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Photophobia (from Greek φῶς - phōs, "light" and φόβος - phobos, "fear") is a symptom of abnormal intolerance to visual perception of light. As a medical symptom photophobia is not a morbid fear or phobia, but an experience of discomfort or pain to the eyes due to light exposure or by presence of actual physical photosensitivity of the eyes, though the term is sometimes additionally applied to abnormal or irrational fear of light such as heliophobia.
Patients may develop photophobia as a result of several different medical conditions, related to the eye or the nervous system. In some cases those who are born with it see the full spectrum of light. While in the direct sun light it causes red glare around the visual field which causes pounding headaches. Photophobia can be caused by an increased response to light starting at any step in the visual system, such as:
Common causes of photophobia include migraine headaches, cataracts, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI), or severe ophthalmologic diseases such as uveitis or corneal abrasion. A more extensive list follows:
Causes of photophobia relating directly to the eye itself include:
Neurological causes for photophobia include:
Fear of being buried alive is the fear of being placed in a grave while still alive as a result of being incorrectly pronounced dead. The abnormal, psychopathological version of this fear is referred to as taphophobia (from Greek τάφος - taphos, "grave, tomb" and φόβος - phobos, "fear"), which is translated as "fear of graves".
Before the advent of modern medicine, the fear was not entirely irrational. Throughout history, there have been numerous cases of people being buried alive by accident. In 1905, the English reformer William Tebb collected accounts of premature burial. He found 219 cases of near live burial, 149 actual live burials, 10 cases of live dissection and 2 cases of awakening while being embalmed.
The 18th century had seen the development of mouth-to-mouth resuscitation and crude defibrillation techniques to revive persons considered dead, and the Royal Humane Society had been formed as the Society for the Recovery of Persons Apparently Drowned. In 1896, an American funeral director, T.M. Montgomery, reported that "nearly 2% of those exhumed were no doubt victims of suspended animation," although folklorist Paul Barber has argued that the incidence of burial alive
Horace Leonard Gold (April 26, 1914 – February 21, 1996) was a science fiction writer and editor. Born in Canada, Gold moved to the United States at the age of two. He was most noted for bringing an innovative and fresh approach to science fiction while he was the editor of Galaxy Science Fiction, and also wrote briefly for DC Comics.
During the 1930s, Gold wrote stories for pulp magazines, beginning with "Inflexure" (as Clyde Crane Campbell) in Astounding Science Fiction (October 1934), and later working for Standard Magazines, Fawcett Comics and Timely Comics. He used the Campbell pen-name for his first half-dozen or so stories in 1934/35. When he resumed his writing career in 1938 he took the billing Horace L. Gold, but soon shortened it to the now more familiar H. L. Gold.
Gold's most noted stories tended more toward fantasy, like his "Trouble with Water" (1939). In 1939-41 he was an assistant editor on a trio of science fiction magazines -- Captain Future, Thrilling Wonder Stories and Startling Stories. His 1939 novel, None But Lucifer in Unknown (September 1939) was a collaboration with L. Sprague de Camp.
During the early 1940s, Gold teamed with Kendell Foster Crossen on
Personality disorders are a class of personality types and enduring behaviors associated with significant distress or disability, which appear to deviate from social expectations particularly in relating to other humans.
Personality disorders are included as mental disorders on Axis II of the Diagnostic manual of the American Psychiatric Association, and in the mental and behavioral disorders section of the ICD manual of the World Health Organization. Personality, defined psychologically, is the set of enduring behavioral and mental traits that distinguish human beings. Hence, personality disorders are defined by experiences and behaviors that differ from societal norms and expectations. Those diagnosed with a personality disorder may experience difficulties in cognition, emotiveness, interpersonal functioning or control of impulses. In general, personality disorders are diagnosed in 40-60 percent of psychiatric patients, making them the most frequent of all psychiatric diagnoses.
These behavioral patterns in personality disorders are typically associated with substantial disturbances in some behavioral tendencies of an individual, usually involving several areas of the
Daryl Christine Hannah (born December 3, 1960) is an American film actress. She is best known for her performances in the films Splash, Blade Runner, Roxanne, Wall Street, Steel Magnolias, and Kill Bill.
Hannah was born in Chicago, Illinois, the daughter of Susan Jeanne (née Metzger), a producer and former schoolteacher, and Donald Christian Hannah, a tugboat and barge company owner. Her parents divorced and her mother subsequently married Jerrold Wexler, a businessman and brother of Haskell Wexler, a cinematographer. She grew up with siblings Don and Page Hannah and half-sister Tanya Wexler, in Long Grove, Illinois.
Hannah became interested in movies at a young age, partly due to insomnia. She says she was very shy and may have Asperger Syndrome. Hannah attended the progressive Francis W. Parker School (where she played on the soccer team) before enrolling at the University of Southern California.
Hannah made her film debut in 1978 with a brief appearance in Brian De Palma's horror film The Fury. She turned down many roles early on in her career, including the role of Emmeline Lestrange for The Blue Lagoon (that ultimately went to Brooke Shields). Her first notable role came as
Sarah Jane Smith is a fictional character played by Elisabeth Sladen in the long-running British BBC Television science-fiction series Doctor Who and two of its spin-offs.
An investigative journalist, Sarah Jane is one of the Doctor's longest serving companions. She appears in 18 stories with the Third and Fourth incarnations of the Doctor, on the programme from 1973 to 1976 (seasons 11 – 14). She and robotic dog K-9 appear in the 1981 television pilot K-9 and Company. She returns in the Fifth Doctor story The Five Doctors (1983) and the 30th-anniversary story Dimensions In Time (1993). After the programme's revival in 2005, she appears in several episodes with the Tenth Doctor, and once with the Eleventh Doctor, as the central character of her own series The Sarah Jane Adventures from 2007 to 2011.
Doctor Who producer Barry Letts offered the part of Sarah Jane to actress April Walker, who accepted the role and was duly contracted by the BBC. When introduced to Jon Pertwee, it became clear to Letts that the two had little chemistry or rapport and were physically mis-matched, leading to him releasing Walker, who was paid in full for the entire series run. Letts began a second batch
Anthony Irwin "Tony" Kornheiser (/ˈkɔrnhaɪzər/; born July 13, 1948) is an American sportswriter and former columnist for The Washington Post, as well as a radio and television talk show host. Kornheiser has hosted The Tony Kornheiser Show on radio in various forms since 1992, co-hosted Pardon the Interruption on ESPN since 2001 with Michael Wilbon, and served as an analyst for ESPN's Monday Night Football from 2006-2008.
Kornheiser was born and raised to a Jewish family in Kings Park, New York, on Long Island where he attended George W. Hewlett High School. After graduation, he enrolled at Harpur College (now Binghamton University), where he began his journalism career and graduated with a degree in English in 1970.
Kornheiser is the only child of Ira (1910–2000) and Estelle Kornheiser (1915-1978). Kornheiser grew up in a Jewish household, and celebrated his Bar Mitzvah at a Conservative synagogue. Kornheiser currently resides in Washington, D.C., as well as Rehoboth Beach, Delaware, with his wife Karril. They have two children, Michael and Elizabeth.
On August 15, 2006, Kornheiser revealed on The Dan Patrick Show that he had skin cancer and had received treatment.
Anglophobia (from Latin Anglus "English" + Greek φόβος -phobos, "fear") means hatred or fear of England or the English people. The term is sometimes used more loosely for general Anti-British sentiment. Its opposite is Anglophilia.
In his essay "Notes on Nationalism", written in May 1945 and published in the first issue of the intellectual magazine Polemic (October 1945), George Orwell wrote, 'Welsh, Irish and Scottish nationalism have points of difference but are alike in their anti-English orientation.'.
In a 2003 survey of 500 English people living in Scotland, one quarter said that they had been harassed or discriminated against by the Scots.
A 2005 study by Hussain and Millar of the Department of Politics at the University of Glasgow examined the prevalence of Anglophobia in relation to Islamophobia in Scotland. One finding of the report suggested that national ‘phobias’ have common roots independent of the nations they are directed toward. The study states that:
Scottish identity comes close to rivalling low levels of education as an influence towards Anglophobia. Beyond that, having an English friend reduces Anglophobia by about as much as having a Muslim friend reduces
William Ford Gibson (born March 17, 1948) is an American-Canadian speculative fiction novelist who has been called the "noir prophet" of the cyberpunk subgenre. Gibson coined the term "cyberspace" in his short story "Burning Chrome" (1982) and later popularized the concept in his debut novel, Neuromancer (1984). In envisaging cyberspace, Gibson created an iconography for the information age before the ubiquity of the Internet in the 1990s. He is also credited with predicting the rise of reality television and with establishing the conceptual foundations for the rapid growth of virtual environments such as video games and the World Wide Web.
