle. The ears are very soft and medium-length. The muzzle is of medium length, and the nose is black. The neck is slender and arched slightly, to the chest
The Birman is a domestic cat breed. Also called the "Sacred Cat of Burma", it is not to be confused with the Burmese, which is a separate and dissimilar breed. The Birman has medium-long hair, a pale colored body and darker points with deep blue eyes. Even though the cat is pointed, the paws have white gloves.
Birmanie is the French spelling of Burma. The Birman breed was first recognized in France by the Cat Club de France in 1925, then in England by the Governing Council of the Cat Fancy (GCCF) in 1966 and in United States by the Cat Fanciers' Association (CFA) in 1967. It is also recognized by the Canadian Cat Association (CCA), and by The International Cat Association (TICA) in 1979.
There is no clear record of the origin of Birmans, but one unsourced but oft repeated legend is that the Birman cat originated in Burma where they were kept by temple priests in Northern Burma in the Mount of Lugh. This is repeated as ...Auguste Pavie and Major Gordon Russell, a British officer (reportedly fictitious), received a pair of temple cats from the Temple of Lao-Tsun (The Abode of the Gods ), situated East of Lake Incaougji (Indawgyi Lake), between Magaoung (Mogaung) and Sembo (Shwebo).
The Catahoula bulldog is a crossbred (not a purebred dog); it is a cross between the Catahoula Leopard Dog and the American Bulldog for a specific purpose. (Al Walker of Animal Research Foundation states: The Catahoula Bulldog is recognized as 50% Catahoula Leopard and 50% American Bulldog in the first generation cross. In succeeding generations it may be 75%-25% mix in either direction. The 75%-25% cross should not be exceeded to maintain the desirable characteristics of each breed.
The Catahoula bulldog is a medium to large size dog weighing in at 34-45.3 kg (60-100 lbs). The height is 55-66 cm (20-26 inches) at the shoulders.
The dog has the American Bulldog's muscular build with tight skin and a very short smooth coat. Normally it does not have an undercoat but usually develops one when living in seasonal or colder climate. Catahoula Bulldogs come in a wide variety of colors. They can be white, black and white, black, brown, brown and white and sometimes even black and brown and due to the Catahoula Leopard genes. Both pure white and merled coats white with grey, black and tan patches and blotches; some have very large areas of color and smaller patches and tips or spots are
The Chinese crested dog is a hairless breed of dog. Like most hairless dog breeds, the Chinese crested comes in two varieties, both with and without fur, which are born in the same litter: the Hairless and the Powderpuff.
This breed is considered small; 10–13 lb (4.5–5.9 kg).
At first look, the Hairless and Powderpuff varieties of Chinese crested Dogs appear to be two different breeds, but hairlessness is an incomplete dominant trait within a single breed. The Hairless has soft, humanlike skin, as well as tufts of fur on its paws ("socks") and tail ("plume") and long, flowing hair on its head ("crest"). In addition to being an incomplete dominant gene, the "hairless" gene has a prenatal lethal effect when homozygous. Zygotes affected with double hairless genes (1 in 4) never develop into puppies, and are reabsorbed in the womb. All hairless Cresteds are therefore heterozygous.
The Hairless variety can vary in amount of body hair. Fur on the muzzle, known as a beard, is not uncommon. A true Hairless often does not have as much furnishings (hair on the head, tail, and paws). The difference between a very hairy Hairless and a Powderpuff is that the Hairless has a single coat with
The English Shepherd is an extremely versatile breed of working dog of the collie lineage, developed in the United States from farm dogs brought by English and Scottish settlers in the 18th and 19th centuries before fancy pedigrees became fashionable around the end of the 19th century. Many farmers appreciated the breed for their versatility and not for their flash or strict conformation to a standard of appearance. These dogs were bred to do various tasks around the farm and not for show.
Unlike some other herding dogs, as a breed English Shepherds have not been specialized to work one species of livestock. English Shepherds have primarily been used on small diversified farms that have a number of different livestock species, including cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, and fowl. English shepherds both herd and protect livestock.
English Shepherds are similar in appearance to Border Collies and Australian Shepherds. English Shepherds usually have tails and a less rounded head than many Aussies. English Shepherds are never merle and Aussies frequently are. They are generally not square in body like an Aussie. English Shepherds tend to be larger than Border Collies but are most readily
Germany (/ˈdʒɜrməni/; German: Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland, pronounced [ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant] ( listen)), is a federal parliamentary republic in west-central Europe. The country consists of 16 states, and its capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres (137,847 sq mi) and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With 81.8 million inhabitants, it is the most populous member state in the European Union. Germany is one of the major political and economic powers of the European continent and a historic leader in many theoretical and technical fields.
A region named Germania, inhabited by several Germanic peoples, was documented before AD 100. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward and established successor kingdoms throughout much of Europe. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation while southern and western parts remained dominated by Roman Catholic denominations, with the two factions
Great Britain (Welsh: Prydain Fawr, Scottish Gaelic: Breatainn Mhòr, Cornish: Breten Veur, Scots: Great Breetain), also known as Britain, is an island situated to the north-west of Continental Europe. It is the ninth largest island in the world, the largest European island and the largest of the British Isles. With a population of about 60.0 million people in mid-2009, it is the third most populous island in the world, after Java and Honshū. Great Britain is surrounded by over 1,000 smaller islands and islets. The island of Ireland lies to its west. Politically, Great Britain may also refer to the island itself together with a number of surrounding islands which constitute the territory of England, Scotland and Wales.
All of the island is territory of the sovereign state of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and most of the United Kingdom's territory is in Great Britain. Most of England, Scotland, and Wales are on the island of Great Britain, as are their respective capital cities: London, Edinburgh, and Cardiff.
The Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the political union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland with the Acts of Union 1707 on 1 May 1707
The Hovawart is a German dog breed. The name of the breed means "an estate guard dog," which is the original use for the breed. The breed originated in the Black Forest region and was first described in text and paintings in medieval times.
The Hovawart is a medium dog. Male Hovawarts are 63-73 cm (25"–29") and females 58-65 cm (22.5"–26") at the withers. The weight is approximately 30–50 kg (66–110 pounds). The correct color descriptions are Black, Black and Gold, and Blond.
The Hovawart is an outstanding watch dog and somewhat reserved towards strangers. They make excellent family dogs as they are totally devoted to their family. They are a working dog breed, and require a consistent and loving yet strict training and meaningful activity throughout their lives.
One of the first documented recordings comes from the year 1210 when the German castle Ordensritterburg was besieged by Slavic invaders. The castle fell and its inhabitants including the Lord were slaughtered, however the Lord's infant son was saved by one of the castle's Hovawarts. In spite of being wounded itself, the dog dragged the tiny child to a neighbouring castle and thus saved the boy's life. This young boy, Eike
The Kyi-Leo (pronounced "ki" as in "kite") is a small yet sturdy rare dog breed.
It was first introduced in the 1950s in the San Francisco Bay area by the accidental crossing of a Maltese and a Lhasa Apso. This produced a type of dog that caught the attention of several individuals. The most notable was Mrs. Harriet Linn, who acquired several of these dogs in 1965 and later acquired several more from the San Jose kennel in 1969; from then on she began to seriously breed them. In 1972 there was enough interest among owners and breeders to come together and formally recognize this breed. It was at this meeting that they formally decided on calling it a Kyi-Leo. The name comes from the Tibetan and Latin languages. “Kyi” is the Tibetan word for dog; this acknowledges the Lhasa Apso breed which first came from Tibet. “Leo” is the Latin word for Lion; this acknowledges the Maltese which is also known as the “Maltese Lion dog”. Since then the Kyi-Leo breed has slowly spread throughout the United States, and has recently become accepted by the American Rare Breed Association as a legitimate breed.
The Kyi-Leo reaches 8-12 inches in height and 9-14 lb in weight. It has a long silky coat,
The Ocicat is an all-domestic breed of cat which resembles a wild cat but has no wild DNA in its gene pool. The breed is unusual in that it is spotted like a wild cat but has the temperament of a domestic animal. It is named for its resemblance to the ocelot. The breed was established from Siamese and Abyssinian stock; later, American Shorthairs (silver tabbies) were added to the mix and gave the breed their silver color, bone structure and distinct markings.
The first breeder of Ocicats was Virginia Daly, of Berkley, Michigan, who attempted to breed an Abyssinian-pointed Siamese in 1964. The first generation of kittens appeared Abyssinian, but the result in the second generation was not only the Abyssinian-pointed Siamese, but a spotted kitten, Tonga, nicknamed an 'ocicat' by the breeder's daughter. Tonga was neutered and sold as a pet, but further breedings of his parents produced more spotted kittens, and became the basis of a separate Ocicat breeding program. Other breeders joined in and used the same recipe, Siamese to Abyssinian, and offspring to Siamese. In addition, due to an error by CFA in recording the cross that produced the Ocicat, the American Shorthair was introduced
The Old Danish Pointer is a medium-sized breed of dog, white with brown markings, originally used as a pointing dog in Denmark.
Old Danish Pointers (Danish: gammel dansk hønsehund, translated "Old Danish Hen Dog")are strongly built. One of the most charming features of the breed is the great difference between male and female. While the dog is powerful and substantial, the bitch is characterized by being lighter, more spirited, and capricious.
Conveys the impression of a quiet and stable dog showing determination and courage. During the hunt, the dog progresses rather slowly, always maintaining contact with the hunter and accomplishing its task as a pointing dog without creating unnecessary disturbance of the ground. The breed is suited for small as well as large hunting grounds. The name has nothing to do with temperament, but refers to its ability to point out birds of the order Galliformes and specifically birds belonging to the family Phasianidae. Commonly referred to in Danish as Hen birds/Chicken birds. The often used English name, "Old Danish Chicken Dog" is therefore incorrect or at best badly translated.
This is a friendly family dog, as long as it gets its exercise. It is
A schnoodle is a domestic dog. It is a cross between a schnauzer and a poodle. Schnoodle is a portmanteau combining the two breed names.
Schnoodles are usually a cross of the smaller breeds of schnauzer and poodle. As such, the weight of an adult schnoodle can range from 7–16 pounds. Giant Schnoodles, the larger breed created by the pairing of a Standard Poodle and Giant Schnauzer, can weigh between 65 and up to 85 or 90 pounds for the largest of adult males. Schnoodles may possess the rough hair and strong body shape of the schnauzer, or the thinner shape and the curly hair of the poodle, or any combination of these characteristics.
The temperament of the schnoodle reflects its schnauzer and poodle forebears. The schnauzer can be affectionate, naturally protective, intelligent and strong-willed; the poodle is often clever, active, and excels in obedience training. Schnoodles may inherit any combination of intelligence, personality, temper and protective nature of the parent breeds. They can make good pets and are often devoted and affectionate to their family. Like both parent breeds, schnoodles are usually active dogs and are impressive runners and jumpers; regular exercise and
A Volpino Italiano (literally, "Italian little fox") is a spitz-type breed of dog originally from Italy.
Spitz-type dogs were found throughout the ancient world. Specimens from this group have been found preserved in European peat bogs which anthropologists trace to 4000 BC. The remains—with curly tails, foxy heads, and small erect ears—have been found dating back over 5,000 years. These little pets wore decorative ivory bracelets and collars. Engravings of similar dogs were found in Greece, and these have been determined to date to about 400 BC.
The Volpino has been known and loved by Italian royalty for centuries, being a special favorite of the ladies. Although bearing a strong resemblance to the Pomeranian, the breed is much older and thus has a different background. The northern dogs found their way south very early in the history of domesticated dogs. The Italian word for wolf is lupo, and the Keeshond is called both Lupino and Volpino in Italian. Volpe is Italian for fox, hence volpino means little fox in Italian. Despite his long history, the Volpino is unknown outside of Italy and is now quite rare even in his homeland.
Despite its small size, this dog was originally kept
The Blue Lacy or Lacy Dog is a breed of working dog that originated in Texas in the mid-19th century, the only dog breed to have originated in that state. The Lacy was first recognized in 2001 by the Texas Senate. In Senate Resolution No. 436, the 77th Legislature honored the Lacy as "a true Texas breed". In June 2005, Governor Rick Perry signed the legislation adopting the blue Lacy as "the official State Dog Breed of Texas".
Lacy dogs are strong and fast, lightly built but proportional within the height-to-weight ratio. Height at the withers is from 18 to 21 inches (46 to 53 cm). Dependent on height and working condition, weight should be approximately 25 to 45 pounds (11 to 20 kg) for females and 35 to 50 pounds (16 to 23 kg) for males. The standards listed in the Texas House Concurrent Resolution No. 108 are slightly different: height between 18 to 25 inches (46 to 63 cm), weight between 30 to 50 pounds (14 to 23 kg) but it was not until 2005 that it was official.