Having changed residence frequently with his family as a child, Gibson became a shy, ungainly teenager who often read science fiction. After spending his adolescence at a private boarding school in Arizona, Gibson evaded the draft during the Vietnam War by emigrating to Canada in 1968, where he became immersed in the counterculture and after settling in Vancouver eventually became a full-time writer. He retains dual citizenship. Gibson's early works are bleak, noir near-future stories about the effect of cybernetics and computer networks on
Autophobia (or Monophobia) is the phobia of being alone. The word is derived from the Greek words αὐτός (autós, "self") and φόβος (phóbos, "fear"). A secondary meaning of the term is for the much rarer condition of true autophobia, that is, fear or mistrust of oneself.
Blood phobia (also, AE: Hemophobia, BE: Haemophobia, from Greek αἷμα - haima, "blood" and φόβος - phobos, "fear") is the extreme and irrational fear of blood. Severe cases of this fear can cause physical reactions that are uncommon in most other fears, specifically vasovagal syncope (fainting). Similar reactions can also occur with trypanophobia and traumatophobia. For this reason, these phobias are categorized as "blood-injection-injury phobia" by the DSM-IV. Some early texts refer to this category as "blood-injury-illness phobia."
Blood phobia is often caused by direct or vicarious trauma in childhood or adolescence. Though some have suggested a possible genetic link, a study of twins suggests that social learning and traumatic events, rather than genetics, is the primary problem.
The standard approach to treatment is the same as with other phobias - cognitive-behavioral therapy, desensitization, and possibly medications to help with the anxiety and discomfort. In recent years, the technique known as applied tension, applying tension to the muscles in an effort to increase blood pressure, has increasingly gained favor as an often effective treatment for blood phobia associated
Lars von Trier (Danish pronunciation: [ˈlɑːs fʌn ˈtʁiːˀɐ]; born Lars Trier; 30 April 1956) is a Danish film director and screenwriter. He is closely associated with the Dogme 95 collective – an avant-garde filmmaking movement – although his own films have taken a variety of approaches. His work has frequently divided critics.
Von Trier began making films at the age of eleven. Raised by a communist mother and a socialist father in an austere environment, he converted at the age of 30 to the Catholic Church. Von Trier suffers periodically from depression, as well as various fears and phobias, including an intense fear of flying. As he himself said in an interview, "basically, I'm afraid of everything in life, except filmmaking." His first publicly released film was an experimental short called The Orchid Gardener (1977) and his first feature film came seven years later with The Element of Crime (1984). Among many other prizes, awards and nominations, he is the recipient of the Palme d'Or, the Grand Prix, and the Prix du Jury at the Cannes Film Festival.
Lars Trier was born in Kongens Lyngby, north of Copenhagen, the son of Inger Trier (née Høst, 1915—1989). He had believed that his
Coulrophobia is a fear of clowns. The term is of recent origin, probably dating from the 1980s, and according to one analyst, "has been coined more on the Internet than in printed form because it does not appear in any previously published, psychiatric, unabridged, or abridged dictionary." However, the author later notes, "regardless of its less-than-verifiable etymology, coulrophobia exists in several lists". The condition is a specific phobia (DSM-IV Code 300.29).
The prefix "coulro-" may be derived from the Ancient Greek word κωλοβαθριστής meaning "stilt-walker", although the concept of a clown as a figure of fun was unknown in classical Greek culture.
According to a psychology professor at California State University, Northridge, young children are "very reactive to a familiar body type with an unfamiliar face".
A study conducted by the University of Sheffield found that the children did not like clown décor in the hospital or doctors' office settings. The survey was about children’s opinions on décor for an upcoming hospital redesign. Dr Penny Curtis, a researcher, stated "We found that clowns are universally disliked by children. Some found the clown images to be quite
Dr. Tobias Fünke is a fictional character on the television series Arrested Development. A former psychiatrist and struggling actor, he is married to Lindsay Bluth and has a daughter, Maeby Fünke. Tobias is portrayed by David Cross.
After completing his fellowship in psycholinguistics at MIT, Tobias became Chief Resident of Psychiatry in Boston at Massachusetts General Hospital. Two years thereafter, he lost his license for giving CPR to a Rhode Island man who wasn't actually having a heart attack. At the beginning of the series, Tobias decides that his destiny is to become an actor, after boarding a boat which he believes to be a pirate-themed cruise, but which turns out to be populated by gay protesters, most of whom are actors. He pursues this career throughout the series with a notable lack of success.
In the mid 1990s, Tobias and his family performed as the folk group "Dr. Fünke’s 100% Natural Good-Time Family-Band Solution". Each song performed by the band was an advertising jingle for a new medicine, accompanied by a rapid listing of potential side effects at the end. Performances were underwritten by the Natural Life Food Company, a division of Chem-Grow, an Allen Crayne
Emetophobia (from the Greek εμετός, to vomit, and φόβος (phóbos), meaning "fear") is an intense, irrational fear or anxiety pertaining to vomiting. This specific phobia can also include subcategories of what causes the anxiety, including a fear of vomiting in public, a fear of seeing vomit, a fear of watching the action of vomiting or fear of being nauseated. Emetophobia is clinically considered an “elusive predicament” because limited research has been done pertaining to it. The fear of vomiting receives little attention compared with other irrational fears, yet it is the fifth most common phobia.
According to experts, emetophobia can be triggered by a single traumatic event, such as a long bout of stomach flu, accidentally vomiting in public, or having to witness someone else vomit. This fear can be triggered at any time and at any age and is not specific to a gender or demographic. Interestingly, most people with emetophobia rarely, if ever, vomit. Some sufferers report that they have not thrown up since childhood, yet they constantly worry that it might happen.
The root word for emetophobia is “emesis,” from the Greek word emein which means “an act or instance of vomiting” with
Howard Robard Hughes, Jr. (December 24, 1905 – April 5, 1976) was an American business magnate, investor, aviator, aerospace engineer, film maker and philanthropist. He was one of the wealthiest people in the world. As a maverick film producer, Hughes gained prominence in Hollywood from the late 1920s, making big-budget and often, controversial films like The Racket (1928), Hell's Angels (1930), Scarface (1932) and The Outlaw (1943). Hughes was one of the most influential aviators in history: he set multiple world air speed records, built the Hughes H-1 Racer and H-4 "Hercules" (better known to history as the "Spruce Goose" aircraft), and acquired and expanded Trans World Airlines, which would later on merge with American Airlines. Hughes is also remembered for his eccentric behavior and reclusive lifestyle in later life, caused in part by a worsening obsessive–compulsive disorder and chronic pain. His legacy is maintained through the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.
Hughes' birthplace is recorded as either Humble or Houston, Texas. The date is also uncertain, though Hughes claimed his birthday was Christmas Eve. A 1941 affidavit birth certificate of Hughes signed by his aunt
Aretha Louise Franklin (born March 25, 1942) is an American musician, singer, songwriter, and pianist. In a recording career that has spanned over half a century, Franklin's repertoire has included gospel, jazz, blues, R&B, pop, rock and funk.
Franklin is known as one of the most important popularizers of the soul music genre and is referred to as the Queen of Soul, a title she was given early in her career. Franklin, the daughter of prominent Baptist minister and activist C. L. Franklin, began her singing career singing in her father's church at the age of ten and started recording four years later. After several years in the gospel circuit and with her father's blessing, she formed a secular pop music career at the age of eighteen, signing with Columbia Records, where she was branded by its CEO John Hammond as his most important act since Billie Holiday. Franklin's Columbia period wasn't as successful as hoped and in late 1966, Franklin switched over to Atlantic Records, where she began recording a string of popular hits including "I Never Loved a Man (The Way I Love You)", "(You Make Me Feel Like) A Natural Woman", "Think", "Chain of Fools" and what later became her signature
Decidophobia is the fear of making decisions.
The word decidophobia was first mentioned by Princeton University philosopher Walter Kaufmann in his 1973 book Without guilt and justice in which he writes about the phobia in length.
In Without Guilt and Justice, Kaufman describes people with decidophobia as people who lack the courage or will to sort through the different sides in disagreements to find the truth. They would rather leave the deciding of what is the truth to some authority. This might be a parent or spouse. It might be a church or university or a political party. Once the decidophobe has relinquished authority to decide the truth then they will accept as truth anything argued by that authority.
Erotophobia is a term coined by a number of researchers in the late 1970s and early 1980s to describe one pole on a continuum of attitudes and beliefs about sexuality. The model of the continuum is a basic polarized line, with erotophobia (fear of sex or negative attitudes about sex) at one end and erotophilia (positive feelings/attitudes about sex) at the other end.
The word erotophobia is derived from the name of Eros, the Greek god of erotic love, and Phobos, Greek (φόβος) for "fear".
Erotophobia has many manifestations. An individual or culture can have one or multiple erotophobic attitudes. Some types of erotophobia include fear of nudity, fear of sexual images, homophobia, fear of sex education, fear of sexual discourse, etc. (see John Ince's work, cited below, for more detail).
As a clinical phobia, 'erotophobia' describes an irrational and potentially debilitating fear of some object, person or act that is related to sex. This fear either impairs a person's ability to enjoy sexual relations, or completely prevents a person's ability to have sex. Erotophobia can also in some (but not all) individual cases, be a part of larger patterns of any of the following psychological
Agnetha Åse Fältskog (Swedish pronunciation: [aŋˈneː.ˈta ˈfɛlt.ˈskuːɡ]; born 5 April 1950) is a Swedish recording artist. She achieved success in Sweden after the release of her début album Agnetha Fältskog in 1968, and reached international stardom as a member of the pop group ABBA, which has sold over 370 million records worldwide, making it one of the best–selling music artists in history and the second or third best–selling band in history.
Agnetha (known as Anna in some countries) Fältskog was born on 5 April 1950 in Jönköping, Småland, Sweden. She was the first of two daughters of department store manager Knut Ingvar Fältskog (1922—1995) and his wife Birgit Margareta Johansson (1923—1994). Ingvar Fältskog showed much interest in music and showbusiness, whereas Birgit Fältskog was a very calm and careful woman who devoted herself to her children and household. Fältskog cites Connie Francis, Marianne Faithfull, Aretha Franklin and Lesley Gore as her strongest musical influences.
Fältskog wrote her first song at the age of six, entitled "Två små troll" ("Two Little Trolls"). In 1958, she began taking piano lessons, and also sang in a local church choir. In early 1960, Fältskog
Jennifer Joanna Aniston (born February 11, 1969) is an American actress, film director, and producer. Aniston gained worldwide recognition in the 1990s for portraying Rachel Green on the television sitcom Friends, a role which earned her an Emmy Award, a Golden Globe Award, and a Screen Actors Guild Award. Aniston has also enjoyed a successful Hollywood film career. She gained critical acclaim for her performances in the independent films She's the One (1996), Office Space (1999), The Good Girl (2002) and Friends with Money (2006). She has had her greatest commercial successes with the films Bruce Almighty (2003), The Break-Up (2006), Marley & Me (2008), Just Go with It (2011) and Horrible Bosses (2011). Aniston received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame on February 22, 2012.
Jennifer Aniston was born in Sherman Oaks, Los Angeles to actors John Aniston and Nancy Dow. Her father is Greek and a native of Crete, while her mother was born in New York City. Her mother's maternal grandfather was an Italian immigrant; her mother's other ancestry is Scottish, Irish, and a small amount of Greek. Aniston has two half-brothers, John Melick, her maternal older half-brother, and Alex
Social anxiety disorder (SAD or SAnD) (DSM-IV 300.23), also known as social phobia, is an anxiety disorder characterized by intense fear in social situations causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in at least some parts of daily life. The diagnosis of social anxiety disorder can be of a specific disorder (when only some particular situations are feared) or a generalized disorder. Generalized social anxiety disorder typically involves a persistent, intense, chronic fear of being judged by others and of being embarrassed or humiliated by one's own actions. These fears can be triggered by perceived or actual scrutiny from others. While the fear of social interaction may be recognized by the person as excessive or unreasonable, overcoming it can be quite difficult. Physical symptoms often accompanying social anxiety disorder include excessive blushing, sweating (hyperhidrosis), trembling, palpitations, nausea, and stammering often accompanied with rapid speech. Panic attacks may also occur under intense fear and discomfort. An early diagnosis may help minimize the symptoms and the development of additional problems, such as depression. Some sufferers may use
Alexander LaVelle "Xander" Harris is a fictional character created for the fantasy television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer (1997–2003). He was developed by Joss Whedon and portrayed throughout the television series by Nicholas Brendon and in one episode by his twin brother, Kelly Donovan. The character of Xander Harris also appears in numerous items in the series Expanded Universe, such as comic books, tie-in novels and video games. He was conceived as an everyman and a male character for series heroine Buffy Summers (Sarah Michelle Gellar) to interact with, and to provide comic relief in the series. Xander is one of several friends of Buffy who assist her in saving the world against numerous supernatural events that plague Sunnydale, California, a town built over a doorway to hell.
Xander is based in part on Whedon himself, particularly in his high school years; as such, he is often the most geeky as well as witty and verbose of Buffy's characters. The character's overriding arc through the series has been his struggle towards maturity and earning the respect of others. In the canonical comic book continuation of the series, Buffy the Vampire Slayer Season Eight (2007–2011),
Paul Dominik Diamond (known as Dominik Diamond) is a Scottish television and radio presenter and newspaper columnist. He is best known as the original presenter of Channel 4's video gaming programme GamesMaster, as host of The Dominik Diamond Breakfast Show on Xfm Scotland and as a columnist for the Daily Star. He is currently on air at Q107 in Toronto.
Born in Arbroath, Diamond attended Strathallan School in Forgandenny, Perthshire.
He then went on to study drama at Bristol University, also attended by Little Britain star David Walliams. Walliams and Diamond were part of a comedy troupe called "David Icke and The Orphans of Jesus", in which they were also joined by Simon Pegg (Shaun of the Dead, Hot Fuzz). Walliams and Diamond fell out after Walliams appeared as a guest on Diamond's Paramount show "Dom'n'Kirk's Night O Plenty" - after which Diamond said that Walliams and co-Little Britain star Matt Lucas were "complete arseholes". Diamond has not spoken to Walliams since, yet still refers to him as a "comic genius".
Pegg appeared on Diamond's Xfm Scotland Breakfast Show as a guest while promoting Hot Fuzz and revealed that seeing Diamond do stand-up comedy at Bristol University
Agraphobia (also contreltophobia) is the abnormal fear of sexual abuse. The condition is common but not widely known.
Sufferers of agraphobia may have had an experience linking emotional trauma with sexual abuse. Such experiences do not have to happen to the sufferer: watching sexual abuse occur (even in movies or on television) can act as a trigger to the condition. The body then develops a fear of the experience occurring again as a way of 'ensuring' that the event does not occur.
In some cases sex abuse hysteria, caused by misinformation, overzealous or careless investigation practices, or sensationalist news coverage, can cause agraphobia as well: This being different than the PTSD-driven agraphobia that comes from real situations of sexual abuse. Day care sex abuse hysteria is one example of this erroneously caused agraphobia. Many people who were originally accused or even found guilty were later found to be innocent of sexual abuse, their ordeal having been caused by hysteria and misinformation-driven agraphobia.
Both real sexual abuse and also false accusations of sexual abuse are prevalent (Statistics?), making a professional and carefully done investigation necessary to
Algophobia (from the Greek: ἄλγος, álgos, "pain" and φόβος, phóbos, "fear") is a phobia of pain - an abnormal and persistent fear of pain that is far more powerful than that of a normal person. It can be treated with behavioral therapy and anti-anxiety medication.
The Fear of Pain Questionnaire (currently the FPQ-III) has been used to test for Algophobia in the past, and was found to have good internal consistency and test-retest reliability.
Claustrophobia (from Latin claustrum "a shut in place" and Greek φόβος, phóbos, "fear") is the fear of having no escape and being closed in small spaces or rooms (opposite: claustrophilia). It is typically classified as an anxiety disorder and often results in panic attack, and can be the result of many situations or stimuli, including elevators crowded to capacity, windowless rooms, and even tight-necked clothing. The onset of claustrophobia has been attributed to many factors, including a reduction in the size of the amygdala, classical conditioning, or a genetic predisposition to fear small spaces.