Though they are often called blue Lacys, there are three permissible color varieties. Blues are any shade of gray from light silver to dark charcoal. Reds range from light cream to rust. The tri combines these colors
The Chihuahua (help·info) /t͡ʃɪˈwɑwɑ/ (Spanish: chihuahueño) is the smallest breed of dog and is named for the state of Chihuahua in Mexico. Chihuahuas come in a wide variety of sizes, head shapes, colors, and coat lengths.
The Chihuahua’s history is puzzling and there are many theories surrounding the origin of the breed. Both folklore and archeological finds show that the breed originated in Mexico. The most common and most likely theory is that Chihuahuas are descended from the Techichi, a companion dog favored by the Toltec civilization in Mexico. No records of the Techichi are available prior to the 9th century, although dog pots from Colima, Mexico, buried as part of the western Mexico shaft tomb tradition which date back to 300 B.C. are thought to depict Techichis. It is probable that earlier ancestors were present prior to the Mayans as dogs approximating the Chihuahua are found in materials from the Great Pyramid of Cholula, predating 1530 and in the ruins of Chichen Itza on the Yucatán Peninsula. In fact, wheeled dog toys representing both the "deer head" and "apple head" varieties of Chihuahua have been unearthed across Mesoamerica from Mexico to El Salvador. The
The McNab Shepherd—also called a McNab Sheepdog, McNab Border Collie, or McNab Herding Dog—is a breed of dog whose focus is on herding. It originated from a smooth-coated dog typically reported to be the Scotch Collie or Fox Collie, which was also the ancestor of the Border Collie.
The appearance of dogs called McNabs can vary widely, though all in all, they closely resemble a shorthaired Border Collie or general shorthaired mix breed of dog. Their shared roots with Border Collies means that they are often predominantly black or red with white markings — white muzzle with a white streak running up the head between the eyes, usually a white neck and chest, white-tipped tail and one or more white feet. Some are large dogs of approximately 70 lb (32 kg), while others are as small as 35 lb (16 kg). Some have natural bobtails and others have long, narrow, short-furred tails. Its ears are medium sized and can be "pricked" or the top half may flop over. The coat is smooth or short. A strong characteristic of the McNab is its "cat-like" feet which enhance its agility.
The primary quality that these dogs are bred for is their herding ability; they are well known as cattle herders, but can
The Valley Bulldog is a mixed breed of Bulldog and Boxer, found most commonly in the Annapolis Valley of Nova Scotia, Canada. It is a common conception that Valley Bulldog originated in the Annapolis Valley, giving the designer breed the name "Valley Bulldog".
The perfect Valley Bulldog should be of medium height and size with a large broad head, sturdy muscular body with a thick neck of short to medium length. The Valley Bulldog possesses a broad chest and shoulder area and a thick powerful rear end. Valley Bulldogs should have an excellent temperament and can be quite intelligent. The temperament is to be very stable and trustworthy. Their disposition should be outgoing, playful yet protective when needed.
Head: Large and broad, deeply sunken between the eyes (medial furrow). The circumference of the head should be equal to or greater than the dog's height at the shoulder. Fault: Head too small.
Muzzle: Broad, deep and of medium to short in length. The bite is undershot. Fault: Muzzle too long (more than 3 inches), scissor or even bite.
Eyes: Wide apart and of moderate size. Any color is acceptable. Fault: Completely white / pink rims.
Nose: From the stop to the end of the nose
The Balinese is breed of domestic cat with long hair and Siamese-style point coloration. It is essentially a Siamese but with a medium-length silky coat, and a plumed tail.
The "Balinese" is not actually from Bali or any part of Indonesia. It is not a naturally occurring breed, but originates from human-controlled breeding efforts.
The Balinese was originally registered as a "long-haired Siamese", and examples were known from the early 1920s. The occasional long-haired kittens in a Siamese litter were seen as an oddity, and sold as household pets rather than as show cats. This changed in the mid-1950s, when two breeders, Marion Dorsey of Rai-Mar Cattery in California and Helen Smith of MerryMews Cattery in New York, decided that they would commence a breeding program for these longhaired cats.
The name was chosen on subjective grounds: Smith named the cats "Balinese" as she felt they showed the grace and beauty of Balinese dancers, and because "long-haired Siamese" seemed a rather clunky name for such graceful felines. The breed became quite popular after this, and a number of breeders began working on "perfecting" the Balinese appearance. This led eventually to the development of
Russia /ˈrʌʃə/ or /ˈrʊʃə/ (Russian: Россия, tr. Rossiya; IPA: [rɐˈsʲijə] ( listen)), also officially known as the Russian Federation (Russian: Российская Федерация, tr. Rossiyskaya Federatsiya; IPA: [rɐˈsʲijskəjə fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨjə] ( listen)), is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both via Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea. It also has maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. At 17,075,400 square kilometres (6,592,800 sq mi), Russia is the largest country in the world, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area. Russia is also the world's ninth most populous nation with 143 million people as of 2012. Extending across the whole of northern Asia, Russia spans nine time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. Russia has the world's largest reserves of mineral and energy resources and is the largest producer of oil and natural
The Australian Bulldog, originally known as the Aussie Bulldog, is a developing dog breed from Australia. Selective breeding was begun in the 1990s by breeders who wished to create a dog with the look of a Bulldog, but without that breed's inherent health problems. There were two independent breeding programs, one by Noel and Tina Green (the JAG line) and a separate program by Pip Nobes (the Nobes Australian Bulldog/ Wingara lines). Each has its own separate registries. The only incorporated and constituted body for the breed is the Australian Bulldog Society or A.B.S, founded by Pip Nobes. The A.B.S will only register Australian Bulldog over Australian Bulldog litters, they are currently conducting its first 5 year census, working toward the A.B.S Australian Bulldogs being recognised by the ANKC as a breed. The United Aussie Bulldog Association U.A.B.A(formed in 2003) is run by Noel and Tina Green, this registry is still actively registering British Bulldog over Aussie Bulldog litters.
The Australian Bulldog is a thickset medium sized breed. Males standing from 40–45 cm and weighing 28–35 kg, females stand at 40–48 cm weighing 25–35 kg. The skull is large, but in proportion to
The Basset Fauve de Bretagne is a short legged hunting breed of dog of the scent hound type, originally from Brittany, a historical kingdom of France.
The Basset Fauve de Bretagne is a smallish hound, built along the same lines as the Basset Hound, but lighter all through and longer in the leg. Wire-coated, the coat is very harsh to the touch, dense, red-wheaten or fawn. He measures 32 – 38 cm in height and weighs between 36 - 40 lbs but some become very tall like a Labrador. They have coarse, dense fur which may require stripping. The hair on the ears is shorter, finer and darker than that on the coat. The ears just reach the end of the nose rather than trailing on the ground and should be pleated. They should have dark eyes and nose and ideally no crook on the front legs. The French standard says these are the shortest backed of all the basset breeds so they generally do not appear as exaggerated as the British Basset.
There is apparently only one completed health survey of Basset Fauve de Bretagnes, a 2004 UK Kennel Club survey with a small sample size. The French Basset Fauve de Bretagne kennel club, Club du Fauve de Bretagne (http://fauvedebretagne.free.fr/ - in French), is
The Braque du Bourbonnais is a breed of gundog, of rustic appearance, sometimes born with a short tail, with a coat ticked with liver or fawn.
It had been described for the first time during the Renaissance (Natural History from Aldrovandi, Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris). In danger of disappearing, it thrived again after World War I with the creation of the first club, in 1925.
After World War II, the number of births decreased and the club became less active until it ceased to function. From 1963 to 1973, there were no dogs registered in the LOF (French studbook). The reason for this is probably a selection on secondary characteristics (color of the coat, short tail) instead of the hunting capabilities and general construction of the dog; this led to have a Bourbonnais less suitable for hunting than other breeds.
In 1970, Michel Comte decided to look for the last dog that had some Bourbonnais blood. He found only mixed breed dogs, which had some characteristics of the Braque du Bourbonnais (size, shape of the head, short tail). After some more or less inbred litters, he registered his first Bourbonnais on the LOF (under Titre Initial procedure) in 1973, 1974, and 1975; from then,
Canada (/ˈkænədə/) is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean. Canada is the world's second-largest country by total area, and its common border with the United States is the world's longest land border.
The land that is now Canada has been inhabited for millennia by various Aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the late 15th century, British and French colonial expeditions explored, and later settled, the region's Atlantic coast. France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America to Britain in 1763 after the Seven Years' War. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy, culminating in the Canada Act 1982.
Canada is a federal state governed as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. The country is officially bilingual and multicultural at the federal level, with a
The Catalan sheepdog is a breed of Catalan pyrenean dog used as a sheepdog. The dog is bred in Europe, especially in Spain, Finland, Germany, and Sweden.
Catalan sheepdogs range in size from 17 to 19 in (45 to 55 cm) in height and 60 to 80 lb (20 to 27 kg) in weight for males, with females being smaller. Their coat is long and either flat or slightly wavy, and ranges from fawn to dark sable and light to dark grey. There is also a short-haired version of this breed, but is nearly extinct
Size: from 45 cm to 55 cm. Weight: around 20 kg
Long and limp and a little curled.
This breed is used for herding and as a companion. Because of its intelligence, the Gos D'Atura, like most sheepdogs, are easy to train. This cheerful dog excels at dog-sports, such as agility and doggy-dance. In spite of its appearance, this courageous dog is also used as a watch-dog. An "all-around-dog" and great companion.
They guard sheep without needing instruction. Enough (outdoor) action and distraction makes this dog a quiet and well-balanced home companion. The breed is appropriate for people with firm techniques and who can give the dog enough exercise. Early socialization is important, particularly if the
A Coonhound is a type of scent hound and a member of the hound group.
Coonhounds are an American style of hunting dog developed for the quarry and working conditions found in the United States. Coondogs are highly valued.
In the colonial period, foxhounds were imported for the popular sport of foxhunting. Various breeds of foxhounds and other hunting hounds were imported from England, Ireland, and France, making up the initial composition of the dogs that were later known as “Virginia Hounds”.
Foxhounds were found to be inadequate for hunting animals that did not hide near the ground, but instead took to the treetops to escape, such as raccoons, opossums, bobcats and even larger prey like cougars and bears. The dogs were often confused or unable to hold the scent when this occurred, and would mill about.
The name is derived from their original use in hunting raccoons.
Treeing dogs were developed, chosen for a keen sense of smell, the ability to track, chase and corner any manner of animal independent of human commands, and, most importantly, to follow an animal both on the ground and when it takes to the trees. A good coonhound will bark and keep its prey treed until the hunters
A Kritikos Ichnilatis (Cretan Hound) (Greek:Kρητικός Iχνηλάτης) is a hunting breed of dog from the island of Crete, in Greece. It is considered to be one of the oldest hunting breeds in Europe, with a history that goes back to 4,000 years ago.
This is a multi-talented dog that comes directly from Crete. It has excellent scent, speed, agility, durability, that make it an exceptional hare hunter. Cretan Hounds also have guarding instincts as well as pastoral instincts.
The Cretan Hound is a slender dog, somewhere in the middle between a scenthound and a sighthound in body, particularly light on its feet (that are oval rather than cat-like) and strong in loin, specially adopted for swift reflexes and high speed over dangerous, rocky terrain. The head is wedge-shaped, elongated and dry, with pricked and very mobile ears that fold backwards like a greyhound’s during the chase. The tail is a most important breed characteristic: long and curved upwards, forming a loose or tight ring and covered with a brush of longer hair underneath. The dog is slightly longer than tall, with medium angulations, slender legs and good muscle; the ribcage is spacious but neither too broad nor too rounded
The Grand Bleu de Gascogne (FCI No.22) Is a breed of dog of the scenthound type, originating in France and used for hunting in packs. Today's breed is the descendant of a very old type of large hunting dog, and is an important breed in the ancestry of many other hounds.
The Grand Bleu de Gascogne is an imposing large dog, a typical hunting pack hound of the oldest type, with a lean and muscular body, long legs, slightly domed head, long drop ears, and drooping lips. Size is 65 to 72 cm (25.6 to 28.3 ins) at the withers, females slightly smaller. Dogs of this breed should show an attitude of calm strength and nobleness.
The colour of the coat is white mottled with black, giving a slate blue overall appearance. There are black patches on either side of the head, with a white area on top of the head which has in it a small black oval. Tan "eyebrow" marks are over each eye. Faults are deviations in appearance that have an effect on the health and working ability of the dog, as well as an absence of expected features of colour, structure, and size, indicating that a dog with such faults should not be bred. Faults include aggression or fearfulness, anatomical malformation, and lack of
The Kanni, which means maiden, is a rare indigenous South Indian dog breed found in the state of Tamil Nadu. The breed is a further extension of the Caravan or Mudhol Hound, and is also a descendant of the Saluki. It is used mainly for hunting.
In general appearance, the Kanni is similar to a smooth-coated Saluki or a Doberman Pinscher with natural ears and tail. The dog is usually black and tan in colour, perhaps with limited white on the feet and chest. There also exists a cream-coloured variety of the breed, which is known as "Paalakanni". The Kanni is agile, slim, graceful, and moderately built, with a deep chest and slim body. The dog generally stands about 25 inches at the withers, the bitch about 22 inches, though some specimens have been known to reach 32 inches.