One study indicates that anywhere from 5–7% of the world population is affected by severe claustrophobia, but only a small percentage of these people receive some kind of treatment for the disorder.
Claustrophobia is typically thought to have two key symptoms: fear of restriction and fear of suffocation. A typical claustrophobic will fear restriction in at least one, if not several, of the following areas: small rooms, locked rooms, cars, tunnels, cellars, elevators. Additionally, the fear of restriction can cause some claustrophobics to fear trivial matters such as sitting in a
Nikola Tesla (10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electrical supply system.
Tesla started working in the telephony and electrical fields before immigrating to the United States in 1884 to work for Thomas Edison. He soon struck out on his own with financial backers, setting up laboratories/companies to develop a range of electrical devices. His patented AC induction motor and transformer were licensed by George Westinghouse, who also hired Tesla as a consultant to help develop an alternating current system. Tesla is also known for his high-voltage, high-frequency power experiments in New York and Colorado Springs which included patented devices and theoretical work used in the invention of radio communication, for his X-ray experiments, and for his ill-fated attempt at intercontinental wireless transmission in his unfinished Wardenclyffe Tower project.
Tesla's achievements and his abilities as a showman demonstrating his seemingly miraculous inventions made him world-famous. Although he made a great deal
Brandon Ralph DiCamillo (born November 15, 1976) is an American actor, stuntman, and screenwriter. He was a founding member of the CKY Crew and rose to fame through appearances in the CKY video series and MTV's Jackass, Viva La Bam and Bam's Unholy Union.
He previously worked for Neiman-Marcus, and is the co-writer with Bam Margera for the CKY videos and Haggard. He dislikes Hollywood work, and has said that the CKY work for MTV was sometimes "too corporate."
DiCamillo is the comedic voice talent and vocalist with the band Gnarkill. DiCamillo is also well known for his prank calls and freestyle raps, some of which can be viewed in the CKY movies, on the CKY Vol. 2 CD, and on the Otimen Recording Hell CD produced by Bam Margera.
DiCamillo was cast with other members of the CKY crew to the MTV series, Jackass, appearing in the series and their movies (having an uncredited role in Jackass 3D, the latest in the film series). When the Jackass series ended in 2002, DiCamillo was featured in Bam Margera's film Haggard: The Movie. DiCamillo then starred in Margera's Viva La Bam show, which ran from 2003 to 2005, and airing a special in 2006. DiCamillo then co-starred in his own show with
Hexakosioihexekontahexaphobia (pronounced: hexa-koseeoi-hexe-konta-hexaphobia) (derived from Ancient Greek roots ἑξακόσιοι (six hundred), ἑξήκοντα (sixty), and ἕξ (six); literally meaning "fear of [the number] six hundred sixty-six") is the fear that originated from the Biblical verse Revelation 13:18, which indicates that the number 666 is the Number of the Beast, linked to Satan or the Anti-Christ.
A prominent example is Nancy and Ronald Reagan who, in 1979, when moving to their home in the Bel-Air section of Los Angeles, had its address—666 St. Cloud Road—changed to 668 St. Cloud Road.
The phobia has been a motif in various horror films such as The Omen and its 2006 remake. The number of the beast also appears in other films such as Pulp Fiction.
Some women also expressed concern about giving birth to a child on June 6, 2006 (06/06/06).
Another example of hexakosioihexekontahexaphobia comes from the Dutch Christian organisation Stichting Opwekking ("Revival Foundation"). When their songbook would have reached the number 666 in May 2007 they decided to skip the number "because of the sensitivity amongst people". Another reason for excluding this number was that it would be the
Eric Sheridan Prydz (born July 19, 1976) is a Swedish DJ and producer based in London, United Kingdom. The pronunciation of his surname is often questioned; it is pronounced "prids" (/ˈprɪdz/), but when under his alias, Pryda, it is pronounced "pride-ah". In October 2011, DJ Magazine announced the results of their annual Top 100 DJ Poll, where Prydz placed at #46.
Until recently, Prydz had only played shows in and around Europe as he has a fear of flying. In December 2008, Prydz was forced to cancel several dates in Australia, New Zealand and Malta after panic attacks prevented him from boarding the outbound flight.
On Armin van Buuren's radio show "A State of Trance" in February 2011, it was announced that Prydz recently became a father.
Since 2005, Prydz has been working on an artist album. The first version of the album was originally planned for release in 2007, but after complications with the record label, Ministry of Sound, he decided to cancel the release. In late 2009, Prydz told followers on his Facebook and Twitter accounts that his album had been completed and was going to be a Pryda album.
Finally, in early 2012, was revealed that it will be released as a 3 x disc
Kim Jong-il, also romanised as Kim Jong Il (born Yuri Irsenovich Kim, 16 February 1941; official biography claims 1942 – 17 December 2011), was the supreme leader of North Korea (DPRK) from 1994 to 2011. He succeeded his father and founder of the DPRK Kim Il-sung following the elder Kim's death in 1994. Kim Jong-il was the General Secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea, Chairman of the National Defence Commission of North Korea, and the supreme commander of the Korean People's Army, the fourth-largest standing army in the world.
In April 2009, North Korea's constitution was amended to refer to him as the "supreme leader". His son Kim Jong-un was promoted to a senior position in the ruling Workers' Party and is his successor. In 2010, he was ranked 31st in Forbes Magazine's List of The World's Most Powerful People. The North Korean government announced his death on 19 December 2011.
Following his death, he was succeeded by his third son Kim Jong-un. He was proclaimed the Eternal General Secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea and Eternal Chairman of the National Defence Commission in 2012. His birthday is a public holiday in the country.
Soviet records show that Kim was born in
Mr. Marion Moseby (portrayed by Phill Lewis) is a character on The Suite Life of Zack & Cody and its spin-off, The Suite Life on Deck. The character has also appeared in cross-over episodes of That's So Raven, Wizards of Waverly Place, Hannah Montana, I'm in the Band and the Disney Channel special, Studio DC: Almost Live.
Marion Moseby is the uptight manager of the Tipton Hotel, who speaks with an extensive vocabulary and an urbane vernacular, along with speaking a number of different languages besides English (French, Japanese, Swahili, Spanish, etc.). He is often annoyed by Zack and Cody Martin's schemes and antics (to the point that he may have vowed never to have any children of his own), but although he acts as though he does not care about the boys, he actually has a great deal of affection for them. In the episode "The Ghost of 613", it is revealed that he started out at the Tipton as a bellhop and had a "voluminous 'fro".
Mr. Moseby is probably more of a father to London Tipton than her own, who is seldom around. Mr. Moseby has even taught London how to walk, the alphabet, how to ride a bike, how to roller skate, and how to drive. He cares for London and treats her like his
Randall William Rhoads (December 6, 1956 – March 19, 1982) was an American heavy metal guitarist who played with Ozzy Osbourne and Quiet Riot. A devoted student of classical guitar, Rhoads combined his classical music influences with his own heavy metal style. Despite his short career, Rhoads is a major influence on neo-classical metal, is cited as an influence by many guitarists, and is included in several "Greatest Guitarist" lists.
At age 14, Rhoads formed a cover band called Violet Fox (after his mother's middle name, Violet), with his older brother Kelle on drums. Violet Fox staged several performances in the "Grand Salon" at Musonia, Delores Rhoads' music school. Among their setlist was "Mississippi Queen" by Mountain, and songs from The Rolling Stones, Alice Cooper and David Bowie. After the dissolution of Violet Fox, Rhoads taught his best friend Kelly Garni how to play bass, and together they formed a band called The Whore (rehearsing during the day at Rodney Bingenheimer's English Disco, a 1970s Hollywood nightspot), spending several months playing at backyard parties around Los Angeles.
Together the pair went on to form Quiet Riot when Rhoads was 16. Kevin DuBrow
Samuel "Sam" Winchester is a fictional character and one of the two protagonists of The CW Television Network's Supernatural along with his older brother Dean. He is portrayed by Jared Padalecki.
Sam was born on May 2, 1983 to John and Mary Winchester in Lawrence, Kansas. He is one of two focal characters of the series. He is the couple's second child, four years younger than his older brother Dean. He is named after his maternal grandfather, Samuel Campbell.
When Sam was only six months old on November 2, 1983, his mother Mary was killed in his nursery by the demon Azazel, whom his mother walked in on while he was standing by Sam's crib, feeding him demon blood. Infant Sam is saved from the ensuing fire when his father takes him out of his crib and gives him to a four year old Dean, who then carries him outside while their father unsuccessfully tries to rescue their mother. Since that moment, Dean felt responsible for Sam and became Sam's protector, partially due to pressure from their father to keep his brother safe.
Sam and Dean spent their childhood moving from town to town every few weeks while their father hunted supernatural beings and their mother's killer. Until the age 8,
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD, also body dysmorphia, dysmorphic syndrome; originally dysmorphophobia) is a type of mental illness, a somatoform disorder, wherein the affected person is concerned with body image, manifested as excessive concern about and preoccupation with a perceived defect of their physical features. The person complains of a defect in either one feature or several features of their body; or vaguely complains about their general appearance, which causes psychological distress that causes clinically significant distress or impairs occupational or social functioning. Often BDD co-occurs with emotional depression and anxiety, social withdrawal or social isolation.
The causes of Body Dysmorphic Disorder are different for each person, usually a combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors. Certain types of psychological trauma stemming from mental and physical abuse, or emotional neglect, can contribute to a person developing BDD. The onset of the symptoms of a mentally unhealthy preoccupation with body image occurs either in adolescence or in early adulthood, whence begins self-criticism of the personal appearance, from which develop atypical
Ryan Lee Stiles (born April 22, 1959) is an American actor, comedian, director, and voice actor whose work is often associated with improvisational comedy. He is best known for his improv and co-production work on the American and British versions of Whose Line Is It Anyway? and the role of Lewis Kiniski on The Drew Carey Show. He plays Herb Melnick on the CBS comedy Two and a Half Men and was a performer on the show Drew Carey's Improv-A-Ganza.
Stiles was born in Seattle, Washington, the youngest of five children. His father Sonny was a fishing plant supervisor. Stiles lived in Vancouver, British Columbia as a teenager. At the age of seventeen, he dropped out of his high school, Richmond Secondary, to pursue a career in comedy. He briefly worked in his father's fish-processing plant to earn a living. He then began performing improv with Vancouver Theatresports League. In 1986, Stiles successfully auditioned for a berth at Toronto's renowned Second City comedy ensemble.
By 1989, Stiles had gained the attention of the producers of the British improvisational comedy show, Whose Line Is It Anyway?. Stiles was a regular on the show until 1998, and the show's short production season
Malin Sofia Katarina Berggren (born 31 October 1970) is a former member of the band Ace of Base. Having been interested and involved in music since her childhood, she formed the band in 1987, along with her sister Jenny, her brother Jonas and their friend Ulf Ekberg. Before forming Ace of Base, Malin sang in her church's choir. She was born in Gothenburg, Sweden.
When Ace of Base was signed to Danish label Mega Records in 1990, Malin, or Linn as she became known, chose to put her teaching career on hold. But while her sister Jenny has stated she always wanted to be a singer, Linn has never said anything similar. On the contrary, in 1997 Linn said: "I wanted to sing; I never wanted to be a singer".
During the promotion for Ace of Base's first album, Linn was the principal lead vocalist for the majority of the singles and was generally the main focus in the videos, although on some singles (The Sign, Waiting for Magic) and album tracks Jenny and Linn shared leads. The focus became more equal with her younger sister, Jenny, during the release of their second album, The Bridge. Beginning in 1997, Linn appeared at her band's concerts only to perform in the dark or from behind objects;
Tetraphobia (from Greek τετράς - tetras, "four" and φόβος - phobos, "fear") is a practice to avoid instances of the number 4. It is a superstition most common in East Asian and Southeast Asian regions such as China, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, Japan, Korea and Vietnam.
The Chinese word for four (四, pinyin: sì, jyutping: sei), sounds quite similar to the word for death (死, pinyin: sǐ, jyutping: sei), in many varieties of Chinese. Similarly, the Sino-Japanese, Sino-Korean, and Sino-Vietnamese words for four, shi (Japanese – other four is Yon), sa (사, Korean) and tư (Vietnamese), sound similar or identical to death in each language (see Korean numerals, Japanese numerals, Vietnamese numerals).
Special care may be taken to avoid occurrences or reminders of the number 4 during festive holidays, or when a family member is sick. Similarly, 14, 24, 42, etc. are also to be avoided due to the presence of the digit 4 in these numbers. In these countries, these floor numbers are often skipped in buildings, ranging from hotels to offices to apartments, as well as hospitals. Table number 4, 14, 24, 42, etc. are also often left out in wedding dinners or other social gatherings in these
Isaac Asimov (/ˈaɪzɨk ˈæzɨmɒv/ EYE-zək AZ-ə-mov; born Isaak Yudovich Ozimov, Russian: Исаак Юдович Озимов; c. January 2, 1920 – April 6, 1992) was an American author and professor of biochemistry at Boston University, best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. Asimov was one of the most prolific writers of all time, having written or edited more than 500 books and an estimated 90,000 letters and postcards. His works have been published in all ten major categories of the Dewey Decimal System (although his only work in the 100s—which covers philosophy and psychology—was a foreword for The Humanist Way).
Asimov is widely considered a master of hard science fiction and, along with Robert A. Heinlein and Arthur C. Clarke, he was considered one of the "Big Three" science fiction writers during his lifetime. Asimov's most famous work is the Foundation Series; his other major series are the Galactic Empire series and the Robot series. The Galactic Empire novels are explicitly set in earlier history of the same fictional universe as the Foundation Series. Later, beginning with Foundation's Edge, he linked this distant future to the Robot and Spacer
Adrian Monk is a fictional character and the protagonist of the USA Network television series Monk, portrayed by Tony Shalhoub. He is a renowned former homicide detective for the San Francisco Police Department. Monk suffers from severe obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and multiple phobias, all of which intensified after the murder of his wife Trudy, resulting in his suspension from the department. He works as a private police homicide consultant and undergoes therapy with the ultimate goal of overcoming his grief, taking control of his phobias and disorder, and being reinstated as a police detective.
Series co-creator David Hoberman says that he based Monk partly on himself, and also on other fictional detectives, such as Lt. Columbo and Sherlock Holmes. Other actors considered for the role included Dave Foley, John Ritter, Henry Winkler, Stanley Tucci, Alfred Molina and Michael Richards. The network eventually chose Shalhoub because they felt he could "bring the humor and passion of Monk to life." Stanley Tucci and Alfred Molina had guest appearances on Monk, with Tucci appearing in season 5 episode "Mr. Monk and the Actor", and Molina appearing in season 6 episode "Mr. Monk
Cameron Michelle Diaz (born August 30, 1972) is an American actress and former model. She rose to prominence during the 1990s with roles in the movies The Mask, My Best Friend's Wedding and There's Something About Mary. Other high-profile credits include the two Charlie's Angels films, voicing the character Princess Fiona in the Shrek series, The Holiday, The Green Hornet and Bad Teacher. Diaz received Golden Globe award nominations for her performances in the movies There's Something About Mary, Being John Malkovich, Vanilla Sky, and Gangs of New York.
Diaz, the youngest of four sisters, was born in San Diego, California. Her mother, Billie (née Early), is an import-export agent, and her father, Emilio Diaz (1949–2008), worked for the California oil company UNOCAL for more than 20 years as a field gauger. Diaz has an older sister, Chimene. Her father has Cuban ancestry. Her mother has German, English, and Cherokee ancestry. Diaz was raised in Long Beach, California and attended Long Beach Polytechnic High School.
At age 16, she began her career as a fashion model, contracted with a modeling agency Elite Model Management. For the next few years, she worked around the world on
Fear of flying is a fear of being on an airplane (aeroplane), or other flying vehicle, such as a helicopter, while in flight. It is also sometimes referred to as aerophobia, aviatophobia, or aviophobia.
Fear of flying may be a distinct phobia in itself, or it may be an indirect combination of one or more other phobias related to flying, such as claustrophobia (a fear of enclosed spaces) or acrophobia (a fear of heights). It may have other causes as well, such as agoraphobia (especially the type that has to do with having a panic attack in a place they can't escape from). It is a symptom rather than a disease, and different causes may bring it about in different individuals.
The fear receives more attention than most other phobias because air travel is often difficult for people to avoid—especially in professional contexts—and because the fear is widespread, affecting a significant minority of the population. A fear of flying may prevent a person from going on vacations or visiting family and friends, and it can cripple the career of a businessperson by preventing them from traveling on work-related business.