The Kanni is usually shy but will always defend its home/master if the need should arise. They are a silent breed and are not nuisance barkers. The Kanni is extremely faithful and easy to train but they will always think independently when on a hunt. They are also used to hunt deer as they are extremely agile and strong while remaining light on their feet.
The Kanni is found in and around Tirunelveli, Pollachi,
The Maine Coon, also known as American Longhair, is a breed of domestic cat with a distinctive physical appearance and valuable hunting skills. It is one of the oldest natural breeds in North America, specifically native to the state of Maine, where it is the official State Cat.
The Maine Coon is noted for its large bone structure, rectangular body shape, and long, flowing coat. The breed can be seen in a variety of colors and is known for its intelligence and gentle personality. Health problems, such as feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and hip dysplasia, are seen in the breed, but screening methods can help to reduce the frequency of these problems.
The ancestral origins of the Maine Coon are unknown. There are only theories and folk tales. One such folk tale involves Marie Antoinette, the Queen of France, who was executed in 1793. The story goes that before her death, Antoinette attempted to escape France with the help of Captain Samuel Clough. She loaded Clough's ship with her most prized possessions, including six of her favorite Turkish Angora cats. Although she did not make it to the United States, her pets safely reached the shores of Wiscasset, Maine, where they bred with
The Miniature Australian Shepherd was developed by breeding smaller Australian Shepherds for the desired size. The breed is rapidly increasing in popularity among those interested in a compact dog with a strong dog work ethic. They are especially popular in dog agility, and do well in other dog sports including herding, obedience, disc dog, flyball and many other activities.
The preferred height of this breed ranges from 14 to 18 inches (35 to 46 cm) at the withers and the weight is typically between 17 and 30 pounds (9 to 14 kg). Coat colors are blue merle, red merle, black, and red, all with or without copper as well as with or without white trim. Eyes may be any combination of brown, amber, hazel, blue, or marbled. Some of these dog have eyes that are two different colors or may be marbled.
These dogs are easily trained, but their intelligence and drive require obedience training and plenty of interesting activity. They have a sixth sense about what their owners want and are easily trainable because they crave approval. Once given proper socialization they will thrive in a variety of environments, provided they have an adequate outlet for both physical and mental energy. If they
The Ragdoll is a cat breed with blue eyes and a distinct colorpoint coat. It is a large and muscular semi-longhair cat with a soft and silky coat. Developed by controversial American breeder Ann Baker, it is best known for its docile and placid temperament and affectionate nature. The name "Ragdoll" is derived from the tendency of individuals from the original breeding stock to go limp and relaxed when picked up.
In the 1960s a regular non-pedigreed white domestic longhaired cat named Josephine, who had produced several litters of typical cats, was injured in an accident involving a car and taken to the veterinary hospital at the University of California. Josephine was of a Persian/Angora type and had litters sired by several unknown male Birman or Burmese-like cats, one of which had the Siamese point coloration. Baker believed that Josephine was subject to a secret government genetic experiment during treatment at the lab, and claimed that it made Josephine docile, relaxed when picked up, and immune to pain. After Josephine recovered, her next litter produced kittens with similar temperament. When the subsequent litter produced more of the same, Ann Baker (an established cat
The Rajapalayam is an Indian Sighthound. It was the companion of the royalty and aristocracy in Southern India, particularly in the town Rajapalayam from where it gets its name.
It is a large dog, usually measuring about 65–75 cm (25–30 inches) at the withers. It is a hound, and therefore should be kept in optimum working condition. It tends to be heavier boned than most sighthounds, but shares the depth of chest and basic body structure.
Its facial structure is considerably different from that of a Caravan Hound, as it is meant primarily for hunting wild boar. The tail has a slight curl.
The most prized colour is milk white, with a pink nose and golden eyes. However, other colours including spotted or solid, black, and brown, are known to occur. In the past, puppies of colour were usually culled from the litters since the owners preferred the pure white dogs. The coat is short and fine. An extremely handsome and graceful dog, the Rajapalayam has a gait similar to the trotting of a thoroughbred horse. As with many fully white dogs, there is a high incidence of deafness in this breed. Puppies born with whitish or blue eyes are deaf. Many Rajapalayam dogs suffer from mange, though
The Sphynx is a rare breed of cat known for its lack of a coat.
The contemporary breed of Sphynx (known also as the Canadian Sphynx, distinct from the Russian Sphynx breeds—Peterbald, Don Sphynx) started in 1966, in Roncesvalles, Toronto when a hairless kitten named Prune was born. The kitten was mated with its mother (backcrossing), which produced one more naked kitten. Together with a few naked kittens found later it founded the first attempt to create a hairless breed. The first sphynx breeders faced a number of problems: The genetic pool was very limited; breeders had rather vague ideas about sphynx genetics, and many kittens died. There was also a problem with many of the females suffering convulsions. The last 2 descendants of Prune, a brother-sister pair, were sent to Holland in the 1970s, but the male was uninterested in mating and the female conceived only once, but lost the litter.
In 1978 and 1980, two further hairless female kittens were found in Toronto and were sent to Holland to be bred with Prune's last surviving male descendent. One female conceived, but she also lost the litter. By then, the one remaining male had been neutered, never having been interested in
The American Staghound is a type of sighthound that is used in hunting to course stag. Although they have been bred for many years, the American Staghound is not currently recognized as a dog breed.
This breed comes primarily from Scottish deerhounds and Greyhounds (percentage unknown). Since the 1700s they have been bred Staghound to Staghound, so they are not direct progenies of those two breeds. Scttish deerhounds and Greyhounds must have found their way into the New world when America was settled, during the settlement and the Westward expansion it was found that the cross between the very fast and fine boned Greyhound with the robust Scottish deerhound gave an excellent coursing animal used for coyote hunting in difficult terrains. Many generations later, in 1846, General George A. Custer used the Staghound as part of his dog pack to hunt a variety of North American animals. Since then this breed has always been in hands of huntsmen.
The American Staghound is not a recognized breed, but it is a type of Sighthound used to course a variety of games. The best way to figure out if it is an American Staghound is to blend together Scottish deerhounds and Greyhounds characteristics.
The Blue Picardy Spaniel (or Épagneul Bleu de Picardie) is a breed of Spaniel originating in France, from the area around the mouth of the River Somme, around the start of the 20th century. It is descended from Picardy Spaniels and English Setters, and is described as a quiet breed that requires much exercise due to its stamina. It is especially good with children. Similar to the Picardy Spaniel, it has a distinctive coloured coat. Recognised by only a handful of kennel associations, the breed is predominantly known in France and Canada.
A Blue Picardy Spaniel on average is around 22–24 inches (56–61 cm) high at the withers and weighs 43–45 pounds (20–20 kg). Its coat is speckled grey black forming a bluish shade, with some black patches. The coat is flat or a little wavy with feathering on the ears, legs, underside and tail. It has long legs with some setter characteristics.
It has a long broad nose and muzzle, with thick ears covered in silky hair that usually end around the tip of the muzzle. Its chest is of medium size that descends down to the same level as the elbows. Both the forequarters and the hindquarters are well muscled. Its tail typically does not extend beyond the
The California Spangled is a breed of domestic cat that was bred to resemble spotted wild cats, like the ocelot and leopard. They were originally bred in the 1980s and were only ever a rare breed, and usually expensive, priced between US$800 and $2,500. The popularity of two other spotted cats breeds, the Ocicat and the Bengal, overshadowed their development.
Inspired by the poaching death of a leopard, the anthropologist Louis Leakey motivated Paul Arnold Casey, Jr. of California to breed a domestic cat resembling a small leopard in order to emphasize how important it was to preserve the leopard.
California Spangled cats are a crossbreed of many strains, including the Abyssinian, American Shorthair and British Shorthair. Despite their wild appearance, they are completely domestic.
Originally bred by Paul Arnold Casey, Jr., a Hollywood scriptwriter, playwright, and author, after his return from Tanzania while working with Louis Leakey in the 1970s. Casey's novel, "Open The Coffin" chronicles his journey in Africa and subsequent breeding that led to the California Spangle.
This animal was ideally bred to resemble a leopard, thus giving the impression of a "House-Leopard". One of
The German Spaniel, also known as the Deutscher Wachtelhund, is a breed of dog that was developed in Germany around 1890, and is used as a hunting dog. Descended from the old German breed, the Stoeberer, which became popular with commoners following the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states, who required a versatile hunting dog. Stoeberer is now a type of hunting dog in Germany with the Wachtelhund being its sole member. The breed is not very well known outside of Germany, but was recognised by the United Kennel Club in 1996.
A well built breed, its coat comes in brown shades with occasional white markings. It can be trained to retrieve game, as well as for tracking. In Canada, they are used to flush out American black bears.
Frederick Roberth, a German dog breeder, is credited with creating the modern Deutscher Wachtelhund around 1890. While several breeds feature in its makeup, the most prominent dog breed to be bred into the modern breed is the now extinct Stoeberer. The Stoeberer has been mentioned in literature as far back as 1719, and was thought to have a nose as powerful as a Bloodhound. Following the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states, the common man in the German
The Irish Jack Russell dog breed is a type of Jack Russell Terrier. The function of this terrier has varied, from working farms, removing vermin, protecting property, and as a companion.
The Irishjack is an unrecognised type of Jack Russell. Irishjacks are not to be confused with Irish Jack Russells. A small pocket of recognised short legged JRT's, with a small gene pool, and are currently bred only for ideal structure with little to no reference of temperament.
Most Irish Jack Russells are between 8 lbs. and 15 lbs. The smallest on record is 5 lbs and the largest 25 lbs. The most common height is 10" at the withers.
Irishjacks are seen in all colors, including brindle, merle as well as all eye colors. One reason why IrishJacks are not recognized as any type of Russell Terrier (Jack Russell Terriers, Parson Russell Terrier, Puddin Jack, English Jack Russell Terrier, Irish Jack Russell Terrier, or American Jack Russell Terrier) by any of the National Kennel Clubs is due to the colors in both coat and eyes which are allowed in IrishJacks. The recognized types of Russell Terriers as described above require specific coloration on coats (merle or brindle markings are not acceptable)
The Istrian Coarse-haired Hound (Croatian: istarski oštrodlaki gonič, Slovene: istrski ostrodlaki gonič) is a dog breed from Croatia, developed in the mid-19th century for hunting fox and rabbit. It is a rough-coated scent hound still kept primarily as a hunting dog rather than as a pet.
Dogs of this breed can vary considerably in size, as the dog is still bred primarily for hunting, so more emphasis might be placed on performance than on specific appearance requirements. It can range from 25 to 56 lb (16 to 26 kg) and stand 17 to 23 inches (44 to 58 cm) at the withers.
The breed's wiry coat is weather resistant for hunting. The topcoat is 2 to 3 inches (5 to 8 cm) long and it has a woolly undercoat. The color is white with yellow or orange markings, usually on the ears. The ears are broad and hang flat with a long upstanding curved inwards tail.
Again, because the Istrian Coarse-haired Hound has been bred primarily for hunting rather than as a companion, it tends to be willful and hence more challenging to train than many other breeds.
Croatian and Slovene breeders created the Istrian Coarse-haired Hound in the mid-19th century by crossing the French Griffon Vendeén with the
The Miniature Fox Terrier is a small, fine, lightweight working terrier developed as a hunting dog and vermin router. It is known colloquially in its native Australia as the “Mini Foxie”.
A balanced, smoothly-muscled dog breed, the Miniature Fox Terrier has a distinctive head with erectile ears that can stand straight up or fold at the tips. Another distinguishing feature is its articulate, oval-shaped foot. The breed standard has always allowed for the dog's tail to be docked or undocked. Natural bobtails are known to occur. There are only three permitted colour combinations: black and white, tan and white, and tricolour (black, white, and tan). The coat of the Mini Foxie is always short and fine. Weight is 3.5 to 5.5 kilograms and height at the withers is 9.5 to 12.0 inches (24 cm to 30.5 cm).
Miniature Fox Terriers are closely related to the Toy Fox Terrier, a breed that developed along similar lines in the United States. Some Toy Fox Terrier owners can trace their dogs’ pedigrees to "Foiler", the first Fox Terrier registered by the Kennel Club in Britain, circa 1875-6. Other related breeds include the Jack Russell Terrier, the Rat Terrier, and the Tenterfield Terrier.
The Mountain Cur is a type of working dog that is bred specifically for treeing and trailing small game, like squirrel and raccoons. They are also used for hunting and baying big game like bear and wild boar as well as being just an all-purpose farm dog. Curs are a member of the Hound group, and the Mountain Cur is one of several varieties of cur. They can also be used as water dogs. Mainly bred in Ohio, Kentucky, Virginia, and Tennessee, it has been registered with the United Kennel Club since 1998. The Mountain Cur Breeder's Association was formed in 1957.
The Mountain Cur was originally brought to America from Europe by the settlers of the mountains in Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee, then later Arkansas and Oklahoma, to guard family and property as well as chase and tree game. These dogs enabled the settlers to provide meat and pelts for personal use or trade, making them very valuable in the unforgiving frontier environment. The Mountain Cur was bred and maintained for nearly two hundred years. With the advent of World War II, many of the families who had bred them left the rural areas and went to work in factories in the war effort. By the end of the 1940s the breed was
The Nebelung is a rare breed of the domestic cat. Nebelungs have long bodies, wide-set green eyes, long and dense fur, and mild dispositions. The name Nebelung — apparently a portmanteau of the German word (Nebel) for Mist or Fog and a medieval Germanic saga, Nibelungenlied — is perhaps derived from the cat's distinctive silky blue-grey coat and from the breed's progenitors, who were named after the two major figures in the Nibelungenlied, the German warrior Siegfried and the Icelandic queen Brunhilde.
The American foundation of this cat breed was laid by the cats Siegfried (1984) and Brunhilde (1985). Cora Cobb, the owner of Siegfried and Brunhilde, was very impressed by the beauty of her blue/grey cats. Siegfried and Brunhilde looked like a Russian Blue but with a semi-long coat. To find out if it was possible to start a new breed with these cats, Cora got in touch with the geneticist of the American Cat Association. This geneticist, Dr. Solveig Pfleuger, said that the breed was best defined as semi-long haired Russian Blue. Supported by Dr. Pfleuger, Cora Cobb wrote the breeding standard according to the blue Russian, but with a difference: its coat length.
The International Cat
The Sapsal is a shaggy Korean breed of dog. The word is followed in Korean by either gae (meaning "dog") or the suffix ee/i, but is most commonly romanized as "Sapsaree". Traditionally, these dogs were believed to dispel ghosts and evil spirits.
Sapsaree, just like the Korean Jindo dog, was designated as a National Treasure (No.368) in 1992 by the Korean Government. The Sapsaree has been identified and recognized by both leading Korean dog societies, the Korean Canine Club (FCI affiliate) and the Korean Kennel Club.
The Sapsaree has been called a "lion dog" for its bulky and strong upper body and its large and imposing paws. Sapsarees are medium sized and slightly tall. Their adult coat is long and abundant, and comes in various colors including solid and/or mixed shades of black, golden yellowish-blonde, reddish-orange, browns, and salt-and-pepper greys. Their hair falls over the eyes in the same manner as that of the Old English Sheepdog.
The Sapsaree's friendly outer appearance is matched by its innate patience and congeniality towards other animals and human beings. They are known to be playful in a group setting and has long been acknowledged and valued for its loyalty.
The Scottish Fold is a breed of cat with a natural dominant-gene mutation that makes its ear cartilage contain a fold, causing the ears to bend forward and down towards the front of their head, which gives the cat what is often described as an "owl-like" appearance
Originally called lop-eared or just lops after the lop-eared rabbit, Scottish Fold became the breed's name in 1966. Depending on registries, longhaired Scottish Folds are varyingly known as Highland Fold, Scottish Fold Longhair, Longhair Fold and Coupari.
The original Scottish Fold was a white barn cat named Susie, who was found at a farm near Coupar Angus in Perthshire, Scotland, in 1961. Susie's ears had an unusual fold in their middle, making her resemble an owl. When Susie had kittens, two of them were born with folded ears, and one was acquired by William Ross, a neighbouring farmer and cat-fancier. Ross registered the breed with the Governing Council of the Cat Fancy (GCCF) in Great Britain in 1966 and started to breed Scottish Fold kittens with the help of geneticist Pat Turner. The breeding program produced 76 kittens in the first three years—42 with folded ears and 34 with straight ears. The conclusion from this
The Polish Hunting Dog, formerly Polish Scenthound (Polish: Gończy Polski) is a breed of scent hound originating in Poland.
A lithe dog of compact construction. The bone structure is strong but not heavy. The build implies a great aptitude for mobility and an obvious disposition to resist difficult working conditions in mountainous regions.
Stable and gentle. This dog is truly courageous and can even demonstrate proof of bravery. He is intelligent and easy to educate. Not aggressive but remaining wary towards strangers. To his qualities as a hunting dog, must be added those of an excellent face.
Hunting with scent hounds was referred to in Polish literature as early as the 13th century. Poland has always been a country covered by deep forests, full of big game where the scent hound was the precious auxiliary of the hunter. Hunting with scent hounds was highly esteemed by Polish nobility as attested by 14th century chronicles. In the 17th century, at least two different types of Polish scent hounds were already well distinguished. Detailed descriptions are found in 19th century hunting literature: in 1819 Jan Szytier (Poradnik Mysliwych) describes the Polish “brach” and the Polish
The Cymric (/ˈkɪmrɨk/ KIM-rik or /ˈkʌmrɨk/ KUM-rik) is a breed of domestic cat. Some cat registries consider the Cymric simply a semi-long-haired variety of the Manx breed, rather than a separate breed. Except for the length of fur, in all other respects the two varieties are the same, and kittens of either sort may appear in the same litter. The name comes from Cymru (Welsh pronunciation: [ˈkəmrɨ]), the indigenous Welsh name of Wales, though the breed is not associated with Wales, and the name was possibly given as an attempt to provide a "Celtic"-sounding name for the breed. The breed's Manx bloodline originated in the Isle of Man, though Canada claims to have developed the long-haired variant. The breed is called the Long-haired Manx or Longhair Manx by some registries, and has also been called the Manx Longhair.
According to Isle of Man records, the taillessness trait of the Manx (and ultimately the Cymric) began as a mutation among the island's domestic cat population. Given the island's closed environment and small gene pool, the dominant gene that decided the cats' taillessness was easily passed from one generation to the next, along with the gene for long hair. Long-haired
A foxhound is a type of large hunting hound. Foxhounds hunt in packs and, like all scent hounds, have a strong sense of smell. They are used in hunts for foxes, hence the name. When out hunting they are followed usually on horseback and will travel several miles to catch their target. These dogs have strong natural instincts to hunt and are energetic and active. The foxhound is also the state dog in Virginia. It is sometimes used to guard sheep or houses, but its main use is for hunting.
There are different breeds of foxhound, each often called simply Foxhound in their native countries:
In North America, the American Kennel Club reported that in 2005 the English Foxhound was their least registered breed with 22 registrations, with the American Foxhound being fourth to last with 44 registrations. For comparison, the top registered breed, the Labrador Retriever, had 137,867 registrations during the same year. In general, large, active hunting dogs that traditionally are kept in large packs in rural areas do not adapt well to being city or suburban pets. Owners of foxhounds from countries outside the US do not use the American Kennel Club for registering their dogs, and within the US
The Hamiltonstövare is a breed of dog, bred as a hunting hound. The breed was developed in Sweden by the founder of the Swedish Kennel Club, Count Adolf Hamilton. Its ancestry includes several German hounds as well as English Foxhounds and Harriers.
The breed is known by the white blaze on the head, down the neck, four white paws, and a white tail tip. He differs from an English Foxhound in that his frame is lighter.
Rectangular, well proportioned, giving impression of great strength and stamina. Tricoloured.
Handsome, upstanding dog of striking colouring. Hardy and sound.
Head longish, rectangular, with slightly arched and moderately broad skull. Occiput not too prominent. Stop well defined but not over pronounced. Jowls not too heavy. Muzzle fairly long, large and rectangular. Bridge of nose straight and parallel to line of skull. Nose always black, well developed with large nostrils. Upper lips full but not too overhanging.
Clear and dark brown with tranquil expression.
Set fairly high, when drawn alongside jaw, ears extend to approximately halfway along muzzle and should be raised only slightly above skull when responding to call. Soft with straight fall and fore edge not
The Japanese Spitz (日本スピッツ, Nihon Supittsu) is a small to medium breed of dog of the Spitz type. The Japanese Spitz is a companion dog and pet. There are varying standards around the world as to the ideal size of the breed, but they are always larger than their smaller cousins, the Pomeranian. They were developed in Japan in the 1920s and 30s by breeding a number of other Spitz type dog breeds together. They are recognized by the vast majority of the major kennel clubs, except the American Kennel Club due to it being similar appearance to the white Pomeranian dog, American Eskimo Dog and Samoyed Dog. While they are a relatively new breed, they are becoming widely popular due to their favorable temperament and other features.
The major health concern is patellar luxation, and a minor recurring concern is that the breed can be prone to runny eyes. They can act as reliable watchdogs, but are a type of companion dog and prefer to be an active part of the family. Although they might appear fluffy, they are a low maintenance breed as the coat has a non stick texture often compared to teflon.
The Japanese Spitz is a small dog, around 33 cm (13 ins) at the withers, with a somewhat square
The Landseer is a dog breed. Many kennel clubs consider the Landseer to be simply a black-and-white variant of the Newfoundland, but the Fédération Cynologique Internationale recognizes it as a separate breed. This separate breed is called Landseer European Continental Type (E.C.T.).
The breed was named after the British painter Sir Edwin Henry Landseer, because in 1838 he created the painting A Distinguished Member of the Humane Society, which shows a dog of this breed.
The Landseer Newfoundland dog is known for its sweet disposition, gentleness, and serenity. They enjoy swimming, and tend to drool, though not as much as some other giant breeds. While the Landseer European Continental Type is also sweet, affectionate and enjoys swimming he is quite different to the Landseer Newfoundland in regard to response, agility and speed.
The dog Nana in Peter Pan, although often portrayed as a St. Bernard, was intended to be a Landseer. The 2004 movie Finding Neverland featured a Great Pyrenees as J. M. Barrie's pet, on whom Nana was based. J. M. Barrie owned a Landseer Newfoundland called Luath.
The Landseer Continental Type (CT) is a European dog breed that comes from a type of giant dog
The Saarlooswolfhond (Dutch for "Saarloos Wolfdog") is an established breed of a wolfdog hybrid.
In 1921, Dutch breeder Leendert Saarloos started crossbreeding a German Shepherd Dog male to a female Mackenzie Valley Wolf (Canis lupus occidentalis). He aimed for an improved version of the German Shepherd Dog which would be immune to distemper, and succeeded insofar that the Saarlooswolfdog we know is a strong imposing dog, but it kept its wolflike characteristics; it is cautious, reserved and lacks the ferocity to attack; it is not the dog that Leendert Saarloos hoped to get. His theory was also proven wrong, as nearly all the first generation hybrids succumbed to distemper. Until Leendert Saarloos died in 1969, he was in full control over the breeding of his "European wolfdog". The Dutch Kennel Club recognized the breed in 1975. To honor its creator they changed the name to "Saarlooswolfdog". In 1981 the breed was recognized by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI). In the past, some Saarlooswolfdogs were trained as guide dogs for the blind and as rescue dogs.
The Saarloos wolfhond is a fairly large dog, up to 76 cm at the shoulder and weighing up to 40 kg. The muzzle is
Terrier Group is the name of a breed Group of dogs, used by kennel clubs to classify a defined collection of dog breeds. In general, a Terrier Group includes one particular type of dog, the Terrier, although other types may be included in a kennel club's Terrier Group. Most major English-language kennel clubs include a Terrier Group although different kennel clubs may not include the same breeds in their Terrier Group. The international kennel club association, the Fédération Cynologique Internationale, includes Terriers in Group 3 Terrier, which is then further broken down into four Sections based on the type of terrier and breed history.
Terriers were originally kept to hunt vermin, especially mice, rats, rabbits, otters, stoats and weasels. Some Terriers were designed to go down the holes of the European fox and other agricultural pest animals in order to chase them out for the hunter, and the name terrier is from the Latin terra, meaning earth, in reference to the dogs going underground. Today, the majority of modern breeds developed from the old terrier types are pets and companions. A few are still used as working terriers, and some terriers are large enough to be kept as
The Chartreux is a breed of domestic cat from France and is recognised by a number of registries around the world. It is not recognised by the GCCF in the UK, ostensibly for being too similar to the British Shorthair, one of whose colours is a similar blue-grey. The Chartreux is large and muscular, with relatively short, fine-boned limbs, and very fast reflexes. They are known for their blue (grey) water-resistant short hair double coats which are often slightly nappy in texture (often showing "breaks" like a sheepskin) and orange- or copper-colored eyes. Chartreux cats are also known for their "smile": due to the structure of their heads and their tapered muzzles, they often appear to be smiling. Chartreux are exceptional hunters and are highly prized by farmers.
The first letter of the official name of a Chartreux cat encodes the year of its birth; all Chartreux born in the same year have official names beginning with the same letter. The code letters rotate through the alphabet each year, omitting the letters K, Q, W, X, Y, and Z. For example, a Chartreux born in 2011 would have an official name starting with the letter G (Fogle 2001:128).