A fear of flying is a level of anxiety so great that it prevents a person
Michael Geoffrey "Mick" Ralphs (born 31 March 1944) is an English guitarist and songwriter, who was a founding member of rock bands Mott the Hoople and Bad Company.
Ralphs played with a blues-rock group called the Buddies (who released a single in 1964) in his teens.
Then a guitarist with the Doc Thomas Group between 1966 and 1968, Ralphs joined Mott the Hoople the following year. In 1973, dissatisfied with Ian Hunter's growing domination, Ralphs left Mott the Hoople to team up with former Free vocalist Paul Rodgers to form Bad Company. This band ultimately had greater commercial success than Mott The Hoople. Ralphs' composition "Can't Get Enough", which Hunter was unable to record because of the vocal register in which it was written, became an immediate hit and pushed the group's 1974 debut album to number one in the U.S. Ralphs continued to record and tour with Bad Company until they folded in 1982, when Rodgers announced he was leaving the band.
In 1984, he toured with Pink Floyd guitarist David Gilmour on Gilmour's About Face tour. Ralph's 1985 solo album, Take This, featured bassist Micky Feat and his fellow Bad Company member, drummer Simon Kirke. Ralphs only managed four
Chad Michael Murray (born August 24, 1981) is an American actor, spokesperson and former fashion model. Murray is well known for portraying Lucas Scott in The CW young adult drama series One Tree Hill, in addition to the films A Cinderella Story, Freaky Friday and House of Wax. Popular among teenagers and young adults, he has posed on the cover of numerous mainstream magazines, including Rolling Stone, People, Vanity Fair and Entertainment Weekly.
Murray was born in Buffalo, New York. He is the son of Rex Murray, an air traffic controller, and was abandoned by his mother at a young age. His abandonment issues were the main reasons he took the part of Lucas Scott.
Murray attended Clarence High School, in Clarence, New York. He became a fan of literature, and was heavily involved in playing football. In his late teens, he broke his nose. This led to reports during his career that he had received a nose job. Murray clarified in a 2004 interview, "I got jumped in a Burger King when I was 18 and had my nose put on the other side of my face. It was three guys -- what the hell was I supposed to do? The doctors didn't even bother running X-rays. They just reset it. But it wasn't a nose job
Ergasiophobia (also called Ergophobia) refers to an abnormal and persistent fear of work or functioning, or a surgeon's fear of operating.
Ergasiophobia has several titles, but the most common are: Fear of Work, Fear of Functioning, and Fear of Surgeon's Operating. This problem affects the quality of life by causing symptoms such as panic attacks, shortness or rapidity of breathing, irregular heartbeat, profuse sweating, nausea, generalized dread or anxiety, among other symptoms. The symptomatic manifestations are extremely individual. Generally the fear focuses itself around loved ones, business associates, and career opportunities, although it may manifest itself in conjunction with any success or work related process and experience. As these are subjective terms, the cause and expression of this phobia is very personal.
Ergasiophobia, like all phobias, is a form of an anxiety disorder. The criterion for true ergasiophobia is that the affected individual must experience excessive, irrational fear that causes pervasive maladaptivity with their daily life. While adults generally realize their fear is irrational, this insight is not typical in children with this phobia.
Hoplophobia is a pejorative neologism originally coined to describe an "irrational aversion to weapons, as opposed to justified apprehension about those who may wield them." It is sometimes used more generally to describe the "fear of weapons" or the "highly salient danger of these weapons " or the "fear of armed citizens".
Firearms authority and writer Jeff Cooper claims to have coined the word in 1962 to describe what he called a "mental aberration consisting of an unreasoning terror of gadgetry, specifically, weapons." The term was constructed from the Greek ὅπλον - hoplon, meaning amongst others "arms," and φόβος - phobos, meaning "fear." Although not a mental health professional, Cooper employed the term as an alternative to other slang terms, stating: "We read of 'gun grabbers' and 'anti-gun nuts' but these slang terms do not [explain this behavior]." Cooper attributed this behavior to an irrational fear of firearms and other forms of weaponry. Cooper's opinion was that "the most common manifestation of hoplophobia is the idea that instruments possess a will of their own, apart from that of their user." Writing in an opinion piece, Pittsburgh Tribune-Review columnist Dimitri
Dennis Nicolaas Bergkamp (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈdɛnɪs ˈbɛrχkɑmp] ( listen); born 10 May 1969) is a Dutch former professional footballer who is the assistant manager to Frank de Boer at Ajax. Originally a wide midfielder, he was moved to main striker and then to second striker, where he remained throughout his playing career. Bergkamp has been described by Jan Mulder as having "the finest technique" of any Dutch international and a "dream for a striker" by teammate Thierry Henry.
The son of an electrician, Bergkamp was born in Amsterdam and played as an amateur in the lower leagues. He was spotted by Ajax at the age of 11 and made his professional debut in 1986. Good form led to an international call-up a year later, attracting the attention of several European clubs. Bergkamp signed for Italian club Internazionale in 1993, where he had two disappointing seasons. He then joined Arsenal in 1995. It was at Arsenal where Bergkamp rejuvenated his career, helping the club to win three Premier League titles, four FA Cup trophies and reach the 2006 UEFA Champions League Final, which marked his last appearance as a player. With the Netherlands national team, Bergkamp surpassed Faas
Calvin Cordozar Broadus, Jr. (born October 20, 1971) is an American rapper, singer-songwriter, record producer, and actor, well known by his alter-egos Snoop Doggy Dogg, Snoop Dogg and Snoop Lion. Snoop Dogg has sold over 30 million albums worldwide. His music career began in 1992 when he was discovered by Dr. Dre. He collaborated on Dre's solo debut The Chronic, and on the theme song to the film Deep Cover. Snoop's debut album Doggystyle, was released in 1993 under Death Row Records, debuting at No.1 on both the Billboard 200 and R&B charts. Selling almost a million copies in the first week of its release, Doggystyle became certified 4× platinum in 1994 and spawned several hit singles, including "What's My Name" and "Gin & Juice". In 1994, Snoop released a soundtrack on Death Row Records for the short film Murder Was The Case, starring himself. His second album Tha Doggfather (1996), also debuted at No.1 on both charts with "Snoop's Upside Ya Head" as the lead single. The album was certified double platinum in 1997.
After leaving Death Row, Snoop signed with No Limit Records, where he recorded his next three albums. Da Game Is to Be Sold, Not to Be Told (1998), No Limit Top Dogg
Gynophobia (from Greek γυνή - gunē, "woman" and φόβος - phobos, "fear", also spelled as gynephobia) is an abnormal fear of women. In the past, the Latin term was used, horror feminae, meaning "fear of women".
The word caligynephobia is also coined to mean the fear of beautiful women. For the latter one the expression venustraphobia is also used. In many cases it may also be rooted in social phobia or social anxiety disorder.
Gynophobia used to be considered a driving force toward homosexuality. Havelock Ellis in his 1896 Studies in the Psychology of Sex wrote:
"It is, perhaps, not difficult to account for the horror — much stronger than that normally felt toward a person of the same sex — with which the invert often regards the sexual organs of persons of the opposite sex. It cannot be said that the sexual organs of either sex under the influence of sexual excitement are esthetically pleasing; they only become emotionally desirable through the parallel excitement of the beholder. When the absence of parallel excitement is accompanied in the beholder by the sense of unfamiliarity as in childhood, or by a neurotic hypersensitiveness, the conditions are present for the production of
Jack Eugene Jensen (March 9, 1927 – July 14, 1982) was an American right fielder in Major League Baseball who played for three American League teams from 1950 to 1961, most notably the Boston Red Sox. He was named the AL's Most Valuable Player in 1958 after hitting 35 home runs and leading the league with 122 runs batted in; he also led the league in RBI two other years, and in triples and stolen bases once each. Respected for his throwing arm, he won a Gold Glove Award and led the AL in assists and double plays twice each. He retired in his early thirties as baseball expanded westward, due to an intense fear of flying. After being a two-sport star in college, Jensen was the first person to play in the Rose Bowl, the World Series, and the baseball All-Star Game.