There is a legend that the Chartreux
Ireland (local and American pronunciation: [ˈaɪrlənd] ( listen); RP: [ˈʌɪələnd]; Irish: Éire [ˈeːɾʲə] ( listen); Ulster-Scots: Airlann or Airlan) is an island to the north-west of continental Europe. It is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentieth-largest island on Earth. To its east is the larger island of Great Britain, from which it is separated by the Irish Sea.
Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers just under five-sixths of the island, and Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom, which covers the remainder and is located in the north-east of the island. The population of Ireland is approximately 6.4 million. Just under 4.6 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just under 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland.
Relatively low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain epitomise Ireland's geography with several navigable rivers extending inland. The island has lush vegetation, a product of its mild but changeable oceanic climate, which avoids extremes in temperature. Thick woodlands covered the island until the 17th century. Today, it is one of the most deforested areas in Europe. There are twenty-six extant mammal
Newfoundland (/ˈnjuːfənᵈlænd/; Irish: Talamh an Éisc, French: Terre-Neuve, Basque: Ternua, Mi'kmaq: Taqamkuk, Portuguese: Terra-Nova or Terranova), is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The province's official name was also "Newfoundland" until 2001, when its name was changed to "Newfoundland and Labrador" (the postal abbreviation was later changed from NF to NL).
The island of Newfoundland (originally called Terra Nova, from "New Land" in old Italian) was visited by the Icelandic Viking Leif Eriksson in the 11th century, who called the new land "Vinland". The first European visitors to Newfoundland were Portuguese, Spanish, French and English migratory fishermen. In 1501, Portuguese explorers Gaspar Corte-Real and his brother Miguel Corte-Real charted part of the coast of Newfoundland in a failed attempt to find the Northwest Passage. The island was later visited by the Italian John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto), working under contract to King Henry VII of England on his expedition from Bristol in 1497. This landing is considered the initial foundation of the British
The Pont-Audemer Spaniel or Epagneul Pont-Audemer is a rare breed of French gundog. It originated in the nineteenth century from different breeds of water spaniels, and took more of a setter role in hunting than that of a traditional spaniel. Following the Second World War, the breed's numbers dropped so low that the breed club decided to allow cross breeding with other breeds because of feels of the existing stock becoming overly inbred. In 1980, the breed club was merged with that of the Picardy Spaniel.
The breed is alleged to have been developed in the Pont-Audemer region of France in the nineteenth century. While the exact origin of the species isn't known, it is thought that stock from both the English Water Spaniel and Irish Water Spaniels may have played a part in the breed's original makeup. In the early 20th century, outside of France, they were considered more useful as a setter than doing typical spaniel type work.
The breed's numbers were never large, and so few examples existed after World War II that in 1949 the President of the Pont-Audemer breed club in France allowed for other breeds, including the Irish Water Spaniel, to cross-breed with the existing population
Afghanistan /æfˈɡænɨstæn/ (Persian/Pashto: افغانستان, Afġānistān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country forming part of South Asia, Central Asia, and to some extent Western Asia. With a population of about 30 million, it has an area of 647,500 km (250,001 sq mi), making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world. It is bordered by Pakistan in the south and the east, Iran in the west, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in the north, and China in the far northeast.
Afghanistan has been an ancient focal point of the Silk Road and human migration. Archaeologists have found evidence of human habitation from as far back as the Middle Paleolithic. Urban civilization may have begun in the area as early as 3,000 to 2,000 BC. Sitting at an important geostrategic location that connects the Middle East culture with Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent, the land has been home to various peoples through the ages and witnessed many military campaigns, notably by Alexander the Great, Genghis Khan, and in modern era Western forces. The land also served as a source from which the Greco-Bactrians, Kushans, Saffarids, Ghaznavids, Ghorids,
The Ratonero Bodeguero Andaluz (Andalusian wine-cellar rat-hunting dog) is a Spanish breed of dog of the terrier type. Its name reflects its main occupation: hunting rats and mice hidden between barrels in the wineries of Andalusia in Spain. It was recognised as an indigenous Spanish breed in 2000 by the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture and by the Spanish Kennel Club, the Real Sociedad Canina de España.
The Ratonero Bodeguero Andaluz is of medium size, measuring between 13.75–16.9 inches (34.9–43 cm) at the withers, with an appearance very similar to that of the Jack Russell Terrier, to the extent that it has on occasion been called the Spanish Jack Russell. The breed is an agile dog with a lean and athletic build; the head is triangular with a semi-flat skull. The eyes are very dark and the Ratonero has a long muzzle, and high set ears that bend over at the tip. The tail is traditionally docked to one quarter of its length, however they may also be born with a natural bobtail.
The coat is short and dense, which is typically white. Its facial markings are a mixture of brown, white and black markings (known as tricolor), usually with tan-colored eyebrows, and always with a black
The Braques français (FCI breeds No. 133/134) are hunting dogs, from a very old type of gun dog used for pointing the location of game birds for a hunter. There are two breeds of Braque français, both from the south of France, the Braque français, type Gascogne (French Pointing Dog - Gascogne type, larger size, No. 133) and the Braque français, type Pyrénées (French Pointing Dog - Pyrenean type, smaller size, No. 134.) They are popular hunting dogs in France, but are seldom seen elsewhere.
Both breeds of Braque français are medium to large sized dogs with long legs and long drop ears. The tail is traditionally docked but may also be long, or naturally short. The coat is short, and chestnut brown or white speckled with brown in colour, often with one or more large brown spots. The head is usually brown. The Gascogne is about 10 cm (3.9 ins) taller at the withers than the Pyrenean.
Faults (elements of appearance that indicate that the dog should not be bred) in both breeds include no tail (anury), split nose or depigmented nose, syndactyly (toes grown together), surplus toes, or absence of toes.
The Braque français breeds are not just pointers, but versatile hunting dogs that can
The Bully Kutta or Pakistani Mastiff or simply Bully is a Alaunt descendant which has its origins in Pakistan, especially in Sindh and Punjab, where it is the most common guard dog. The word Bully derives from the English word Bull, because of its slight resemblance with a Bulldog, while the word Kutta means dog, in the local languages in Pakistan. Some people mistake this breed for the Alangu Mastiff, commonly known as Indian Mastiff, but Alangu Mastiff is almost extinct, even in South India. The current Bully Kutta. of Pakistani origin, is developed after years of breeding, and have achieved its unique stature, but still needs to be standardized as a breed.
The standard and original Bully kutta breed is white in color with black markings however shades of fawn, black, brown, and harlequin colors are also found, and with many different markings. The cross breeding of Original Bully kutta and Original Pakistani Bullterrier produces a breed known as Gull Dong or a Pakistani Bull Dog. The Bully kutta has made its way into the hearts of dog enthusiasts all over the world. In the past twenty years, a lot of copies have been made in UK, but the original specimens can still be found in
A Canadian Pointer is a breed of dog, developed as a gundog from the northeastern United States in the late 19th century. The Canadian Pointer is used primarily in hunting upland game.
Canadian Pointers are medium-sized dogs of muscular stature and a narrower gait than their English Pointer counterparts. Their front quarter and hind create a narrower stance than most pointers and they are traditionally less agile than other gundogs. The ears of the Canadian Pointer are shorter than those of both the English Pointer and Portuguese Pointer and the tail is of fuller coat and not straight as that of the English Pointer. The tail will traditionally measure 10-12 inches and will appear with a curl approximately three-fourths the length of the tail.
The coat of the Canadian Pointer is short and coarse, traditionally maintained at 1½ inches. The thicker coat is the single most distinguishable trait of the dog from the English Pointer as the Canadian Pointer was specifically bred for game pointing in colder climates of the northeastern U.S. and Canada. There are three accepted variations of colour in the Canadian Pointer: black & white, brown (dark) & white, brown (light) & white. Spotting
Denmark (/ˈdɛnmɑrk/; Danish: Danmark, pronounced [ˈd̥ɛnmɑɡ̊] ( listen)), officially the Kingdom of Denmark (Danish: Kongeriget Danmark, [ˈkɔŋəʁiːəð ˈd̥ɛnmɑɡ̊] ( listen)), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe, with two additional overseas constituent countries also forming integral parts of the kingdom; the Faroe Islands in the North Atlantic and Greenland in North America. Denmark proper is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, located southwest of Sweden, with which it is connected by a bridge-tunnel, and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. The country consists of a large peninsula, Jutland and many islands, most notably Zealand, Funen, Lolland, Falster and Bornholm, as well as hundreds of minor islands often referred to as the Danish Archipelago.
The Kingdom of Denmark is a constitutional monarchy organised in the form of a parliamentary democracy, with its seat of government in the capital city of Copenhagen. The kingdom is unitary, with powers to manage internal affairs being devolved from the central government to Greenland and the Faroe Islands; this polity is referred to as the rigsfællesskab (the Danish Realm). Denmark proper is the hegemonial
The Javanese is a breed of domestic cat recognized by cat fanciers as a show cat, more specifically an oriental longhair.
The Javanese cat is not from Java nor Indonesia. Genetically they are long-haired Oriental.". The term "Javanese cat" was coined by a Helen Smith of MerryMews Cattery circa 1950. It is unknown if she had ever traveled to Indonesia.
According to the Cat Fanciers' Association, the term "Javanese" is somewhat redundant- the preferred term is: "Oriental with points". The Oriental cat with points is the so-called Siamese.
The so-called "Javanese cat", as distinct from the literal domestic cats of Java, have long, silky coats in a variety of colors. The naive perversity of the name is not evident as the felix vulgaris of Java almost as a rule have very short hair approximately 2 cm long due to the hot and humid equatorial climate.
Javanese cats are referred to by show cat fanciers as colourpoint cats: showing odd or "rare" colors; such as red or white, or patternation; tabby and tortie.
It is noted as an intelligent cat and tends to vocalize, though often for no apparent reason. They are notably fond of play, jumping and human contact and allegedly depressed if
The Kromfohrländer (English pronunciation: /ˈkroʊmfərlændər/ KROHM-fər-land-ər) is a breed of dog that originated in Germany. It is used as a companion dog.
The Kromfohrländer is sometimes said to look like a cross between a retriever and a beagle, and comes in a variety of coat thicknesses: short-haired, long haired and wire-haired. The wire-haired variety is often said to look like a large Parson Russell Terrier. They are white with brown markings ranging from dark to light.
This dog is medium in size Height: 38 to 46 centimetres (15 to 18 in) at the withers. Weight: 10 to 14 kilograms (22 to 31 lb).
The Krom is a very lively, good-natured, intelligent breed with a comparatively weak hunting instinct, loves to play and run and can adapt to many situations fairly well. Kromfohrländers are very much "people dogs" and they rarely ever stray very far from their owner. They take to strangers and children rather hesitantly at first, but once they get familiar, they're friends for life.
Inherited Stifle-Joint Disease is a known medical problem in this breed
The Krom originates from Germany in the 1940s. The first Kroms were the result of an accidental mating of two mutts (or possibly a
The Old English Bulldog was a breed of dog.
The Old English Bulldog was compact, broad and muscular, as reflected in the well-known depiction Crib and Rosa. The average height was approximately 15 inches, and they weighed about 45 pounds. A particular characteristic of the breed was the lower jaw that projected considerably in front of the upper jaw, which made possible a strong, vice-like grip. The nose was deeply set in the face, which allowed the dog to get enough air as it gripped the bull.
The English blood sport of bull-baiting allowed for a specialized breed in the form of the Old English Bulldog. The main locations in London for these exhibitions were Westminster Pit, Bear Garden and Old Conduit Fields. One of the breeders who spanned the transition period between the Old English Bulldog and the modern Bulldog was famous dog dealer Bill George.
Historians are fairly confident that the Old English Bulldog is derived from ancient war dogs, such as the old Mastiff or Alaunt. Others believe that the true origin of the breed is not entirely clear. Depictions in old prints show that the variety was without doubt a small Mastiff with a comparatively long head. The word 'Mastiff'
The Teddy Roosevelt Terrier is an American hunting terrier that is a small to medium sized terrier. Lower-set with shorter leg, more muscular, and heavier bone density than its cousin the American Rat Terrier. There is much diversity in the history of the Teddy Roosevelt Terrier breed and it shares a common early history with the American Rat Terrier, Fox Paulistinha and Tenterfield Terrier. It is said the Rat Terrier background stems from the terriers or other dogs that were brought over by early English and other working class immigrants. Since the breed was a farm, hunting and utility dog there was little to no planned breeding other than breeding dogs with agreeable traits to each other in order to produce the desired work ethic in the dog. It is assumed that the Feist (dog), Bull Terrier, Smooth Fox Terrier, Manchester Terrier, Whippet, Italian Greyhound, the now extinct English White Terrier, Turnspit dog and or Wry Legged Terrier all share in the Teddy Roosevelt Terrier's ancestry. These early Ratting Terriers were then most likely bred to the Beagle or Beagle cross bred dogs (for increased scenting ability) and other dogs. Maximizing the influences from these various breeds
The Braque de l’Ariège, translated into English as the Ariege Pointing Dog or Ariege Pointer, is a breed of dog, a French hunting dog of pointing gun dog type. The breed is kept primarily as a hunting dog, not as a pet or showdog.
The breed is a normally proportioned dog with drop ears. The tail is traditionally docked. The coat is short and primarily white, speckled with larger patches of colours described as orange, liver, or chestnut on the head and ears. Size is about 60–67 cm (24-26 ins) in height at the withers. Dogs of the breed should appear powerful but without excessive heaviness, robust and of strong.
The dog type used by hunters in the Ariege region of the Pyrenees were said to be descended from dogs that were crosses of Perdigueiro de Burgos and the Bracco Italiano. The breed was developed in the 20th century by Braqque Saint-Germain and Braque Francais with the local dogs, to give them more lightness and activity. During World War II, the breed almost disappeared.
In 1990 a team of breeders decided to devote themselves to the Braque de l’Ariège's survival. In particular we have Mr. Alain Deteix to thank for the survival of the breed. He headed that team of breeders
The Australian Stumpy Tail Cattle Dog is a bobtailed, medium sized breed of dog. The Australian Stumpy Tail Cattle Dog was developed in Australia to herd cattle, and descends from crosses between European herding dogs and the Australian dingo.
The Stumpy Tail Cattle Dog is a normally proportioned, rugged dog with pricked (standing up) ears and long legs. The breed's most distinctive feature, for which the breed is named, is the frequent lack of a tail. When there is a tail, it is quite short, no longer than 10 cm (4 ins), and never docked. The coat is medium length to short, straight, dense and harsh. The coat color is a speckled red or speckled blue. Size is 46-51 cms (18-20 ins) at the withers for dogs, with females slightly smaller. The Australian Cattle Dog is a related breed (with a long tail) that is similar in appearance to the Stumpy, but the Australian Cattle Dog is proportionally heavier and less leggy. The Australian Stumpy Tail Cattle Dog also does not have the tan color seen in the Australian Cattle Dog. See the article Dog terminology for an explanation of terms.
The Australian Stumpy Tail Cattle Dog descended from Smithfield Cattle Dogs in England, which were brought
The Basque Shepherd Dog (Basque: Euskal artzain txakurra) is a breed of dog originating in the Basque Country and traditionally used by the local shepherds to help them take care of their cattle and sheep. Pastor Vasco or Perro de Pastor Vasco is the Spanish name, and Euskal Artzain Txakurra, is the Basque, by which they are known in their homeland. It is believed that they originated from Central European shepherd dogs.
These dogs are well proportioned, with strong, rectangular bodies and trotter features. Their eyes are oval and are brown or amber. Their ears are medium sized, triangular and sometimes show folds. The vivid yellow medium length rough coat is longer over the trunk than over the head and is shorter on the face, but does not hide the eyes. The relation between height and length is about 1/1.2. The head is rather light relative to the trunk, which is attached by a short neck and muscular.
Of the two distinct types of Basque Shepherd Dog, the more outgoing Gorbeikoa is the more pure and ancient of the two. It is recognized by the distinct cinnamon colored moderate length hair coat.
This sheepdog is one of the oldest dog breeds. Skeletal remains were found in Neolithic
The Bosnian Coarse-haired Hound or Bosanski Oštrodlaki Gonič, also called the Barak, is a hunting dog breed developed in Bosnia. The breed is a scenthound, originally used to hunt large game. The "Bosanski Oštrodlaki Gonič's" name is translated as coarse-haired, broken-haired, and rough-haired (among others), and refers to the texture of the shaggy coat (usually called broken-haired or hard in English.)
The former name given to the breed was Illyrian Hound, referring to a pre-Slavic people of the area. Today's breed is descended from indigenous dog types, crossed with an Italian gun dog in the 1890s. "Local hunters, wanting to produce an efficient scent hound, developed this breed in the nineteenth century, using the available stock of dogs." The early type of today's smaller Istrian Shorthaired Hound may also have contributed to the Bosnian Coarse-haired Hound.
The Bosnian Coarse-haired Hound was first recognised by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale in 1965 under the name of "Illyrian Hound". The name was changed to more accurately describe its area of origin in Bosnia. The breed is in Group 6, Scenthounds, Section 1.1 Large-sized Hounds, and is breed number 155. It is
A Briquet Griffon Vendéen is a breed of hunting dog originating in France. Prior to the first World War it was bred down in size by the Comte d’Elva from the Grand Griffon Vendéen, a descendant of the Canis Segusius used by the Gauls. The Briquet Griffon Vendéen was almost extinct after World War II, but thanks to the effort of Hubert Dezamy, a French dog show judge, the breed was restored.
The Briquet Griffon Vendéen has a short head, low-set ears and a bushy double coat. It comes in solid or mixed colors, fawn, light brown, white and orange, white and gray and even tri-colored. They stand from 20 - 22 inches at the withers. They weigh from 48 to 53 lbs.
The Briquet is a passionate hunter with stamina and fortitude. It should be able to pick up a cold trail as well as a hot one. Like its close relations the other vendeen hounds, the Briquet relishes its time outdoors with its family. While they are not high-strung, they are lively and enthusiastic dogs. Bred to work in packs as well as on their own, they get along well with other dogs and are not overly possessive about anything. They are fine companion for children.
Griffons do not particularly take to being told what to do. They
The hortaya borzaya (Russian: Хо́ртая Борза́я; IPA: [ˈxortəjə bɐrˈzajə], Ruthenian and Ukrainian: Xopт, Lithuanian: Kurtas, shorthaired sighthound) is an old Asian sighthound breed originating in the former Kievan Rus, later Grand Duchy of Lithuania (later Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) and Russian Empire. It is a dog of large size, of lean but at the same time robust build, of considerably elongated proportions. In its everyday life the hortaya is quiet and balanced. It has a piercing sight, capable of seeing a moving object at a very far distance. In spite of its calm temperament the dog has a very active reaction to running game. Hortaya are excellent, enduring hunting dogs endowed with a good, basic obedience and completely lacking aggression towards humans.
The hortaya is a sight hound of a large to very large size depending on breed type. The breed has five distinct types, with at least as many subtypes to each main type. The result of this is a broad variability, adapting the breed to the large variety of geography, climate and prey found across the huge expanse of its habitat.
The short, dense fur can come in almost any color and color combination: white, black, cream of
The Pekingese, or "Peke" (also commonly referred to as "Lion Dog" due to its resemblance to Chinese guardian lions, or "Pelchie Dog") is an ancient breed of toy dog, originating in China. The breed was favored by the Chinese Imperial court, and its name refers to the city of Beijing where the Forbidden City resides. The breed has several characteristics and health issues related to its unique appearance. Because of its desirable characteristics, the Pekingese has been part of the development of designer crossbreeds, such as the Pekeatese.
The Pekingese breed is over 2000 years old and has hardly changed in all that time. One exception is that modern breeders and dog-show judges seem to prefer the long-haired type over the more-traditional spaniel-type coat.
The Pekingese's flat face and large eyes are some of the breed's most obvious characteristics. The body is compact and low to the ground. Pekingese also have a muscular and durable body. The legs are noticeably bowed and restrict the Pekingese's movement. The breed's unusual rolling gait may have been deliberately developed by breeding to prevent the court dogs from wandering in ancient times.
All breed standards allow all sorts
The Selkirk Rex is a breed of cat with highly curled hair.
The Selkirk Rex is distinct from all other Rex breeds. Unlike the Devon Rex and Cornish Rex, the hair is of normal length and not partly missing. There are longhair and shorthair varieties. It differs from the LaPerm in that the Selkirk Rex coat is plusher and thicker. While the LaPerm gene is a simple dominant, the Selkirk gene (Se) acts as an incomplete dominant; incompletely dominant, allele pairs produce three possible genotypes and phenotypes: heterozygous cats (Sese) may have a fuller coat that is preferred in the show ring, while homozygous cats (SeSe) may have a tighter curl and less coat volume.
The Selkirk Rex originated in Montana, America in 1987, with a litter born to a rescued cat. The only unusually coated kitten in the litter was ultimately placed with breeder, Jeri Newman, who named her Miss DePesto (after a curly-haired character in the TV series Moonlighting played by Allyce Beasley). This foundation cat was bred to a black Persian male, producing three Selkirk Rex and three straight-haired kittens. This demonstrated that the gene had an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. All Selkirk Rex trace their
The Shikoku (四国犬, Shikoku-inu, alternative names: Kochi-ken, Mikawa Inu, Japanese Wolfdog) is a native, primitive Japanese breed of dog from Shikoku island that is similar to a Shiba Inu. The Shikoku is not a recognized breed of the American Kennel Club, but it is recognized by the Japanese Kennel Club, an organization recognized by AKC as an official foreign registry (AKC recognizes the Shiba Inu, however). The Shikoku is also in the Canadian Kennel Club Hound group and the United Kennel Club, awaiting full recognition. In 1937 the Japanese Crown recognized the Shikoku dog as a living "natural monument" of Japan.
The Shikoku is one of the native Japanese breeds intermediate in size between the large Akita Inu and the small Shiba Inu; all are within the Spitz family of dogs. The Shikoku was bred mainly for hunting deer and boar in the mountainous districts of Kochi Prefecture. It is sometimes called "Kochi-ken" and, along with the Kai dog, referred to as a deerhound.
A study of the 1930s carried out by the Japanese cynologist Haruo Isogai classified all native Japanese dog breeds into three categories: large-, medium-, and small-sized. The Shikoku belongs to the Shika-inus, the
Sporting Group is the name of a breed group of dogs, used by kennel clubs to classify a defined collection of dog breeds. Not all kennel clubs include the same breeds in the Sporting Group, and some kennel clubs do not use the Sporting Group classification. Sporting Group dogs are in general those used for hunting birds and small game, but not all dogs of this type are included in the Sporting Group of any particular kennel club.
One of the oldest meanings for the word sport in English is hunting as an entertainment for members of the nobility and elite classes. To assist in the hunting of birds and small game, various sporting types of dogs were developed, which became the ancestors of today's pointer, retriever, setter, and spaniel purebred dog breeds. Because they were developed as bird dogs with energetic hunting abilities in water and field settings, most sporting dogs require regular exercise. Their naturally active and alert demeanor also makes them likeable and well-rounded companions.
Abbreviations used in this section are:
Differences between kennel clubs are noted in parentheses.
The Thai Bangkaew Dog is an Asian dog breed. It is a medium-sized Spitz-type dog.
The Thai Bangkaew Dog is compactly built and square in profile. It is well proportioned, with a smooth gait. The double coat consists of a short undercoat, with longer guard hairs growing through it forming the outer coat. The coat is thicker and longer around the neck, chest, and back forming a lion-like ruff, which is more noticeable on male dogs than on female dogs. The plumed tail is carried with moderate upward curve over the back. The TBD comes in white with shades of red, gray, brown, and black in a wide variety of patterns.
Bangkaew is a village located in the Bang Rakam District, Phitsanulok Province in the central region of Thailand. In this district, near the Yom River, there is a monastery called Wat Bangkaew where it is believed that Thai Bangkaew Dogs originated.
Legend has it that the third abbot of Wat Bangkaew Temple, the respected Luang Puh Maak Metharee, was known for mercy and care given to all living things. An old Bangkaew villager named Tah Nim gave the abbot a native bitch. Because she was pregnant without any dog in the area, her mating was thought to be either a jackal or a
The Africanis is a landrace of South African dogs. It is believed to be of ancient origin, directly descended from hounds and pariah dogs of ancient Africa, introduced into the Nile Valley from the Levant. The Swahili name for the breed is umbwa wa ki-shenzi meaning common or mongrel or "traditional dog". Africanis is also an umbrella name for all the aboriginal dogs in southern Africa.
The Africanis Society of Southern Africa aims to conserve the Africanis as a landrace rather than develop it as a breed. The Africanis is recognized by the Kennel Union of South Africa (KUSA) as an emerging breed
The Africanis is a short-coated, medium-sized dog, well-muscled and slightly longer than tall. It can be of any colour and occasionally comes with a ridgeback. Its beauty is embodied in the simplicity and functionality of its body. It is slenderly built, agile, supple, and capable of great speed.
The Africanis is well disposed without being obtrusive: a friendly dog showing watchful territorial behaviour. The breed is independent and territorial, but highly trainable.
The Africanis needs neither pampering nor special food. It is consistently healthy and has over the years developed a
The Cirneco dell'Etna (plural Cirnechi) is a small breed of dog originally from Sicily. This hound was historically used to hunt rabbits and can work for hours without food or water. The breed also has a keen sense of smell and is primarily built for endurance over harsh terrain such as that of Mount Etna. It is the smallest of the Mediterranean island hunting hounds, the others being the Pharaoh Hounds and Ibizan Hounds.