Jensen was born in San Francisco, California. His parents divorced when he was five, and he was raised by his mother, who frequently moved the family. After serving in the Navy toward the end of World War II, he became an All-American in two sports at the University of California. As a baseball pitcher and outfielder, he helped California to win the inaugural College World Series in 1947. He pitched Cal to victory in the
Phagophobia (from Greek φαγεῖν - phagein, "eat" and φόβος - phobos, "fear") is a psychogenic dysphagia, a fear of swallowing. It is expressed in various swallowing complaints without any apparent physical reason detectable by physical inspection and laboratory analyses. An obsolete term for this phobia is choking phobia, but it was suggested that the latter term is confusing and it is necessary to distinguish the fear of swallowing (i.e., of the propulsion of bolus) from fear of choking.
Phagophobia is classified as a specific phobia and according to DSM-IV classification it belongs to the category of "other phobias". Phagophobia may lead to (and be confused with) fear of eating, and the subsequent malnutrition and weight loss. In milder cases a phagophobe eats only soft and liquid foods.
Scopophobia or scoptophobia (from Greek σκοπέω - skopeō, "look to, examine" and φόβος - phobos, "fear") is an anxiety disorder characterized by a morbid fear of being seen or stared at by others. It is related to Ophthalmophobia (from Greek ὀφθαλμός- ophthalmos, "eye").
In the 1906 psychiatric journal The Alienist and Neurologist, scopophobia was described:
Then, there is a fear of being seen and a shamefacedness, which one sees in asylums. [...] We called it scopophobia — a morbid dread of being seen. In minor degree, it is morbid shamefacedness, and the patient covers the face with his or her hands. In greater degree, the patient will shun the visitor and escape from his or her sight where this is possible. Scopophobia is more often manifest among women than among men.
Later, on p. 285 scopophobia is defined as "a fear of seeing people or being seen, especially of strange faces."
Scopophobia has been related to erythrophobia, or fear of blushing, especially in young people; as well as to the epileptic's fear that being looked at may precipitate an attack.
Erving Goffman considered that shying away from casual glances in the street remained one of the characteristic symptoms of
Astraphobia, also known as astrapophobia, brontophobia, keraunophobia, or tonitrophobia, is an abnormal fear of thunder and lightning, a type of specific phobia. It is a treatable phobia that both humans and animals can develop. The term astraphobia derives from the Greek words ἀστραπή (astrape; lightning) and φόβος (phobos; fear). In Sanskrit, the word "astra" means weapon, referring to the mythological demi god Indra who uses lightning as his weapon to bring fear to life on earth.
A person with astraphobia will often feel anxious during a thunderstorm even when they understand that the threat to them is minimal. Some symptoms are those accompanied with many phobias, such as trembling, crying, sweating, panic attacks, the sudden feeling of using the restroom, nausea, the feeling of dread, and rapid heartbeat. However, there are some reactions that are unique to astraphobia. For instance, reassurance from other people is usually sought, and symptoms worsen when alone. Many people who have astraphobia will look for extra shelter from the storm. They might hide underneath a bed, under the covers, in a closet, in a basement, or any other space where they feel safer. Efforts are
Conan Christopher O'Brien (born April 18, 1963) is an American television host, comedian, writer, producer and performer. Since November 2010 he has hosted Conan, a late-night talk show that airs on the American cable television station TBS.
O'Brien was born in Brookline, Massachusetts, and raised in an Irish Catholic family. He served as president of the Harvard Lampoon while attending Harvard University, and was a writer for the sketch comedy series Not Necessarily the News. After writing for several comedy shows in Los Angeles, he joined the writing staff of Saturday Night Live, and later of The Simpsons. He hosted Late Night with Conan O'Brien from 1993 to 2009, followed by seven months hosting The Tonight Show with Conan O'Brien, the only person to serve as the permanent host for both NBC programs.
O'Brien was born in Brookline, Massachusetts (a suburb of Boston) to Thomas O'Brien, a physician, epidemiologist, and professor of medicine at Harvard, and Ruth O'Brien (née Reardon), an attorney and partner at the Boston firm Ropes & Gray. He is the third of six children. O'Brien's family is Irish Catholic and descends from pre-American Civil War era immigrants. In a Late Night
The word prejudice (or foredeeming) is most often used to refer to preconceived, usually unfavorable, judgments toward people or a person because of gender, social class, age, disability, religion, sexuality, race/ethnicity, language, nationality or other personal characteristics. It can also refer to unfounded beliefs and may include "any unreasonable attitude that is unusually resistant to rational influence." Gordon Allport defined prejudice as a "feeling, favorable or unfavorable, toward a person or thing, prior to, or not based on, actual experience."
The first psychological research conducted on prejudice occurred in the 1920s. This research was done to attempt to prove white supremacy. One article from 1925 reviewing 73 studies on race concluded that the “studies take all together seem to indicate the mental superiority of the white race”. This research among others led many psychologists to view prejudice as a natural response to inferior races.
In the 1930s and 1940s, this perspective began to change due to the increasing concern about anti-Semitism. Theorists of this time viewed prejudice as pathological and looked for personality syndromes linked with racism. Theorist
Roy Castle OBE (31 August 1932 in Scholes, near Holmfirth, West Riding of Yorkshire – 2 September 1994 in Buckinghamshire) was an English dancer, singer, comedian, actor, television presenter and musician. He attended Honley High School, where there is now a building in his name. He was a talented jazz trumpet player.
The son of a railwayman, he was a tap dancer from an early age and trained at Nora Bray's school of dance with Audrey Spencer who later turned out to have a big dance school, and after leaving Holme Valley Grammar School he started his career as an entertainer in an amateur concert party. As a young performer in the 1950s, he lived in Cleveleys near Blackpool and appeared there at the local Queen's Theatre, turning professional in 1953 as a stooge for Jimmy Clitheroe and Jimmy James. By 1958 he was appearing at the Royal Variety Show. As a singer, he released one charting single in 1960, the Christmas song "Little White Berry".
In the mid-1960s he starred in the BBC television show The Roy Castle Show. In 1965, he appeared in the film Dr. Who and the Daleks, playing the role of Dr. Who's first male assistant, Ian Chesterton, quite differently from the way it had been
Tokophobia, or fear of childbirth or pregnancy, is a form of specific phobia. Other terms for the condition include tocophobia and parturiphobia.
In 2000, an article published in the British Journal of Psychiatry (2000, 176: 83-85) described the fear of childbirth or pregnancy as a psychological disorder, when it had previously received little to no attention as such, in addition to introducing the term tokophobia (from the Greek tokos, meaning childbirth and phobos, meaning fear). Tokophobia is also widely ascribed to the fear of pregnancy, and may also be called "maieusiophobia"
Phobia of childbirth and pregnancy, as with any phobia, can manifest through a number of symptoms including nightmares, difficulty in concentrating on work or on family activities, panic attacks and psychosomatic complaints. Often the fear of childbirth motivates a request for an elective caesarean section. Fear of labor pain is strongly associated with the fear of pain in general; a previous complicated childbirth, or inadequate pain relief, may cause the phobia to develop.
Debate currently rages within the obstetric and psychiatric communities regarding the woman's right to choose mode of delivery—be it
Nyctophobia (from Greek νυκτός - nyktos, genitive of νύξ - nyx, "night" and φόβος - phovos, "fear") is a phobia characterized by a severe fear of the darkness. It is triggered by the brain’s disfigured perception of what would or could happen when in a dark environment.
Despite its pervasive nature, there has been a lack of etiological research on the subject. The fear of darkness (nyctophobia) is a psychologically-impacted feeling of being disposed from comfort to a fear-evoking state. The fear of darkness or night has several non-clinical terminologies—lygophobia, scotophobia and achluophobia. Nyctophobia is a phobia generally related to children but, according to J. Adrian Williams’ article titled, Indirect Hypnotic Therapy of Nyctophobia: A Case Report, many clinics with pediatric patients have a great chance of having adults who have nyctophobia. The same article states that “the phobia has been known to be extremely disruptive to adult patients and… incapacitating”.
Shaun Mark "Sean" Bean (born 17 April 1959) is an English actor of stage and screen. Bean is known for playing Boromir in The Lord of the Rings trilogy and fictional British Colonel Richard Sharpe in the ITV television series Sharpe. He is also known for his film work playing such roles as Alec Trevelyan in GoldenEye, Jason Locke in Essex Boys, Odysseus in Troy, Ian Howe in National Treasure and Andy McNab in Bravo Two Zero.
Bean has also acted in a number of television productions and character roles such as playing Robert Aske in Henry VIII and Eddard Stark in HBO's Game of Thrones. He has also performed voice work for computer games, including Martin Septim in The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion. Bean normally speaks with a distinctive Yorkshire accent in his acting roles.