Today they are increasingly kept for the sport of conformation showing and as pets, due to their low coat maintenance and friendly nature, although as an active hound they do need regular exercise. A Cirneco should measure from 43-51 cm (17-20in) and weigh between 10–12 kg (22-26lb). As with other breeds, those from hunting stock can lie outside these ranges.
Media related to Cirneco dell'Etna at Wikimedia Commons
The Fila Brasileiro (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈfilɐ ˌbraziˈlejɾu]) is a large working breed of dog developed in Brazil.
The Fila Brasileiro is a Molosser breed with large bones and loose skin. The breed standard requires males to be between 65 and 75 cm (25.5 inches to 29.5 inches) high at the withers and weigh at least 50 kg (110 lbs), and up to 180 lbs. Females are slightly smaller and are expected to be 60 to 70 cm (23.5 inches to 27.5 inches) high at the withers and weigh at least 40 kg (90 lbs). They have a rectangular build and though they are massive, their natural agility is apparent. The head is big and heavy with a deep muzzle. The ears are large, thick, tapered and either droop or fold back exposing the interior, depending on mood. Neck and back are well muscled, the chest is broad and deep. Unlike the vast majority of canines, the croup is higher than the withers. Legs are heavily boned.
The coat of the Fila Brasileiro is smooth and short. Black, Fawns (Red, Apricot, or Dark), and Brindled (Fawn, Black, or Brown Brindle) colors are permitted, except Mouse-Grey, Black and Tan, Blue and Solid White. White markings, not exceeding 1/4 of the coat surface area, are
The Hokkaido (北海道犬, Hokkaidō-Inu or Hokkaidō-Ken) is a breed of dog. Other names for the breed include Ainu-Ken and Seta. In Japan, its name is sometimes shortened to Dō-Ken. The Hokkaido is native to the prefecture of the same name in Japan.
The breed is medium in size, and has small, triangular, upright ears. The small eyes have a rising triangular outline. The Hokkaido has a coat of long, stiff fur, and a second, shorter coat of soft fur. Colors include red, white, black, tiger, sesame, black and tan and wolf-gray. Males are typically 50 cm tall, and females a few centimeters shorter, with body masses in the 20 kg range.
The breed is known for faithfulness to its owner, bravery, and the ability to withstand the cold, among other traits. It has an innate sense of direction and can therefore return to its master no matter how great the distance. This breed has the unusual capability of fighting against the Hokkaido Brown Bear, or Higuma to protect its master. The way in which the Ainu Dog accomplishes this is to scurry up the bear's back and sink its upper and lower incisors full force into the dorsal flesh of the bear's neck until the bear retires. Despite its long history as a
The Huntaway is a large, strongly-built breed of dog used for general sheep herding tasks in New Zealand, where they originate, but especially for driving sheep away from the shepherd, hence their name. They are usually black and tan coloured and were bred to use their loud, deep bark to herd sheep. The breed is relatively new, dating as a distinct breed from the late 19th century. Dogs that win at trials may be registered by the New Zealand Sheep Dog Trial Association in their studbook, but the breed does not have a defined appearance or lineage, and is distinguished only on working ability.
Huntaways are large, deep-chested dogs that generally weigh in the region of 18–30 kg (40-65 pounds). Their coats can vary in colour; colours include black, black and tan (usually) with some white or brindle. Their coats can also come in different textures; they can be smooth, rough, or grizzly and they are generally floppy eared. A huntaway’s height is usually about 50-60 cm (20-24 inches) tall.
They are required to have great intelligence, agility and stamina for days of working on steep, rough country over large distances, driving very large mobs of sheep. Their bark is deep and repeating,
The Mudhol Hound is an Indian breed of dog of the sight hound type. The breed is also known as Caravan Hound and the feathered variety is commonly referred to as a Pashmi. In the villages he is known as the Karwani. It is a common companion amongst village folk in India's Deccan Plateau, who use the dog for hunting and guarding.
The Kennel Club of India (KCI) and Indian National Kennel Club (INKC) recognize the breed under different breed names. The KCI registers it as a Caravan Hound while the INKC goes with the name Mudhol Hound.
The Mudhol/Caravan of today has well-defined characteristics. The head is long and narrow, broad between the ears with a tapering muzzle. The jaws are long and powerful, with a scissors bite. The nose is large, and may be black, liver, or flesh coloured. The ears are medium sized, very slightly rounded at the tips, and hang close to the skull. The eyes are large and oval in shape, and may be dark or light in colour. The expression is a piercing gaze. The neck is long, clean, and muscular, and fits well into the shoulders. The forelegs are long, straight and well-boned. The males are 68–72 cm in height at the withers and the females are 64–68 cm tall. The
The Muggin is a small domestic dog. It is a cross between the a Miniature Pinscher and a Pug, and Muggin is a portmanteau word combining sounds from the two breed names.
The Muggin takes characteristics from both of its parents, and the appearance of Muggins will vary. Purchasers of Muggin puppies should meet the breeder of their dog and visit the kennel to look at the parents to get a rough idea of what their puppy will look like when grown. Refer to the articles on the Miniature Pinschers and Pugs for a range of possible sizes, coats, and colors.
Muggins are first-generation crosses, with two purebred parents. Their appearance is similar to another cross called by its breeder the Carlin Pinscher. That dog is also from Miniature Pinschers and Pugs, but with other breeds mixed in, as an attempt to create a new breed. The American Canine Hybrid Club, a U.S. based website which provides a forum and, for a fee, allows breeders to create a specific portmanteau word for a cross if they apply before anyone else, lists the Miniature Pinscher and Pug crosses as Muggins. Hybrids are crosses between two species, such as domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) and other canids such as Red Fox
The New Guinea Singing Dog (also known as the New Guinea Dingo, Hallstrom Dog, Bush Dingo,, New Guinea Wild Dog, and Singer) is a wild dog once found throughout New Guinea. New Guinea Singing Dogs are named for their unique vocalization.
Little is known about New Guinea Singing Dogs in their native habitat. There are no confirmed photographs of wild Singing Dogs. Current genetic research indicates that the ancestors of New Guinea Dingoes were probably taken overland through present day China to New Guinea by travelers during pre-Neolithic times.
Captive-bred New Guinea Dingoes serve as companion dogs. Part of conservation efforts focus attention on their exceptional intelligence and physical abilities.
The first Singing Dog was taken from New Guinea in 1897. At that time many naturalists killed their specimens and studied them later. Such was the case with the first New Guinea Dingo, which was shot and killed by Sir William MacGregor on Mount Scratchley at an elevation of 2,133 metres (6,998 ft).
MacGregor sent both the skin and the skeleton, preserved in alcohol, to the Queensland Museum. He described the dog as 11.5 in (29 cm) at the shoulder and primarily black in colour. White
The Patterdale Terrier is a breed of working dog that originated in the Lake District of Cumbria in Northwest England. The name Patterdale refers to a small village a little south of Ullswater and a few miles east of Helvellyn.
The Patterdale is a type of Fell Terrier. The Patterdale terrier was "improved" and brought into the Kennel Club as the Welsh Terrier after a brief naming struggle in which the name "Old English Broken-coated Terrier" was attempted before being rejected by the Kennel Club hierarchy. The Patterdale Terrier is sometimes called the "Old English Terrier" or the "Fell Terrier".
The Patterdale Terrier is a small working dog. In the UK it is not a dog type that is recognized by the UK Kennel Cub as a pedigree. As such the Patterdale has been bred as a working dog, so the appearance can differ widely. This phenomenon is common in several types of working dog, including the Border Collie.
There is no breed standard in the UK, most working dogs stand between 12 -15 inches the withers and weighs between 14 and 20 pounds. The preferred size depends on the quarry. In the UK, all sizes are in use, depending on the terrain and quarry: in the UK, the most common quarry was
Perro de presa mallorquin is a typical Molossian of somewhat elongated build, strong and powerful, of medium size. The difference between the sexes is apparent in the head, whose circumference is definitely greater in dogs than in bitches. The Perro de Presa Mallorquin was almost extinct after World War II, and the few remaining dogs were crossed with Ca de Bestiar, English Bulldog and perhaps Perro de Toro.
The Balearic Islands are an archipelago of four large islands and eleven small islands in the Mediterranean off the east coast of Spain. Its people and language are Catalan based. The bigger of these islands is Majorca.
In 1232, the King of Aragon expelled the Moors from the Balearics. The Spanish brought with them the Iberican Mastiff. Many of today's Spanish breeds of mastiffs, claim to be this breed; the Spanish mastiff, the Pyrenean mastiff or the old Spanish Alano, some Ca de Bestiar breeders believe that their dog was the breed that King James I brought over.
The first written mention of the Spanish Alano was in 1350 in King Alfonso XI's Book of Hunting. The Ca de Bestiars' origin on the island is dated as 16th or 17th century. In the French translation they call the
The Smaland Hound (Swedish: Smålandsstövare) is a breed of dog that originated in Sweden in the 16th century. Thought to be the oldest scent hound breed native to Sweden, it was first recognized by the Swedish Kennel Club in 1921. They are the smallest of the Swedish hound breeds, and have black and tan markings similar to the Rottweiler. Internationally, it is recognized by a number of kennel clubs and registries including the Fédération Cynologique Internationale and United Kennel Club. It is considered rare, even in its native Sweden where only around sixty puppies are registered each year.
The breed has existed in Sweden since the 16th century. The name originated from the breed's links with Småland in southern Sweden. During the time of the Swedish Empire a number of wars were fought, with soldiers returning to their native country bringing a variety of hound breeds with them. These hounds were bred with local spitz type dogs, and the offspring became the foundation stock of the modern Smålandsstövare.
Farmers in Sweden preferred an all around hunting dog as they could often only afford to feed a single hunting dog, and so the breed became adept at hunting a number of quarry
The American Mastiff is a molosser-type dog created by Fredericka Wagner of Flying W Farms by crossing an English Mastiff and an Anatolian Mastiff. In 2000, the breed was recognized by the Continental Kennel Club as purebred.
In an attempt to address issues of hip displasia, drooling, and a short lifespan, Fredericka Wagner of Flying W Farms crossed an English Mastiff with an Anatolian Mastiff, a breed known for its intelligence and lengthy lifespan for a large breed. Through very selective breeding, the American Mastiff was born. The American Mastiff looks similar to the English Mastiff. This line is relatively new, and the breeders have chosen not to register with most breed registries. They can be registered with the Continental Kennel Club, which recognized the line as purebred in 2000. American Mastiffs were bred to be family dogs, not show dogs. There are 8 authorized breeders in North America which comprise the American Mastiff Breeders Council (AMBC) and whose dogs' bloodlines can be traced exclusively back to Flying W Farms. This is not the same as the American Mastiff Panja, which has lines of Pit bull and Rottweiler.
American Mastiffs are generally calm and quiet dogs
The Dogo Argentino (also known as the Argentine Mastiff) is a large, white, muscular dog that was developed in Argentina primarily for the purpose of big-game hunting, including wild boar and puma; the breeder, Antonio Nores Martinez, also wanted a dog that would exhibit steadfast bravery and willingly protect its human companion to the death. It was first bred in 1928, from the Cordoba Fighting Dog along with a wide array of other breeds including, but not limited to, the Great Dane.
The Dogo Argentino is a large white short-coated dog with very muscular and strong body that rarely has any markings (any type of marking or spot on the coat is considered a flaw.
Height: From 24 ½ to 27 inches inches (females) or 25 to 29 inches (males), measured at the withers (the neck and the head of the dog measure 1/3 of the whole height at the withers). Weight: From 90 to 130 pounds. The length of the body is just slightly longer than the height, but female dogs may be somewhat longer in body than male dogs. The length of the front leg (measured from point of elbow to the ground) is approximately equal to one-half of the dog's height at the withers. The head has a broad, slightly domed skull
The Basset Bleu de Gascogne (French pronunciation: [bɑsɛ blø də ɡasˈkɔɲ]), also known as the Blue Gascony Basset, is a long-backed, short legged breed of dog of the hound type. A breed with origins in the Middle Ages which descends from the Grand Bleu de Gascogne however it nearly went extinct around the early 19th century and its saviour was attributed to Alain Bourbon. A French native breed, it is rare outside of its homeland. It is recognized internationally by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale, in the UK by The Kennel Club, and by the United Kennel Club in the United States. The "bleu" of its name is a reference to its coat which has a ticked appearance.
The color of their coat is predominantly white, ticked so as to give a bluish appearance, with brown spots and tan markings above the eyes and on the ears. They are a smooth-coated breed. Height at the withers is usually between 34 and 42 centimetres (13 and 17 in) although the Kennel Club standard specifies 30–38 centimetres (12–15 in). Their general appearance is usually not too heavy, and they weigh between 16 and 18 kilograms (35 and 40 lb). They have dark brown eyes and low-set ears that can reach at least the end
Brindle is a coat coloring pattern in animals, particularly dogs, cats, cattle, guinea pigs, crested geckos and, rarely, horses. It is sometimes described as "tiger striped", although the brindle pattern is more subtle than that of a tiger's coat. The streaks of color are irregular and usually darker than the base color of the coat, although very dark markings can be seen on a coat that is only slightly lighter.
The brindle pattern may also take the place of tan in tricolor coats of some dog breeds (such as Basenjis). This coloration looks very similar to tricolor, and can be distinguished only at close range. Dogs of this color are often described as "trindle". It can also occur in combination with merle in the points, or as a brindle merle, in breeds such as the Cardigan Welsh Corgi, although the latter is not acceptable in the show ring. The "dark" markings are black or the dilutions gray (called blue) or brown (sometimes called red).
Brindle is an old variety in guinea pigs. They are difficult to breed to perfection as the black and red hairs should intermingle evenly all over. Brindle guinea pigs' fur type is Abyssinian (rosetted).
Brindle coloring in horses is extremely rare
The British Shorthair is a domesticated cat whose features make it a popular breed in cat shows. It has been the most popular breed of cat registered by the UK's Governing Council of the Cat Fancy (GCCF) since 2001, when it overtook the Persian breed.
The British Shorthair is the descendant of cats brought to Britain by the Romans that interbred with wild native cats. They were later crossbred with Persian cats to improve the thickness of their coat. The breed was defined in the 19th century and British Shorthairs were shown at the 1871 Crystal Palace cat show. The popularity of the breed declined by the 1940s, but since the end of World War II, breeding programmes have intensified and the breed's popularity is high once again.
British Shorthairs have dense, plush coats that are often described as crisp or cracking, referring to the way the coat breaks over the contours of the cat's body. Eyes are large, round and widely set and can be a variety of colours, though the copper or gold eyes of the British blue are the best known. Their heads are round with full, chubby cheeks. Their bodies are large, sturdy, and muscular and are described as having a "cobby" build. The breed has a
The Canadian Eskimo Dog is an Arctic breed of dog (Canis lupus familiaris), which is often considered to be North America’s oldest and rarest remaining purebred indigenous domestic canine. Other names include Qimmiq (Inuit for "dog"). Although once used as the preferred method of transportation by Inuit in the Canadian Arctic, traditional working dog teams became increasingly rare in the North after the 1960s. This is often cited a result of snowmobiles becoming more popular, however it may also be the result of the alleged organized and systematic mass slaughter of Inuit sled dogs in the Eastern Arctic between 1950 and 1970 by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.
The Canadian Eskimo Dog should always be powerfully built, athletic, and imposing in appearance. It should be of "powerful physique giving the impression that he is not built for speed but rather for hard work." As is typical of spitz breeds, it has erect, triangular ears, and a heavily feathered tail that is carried over its back. Males should be distinctly more masculine than females, who are finer boned, smaller, and often have a slightly shorter coat.
Its superficial similarity to wolves was often noted by explorers
The Cavapoo (Cavoodle or sometimes Cavadoodle), is a type of dog that is a cross between a Cavalier King Charles Spaniel and Poodle, most often a Miniature Poodle. The name Cavapoo is a portmanteau name, following the naming trend of the "designer dog" crossbreeding fad.
The cavapoo is generally a very affectionate, people-oriented pet. They tend to inherit the intelligence of the poodle and the laid back, people pleasing tendency of the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel. They love to please, and generally require only mild discipline when training (for example, a harsh tone of voice). Although the cavapoo is usually friendly towards everyone, it can often bond strongly to one person. This dog does not do well being left completely alone for long periods of time, since they love human company more than just about anything. Also, this dog may alert you to an intruder with a bark, they are in no way a guard dog. The cavapoo is a friendly, affectionate tail wagger who will follow you from room to room and cuddle on your lap for hours.
Like the parent breeds, this cross is generally easy to train, and may do well in competitive obedience and other dog activities. They can be energetic
A Dunker is a breed of dog also known as the Norwegian Hound. It was bred by Wilhelm Dunker by crossing a Russian Harlequin Hound with dependable Norwegian scent hounds.
Head: Is Elongated, but not wedge shaped and a moderate stop.
Eyes: Fairly large and dark in color and a tranquil expression.
Ears: Long, thin, soft, flat ears, rounded at tips, and carried close to head. Muzzle: Long and narrow.
Nose: Black and self-colored according to coat. Bite: Usually level. Neck: Long and clean.
Chest: Deep and well rounded. Belly is not tucked up.
Body: Back is straight and strong, with broad and muscular loins, it has marbled saddle markings on the coat.
Legs: Are Angulated, and well set. Above hocks are robustly boned.
Feet: Compact, with close toes.
Tail: Strong, but never curled.
Movement: Good reach, with well balanced movement.
Temperament: Energetic, free-spirited, with good movement.
Pelt color: Color is black or blue marbled saddle; with pale fawn and white markings. Warm brown or black is less desirable, but acceptable.
Weight: Around 35–49 lb. (16–22 kg)
Height: Around 18½–22½ in. (47–57 cm)
The Dunker has round, tipped, smooth ears and sloping shoulders. It also
Herding Group is the name of a breed Group of dogs, used by kennel clubs to classify a defined collection of dog breeds. It does not refer to one particular type of dog. How the Herding Group is defined varies among kennel clubs, and different kennel clubs may not include the same breeds in their Herding Group. Some kennel clubs do not use the term Herding Group. The international kennel club association, the Fédération Cynologique Internationale, does not have a Herding Group, and includes most pastoral dogs in Group 1 Sheepdogs and Cattle Dogs (except Swiss Cattle Dogs) and Group 2 Pinscher and Schnauzer - Molossoid Breeds - Swiss Mountain and Cattle Dogs.
Herding dogs assist humans in the movement of livestock, especially cattle, sheep, goats and reindeer. Herding dogs are not livestock guardians, a separate type of dog that also works with livestock.
The vast majority of herding dogs, as household pets, never cross paths with a farm animal. Nevertheless, pure instinct prompts many of these dogs to gently herd their owners, especially the children of the family. In general, these intelligent dogs make excellent companions and respond beautifully to training exercises.
The Kintamani is a dog native to the Indonesian island of Bali. It is a popular pet for the Balinese and locally Bali's only official breed and efforts are currently under way to have the dog accepted by the Federation Cynologique Internationale as a recognized breed. It is an evolving breed indigenous to the Kintamani region which evolved from the local Bali street dogs, which are rather a feral random-bred landrace distinctive to Bali.
Genetic studies have shown that, despite evidence to the contrary, the Kintamani dog is native to Bali. Thirty-one highly polymorphic short tandem repeat markers from Kintamani dogs, Bali street dogs, Australian dingoes, and nine American Kennel Club (AKC) recognized breeds of northeast Asian or European origin were compared. The Kintamani dog was identical to the Bali street dog at all but three loci. The Bali street dog and Kintamani dog were most closely aligned with the Australian dingo, more distantly related to AKC recognized breeds of Chinese origin, and most distantly related to AKC breeds from of western Eurasia. Therefore, the Kintamani dog has evolved from Balinese feral dogs with little loss of genetic diversity.
These results come
Kurī is the Māori language name for the Polynesian dog. It was introduced to New Zealand by Māori during their migrations from East Polynesia sometime around 1280 AD. It was used by Māori as a food source and the skin and hair was used for making dog-skin cloaks Kahu kurī, belts, decorating weapons, and poi.
The kurī became extinct in New Zealand some time after the arrival of European settlers. The last known specimens, a female and her pup, are now in the collection of the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa.
The Manx cat (/ˈmæŋks/; Manx language: kayt Manninagh), in earlier times often spelled Manks, is a breed of domestic cat (Felis catus) originating on the Isle of Man in the British Isles, with a naturally occurring mutation that shortens the tail. Many Manx have a small stub of a tail, but Manx cats are best known as being entirely tailless; this is the most distinguishing characteristic of the breed, along with elongated rear legs and a rounded head. Manx cats come in all coat colours and patterns, though all-white specimens are rare, and the coat range of the original stock was more limited. Long-haired variants are sometimes considered a separate breed, the Cymric. Manx are prized as skilled hunters, and thus have often been sought by farmers with rodent problems, and been a preferred ship's cat breed. They are said to be social, tame and active. An old local term for the cats is stubbin. Manx have been exhibited in cat shows since the 1800s, with the first known breed standard published in 1903.
Tailless cats, then called stubbin (apparently both singular and plural) in the Manx language, were known before the 18th century on the Isle of Man (Mann), hence the name, where they
The Oriental Shorthair is a breed of cat. This cat combines the Siamese body with a diversity of colorings and patterns.
Oriental Shorthairs are intelligent, social animals who bond very closely to their people. They are often inquisitive, friendly, emotional, demanding and often quite vocal. Their purr can be extremely loud when happy.
The Oriental Shorthair is a member of the Siamese family. They can be found in solid colors (white, red, chocolate, cream, ebony, blue, lavender, cinnamon, or fawn), smoke (white undercoat to any of the above except white), shaded (only the hair tips colored), parti-color (red or cream splashes on any of the above), tabby (mackerel/striped, ticked, spotted, and blotched/classic), and bi-colored (any of the above, with white). In total, over 300 color and pattern combinations are possible.
In the Cat Fanciers' Association, some of the pointed cats from Oriental Shorthair parents are considered any other variety (AOV), and depending on the pedigree, some compete as Colorpoints. In TICA, as well as in the majority of worldwide cat associations, these cats are considered to be and compete as Siamese.
Oriental Shorthairs, like any of the Siamese type,
The Serbian Tricolour Hound (srpski trobojni gonič or trobojac) is a breed of dog of the hound type. Formerly called the Yugoslavian Tricolour Hound, the name was changed for clarity after the breakup of Yugoslavia in 1991. The breed was first exhibited at shows in 1950. At one time it was considered a variation of the Serbian Hound, but was recognised by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale as a separate breed in 1961.
The Serbian Tricolour Hound is a medium-large scenthound that was bred as a running hound (free running to seek game on its own, not on a leash.) It is used on feral pigs or wild boar and other large game as well as hare and fox.
The Serbian Tricolour Hound is a devoted breed that loves its master without question and will loyally stand by him for all his life. It is a kind breed but also a tenacious hunter that performs very well in the field and has been a very successful hunting companion for many years.
The Serbian Tricolour Hound is one of a group of scenthounds that has existed in the Balkans for a long time. For many years, the breed was regarded as simply a variety of other Serbian scenthounds, but in 1946 this was strongly refuted and the breed was
Australian in development, the forebears of the Tenterfield Terrier accompanied Australia's first white settlers who sailed from Portsmouth in England's south. These small basically white dogs were vermin killers, surviving this harsh country without pampering. Today they are strong, hardy, active and agile, their smooth short coat making them 'easy care' family companions. Their unique feature is their naturally occurring bob tail which can come in any length.
Whilst having a square or compact body, no feature of a Tenterfield's construction should be exaggerated. Hence Tenterfields should not have an elongated head like a Fox Terrier. Rather, the head is wedge shaped with equal length from occiput to stop and stop to the end of the nose. This gives the head parallel head planes, making the head unique in this Group. The Tenterfield Terrier can also have pricked or erect ears or semi-erect ears. Tenterfield Terriers stand around 28cm (11 inches) high and can come in tan and white, black and white, liver/tan/white tri-coloured or black/tan/white tri-coloured.
The forebears of the Tenterfield Terrier accompanied Australia's first white settlers who sailed from Portsmouth in the
Tonkinese are a medium-sized cat breed distinguished by points as with Siamese and Birman breeds. They are lively, friendly, often talkative cats, with gregarious personalities, and can live indoors if given enough exercise. They are commonly referred to as 'Tonks'. As with many cat breeds, the exact history of the Tonkinese varies to some degree depending on the historian. They also have fur markings of the Siamese and the Birman cats such as the Siamese cats points on the ears, face, back, tail, and paws.They can have big dark paws,a stocky muscular build in the body,head, and paws. The coloration can be darker or lighter depending on weather.
Tonkinese cats are the result of a recent crossbreeding between the Siamese and Burmese cat breeds, although some assert that Tonkinese-like cats have existed since at least the early 19th century, and the founding cat of the Burmese breed was probably a mink hybrid-colored cat named "Wong Mau," a small walnut colored cat imported to California by Dr. Joseph Cheesman Thompson in 1930. Some claim that the appearance of the breed is closer to the original appearance of the Siamese, before Siamese breeders developed today's triangular head and
The United States of America (commonly called the United States, the U.S., the USA, America, and the States) is a federal constitutional republic consisting of fifty states and a federal district. The country is situated mostly in central North America, where its forty-eight contiguous states and Washington, D.C., the capital district, lie between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, bordered by Canada to the north and Mexico to the south. The state of Alaska is in the northwest of the continent, with Canada to the east and Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. The state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. The country also possesses several territories in the Pacific and Caribbean. At 3.79 million square miles (9.83 million km) and with over 314 million people, the United States is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area, and the third-largest by both land area and population. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many countries.
Paleoindians migrated from Asia to what is now the United States mainland around 15,000 years ago. The Native American population descendent from