Bean was born Shaun Mark Bean in the Handsworth district of Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England, the son of Rita (née Tuckwood) and Brian Bean. Bean's father owned a fabrication shop, which he had set up with a colleague. The business employed 50 people, including Bean's mother, who worked as a secretary. He has a younger sister named Lorraine. Despite becoming relatively wealthy (his father owned a Rolls-Royce
Technophobia (from Greek τέχνη - technē, "art, skill, craft" and φόβος - phobos, "fear") is the fear or dislike of advanced technology or complex devices, especially computers. The term is generally used in the sense of an irrational fear, but others contend fears are justified. It is the opposite of technophilia. First receiving widespread notice during the Industrial Revolution, technophobia has been observed to affect various societies and communities throughout the world. This has caused some groups to take stances against some modern technological developments in order to preserve their ideologies. In some of these cases, the new technologies conflict with established beliefs, such as the personal values of simplicity and modest lifestyles. A number of examples of technophobic ideas can be found in multiple forms of art, ranging from literary works such as Frankenstein to films like Metropolis and Cloudy With a Chance of Meatballs. Many of these works portray the darker side of technology as seen by the technophobic. As technologies become increasingly complex and difficult to understand, people are more likely to harbor anxieties relating to their use of modern technologies.
Whoopi Goldberg ( /ˈhwʊpi/, born Caryn Elaine Johnson; November 13, 1955) is an American comedian, actress, singer-songwriter, political activist, author and talk show host.
Goldberg made her film debut in The Color Purple (1985) playing Celie, a mistreated black woman in the Deep South. She received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress and won her first Golden Globe Award for her role in the film. In 1990, she starred as Oda Mae Brown, a psychic helping a slain man (Patrick Swayze) find his killer in the blockbuster film Ghost. This performance won her a second Golden Globe and an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress. Notable later films include Sister Act and Sister Act 2, The Lion King, Made in America, How Stella Got Her Groove Back, Girl, Interrupted and Rat Race. She is also acclaimed for her roles as the bartender Guinan in Star Trek: The Next Generation and as Terry Doolittle in Jumpin' Jack Flash. More recently, she had performed the voice of Stretch in Toy Story 3 and made an appearance in Glee as Carmen Tibideaux.
Goldberg has been nominated for 13 Emmy Awards for her work in television. She was co-producer of the popular game show Hollywood Squares
Genophobia is the physical or psychological fear of sexual relations or sexual intercourse. The word comes from the Greek terms genos, meaning “offspring,” and phobos, meaning “fear.” Genophobia can also be called coitophobia. This word is also formed from the Greek term phobos and the term coitus, referring to the act of copulation in which the male reproductive organ penetrates the female reproductive tract. The term erotophobia can also be used when describing genophobia. It comes from the name of the Greek god of erotic love, Eros. Genophobia can induce panic and fear in individuals, much like panic attacks. People who suffer from the phobia can be intensely affected by attempted sexual contact or just the thought of it. The extreme fear can lead to trouble in romantic relationships. Those afflicted by genophobia may stay away from getting involved in relationships to avoid the possibility of intimacy. This can lead to feelings of loneliness. Genophobic people may also feel lonely because they may feel embarrassed or ashamed of their personal fears.
There can be many different reasons for why people develop genophobia. Some of the main causes are former incidents of sexual
Necrophobia is a specific phobia which is the irrational fear of dead things (e.g., corpses) as well as things associated with death (e.g., coffins, tombstones). Necrophobia is derived from Greek nekros (νεκρός) for "corpse" and -phob- from the Greek phobos (φόβος) for "fear." With all types of emotions, obsession with death becomes evident in both fascination and objectification. In a cultural sense, necrophobia may also be used to mean a fear of the dead by a cultural group, e.g., a belief that the spirits of the dead will return to haunt the living.
Symptoms include: shortness of breath, rapid breathing, irregular heartbeat, sweating, dry mouth and shaking, feeling sick and uneasy, psychological instability, and an altogether feeling of dread and trepidation. The sufferer may feel this phobia all the time, or only when something triggers the fear, like a close encounter with a dead animal or the funeral of a loved one or friend. The fear may have developed when a person witnessed a death, or was forced to attend a funeral as a child. Some people experience this after viewing frightening media.
The fear can manifest itself as a serious condition. Treatment options include
Blushing refers to the involuntary reddening of a person's face due to embarrassment or emotional stress, though it has been known to come from being lovestruck, or from some kind of romantic stimulation. It is thought that blushing is the result of an overactive sympathetic nervous system. Severe blushing is common in people who suffer social anxiety in which the person experiences extreme and persistent anxiety in social and performance situations.
Blushing is generally distinguished, despite a close physiological relation, from flushing, which is more intensive and extends over more of the body, and seldom has a mental source.
If redness persists for abnormal amounts of time after blushing, then it may be considered an early sign of rosacea. Idiopathic craniofacial erythema is a medical condition where a person blushes strongly with little or no provocation. Just about any situation can bring on intense blushing and it may take one or two minutes for the blush to disappear. Severe blushing can make it difficult for the person to feel comfortable in either social or professional situations. People who have social phobia are particularly prone to idiopathic craniofacial erythema.
Doris Day (born Doris Mary Ann Kappelhoff, April 3, 1924) is an American actress, singer, and animal rights activist. Day started her career as a big band singer in 1939, but only began to be noticed after her first hit recording, "Sentimental Journey", in 1945. After leaving the Les Brown & His Band of Renown to try a solo career, she started her long-lasting partnership with Columbia Records, which would remain her only recording label. The contract lasted from 1947 to 1967, and included more than 650 recordings, making Day one of the most popular and acclaimed singers of the 20th century. In 1948, after being persuaded by Sammy Cahn, Jule Styne and her agent at the time, Al Levy, she auditioned for Michael Curtiz, which led to her being cast in the female lead role in Romance on the High Seas.
With a legendary Hollywood "girl next door" image, and capable of delivering comedy and romance as well as heavy drama, she appeared in 39 films, released 29 albums, spent 460 weeks in the Top 40 charts and eventually became one of America's most beloved entertainers. She received an Academy Award nomination for her performance in Pillow Talk, won three Henrietta Awards (World Film
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин; born Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili, Georgian: იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე ჯუღაშვილი; 18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was the Premier of the Soviet Union from 6 May 1941 until his death in 5 March 1953. Among the Bolshevik revolutionaries who brought about the Russian Revolution in 1917, Stalin held the position of General Secretary of the party's Central Committee from 1922 until his death. While the office was initially not highly regarded, Stalin used it to consolidate more power after the death of Vladimir Lenin in 1924, gradually putting down all opposition. This included Leon Trotsky, the principal critic of Stalin among the early Soviet leaders. Whereas Trotsky advocated world permanent revolution, Stalin's concept of socialism in one country became primary policy as he emerged the leader of the Soviet Union.
In 1928, Stalin replaced the decade's New Economic Policy with a highly centralised command economy and Five-Year Plans, launching a period of industrialization and collectivization in the countryside. As a result, the USSR was rapidly transformed from an agrarian society into an industrial power, the basis
Kenneth Wayne "Ken" Jennings III (born May 23, 1974) is an American game show contestant and author. Jennings is noted for holding the record for the longest winning streak on the U.S. syndicated game show Jeopardy! and as being the all-time leading money winner on American game shows. In 2004, Jennings won 74 Jeopardy! games before he was defeated by challenger Nancy Zerg on his 75th appearance. His total earnings on Jeopardy! are $3,172,700, consisting of $2,520,700 over his 74 wins, a $2,000 second-place prize in his 75th appearance, a $500,000 second-place prize in the Jeopardy! Ultimate Tournament of Champions, as well as half of a $300,000 prize in the IBM Challenge.
During his first run of Jeopardy! appearances, Jennings earned the record for the highest American game show winnings. His total was surpassed by Brad Rutter, who defeated Jennings in the finals of the Jeopardy! Ultimate Tournament of Champions (first aired on May 25, 2005), adding $2,000,000 to Rutter's existing Jeopardy! winnings. Jennings regained the record after appearing on several other game shows, culminating in an appearance on Are You Smarter Than a 5th Grader? (first aired on October 10, 2008), though
Friday the 13th is considered an unlucky day in Western superstition.
According to folklorists, there is no written evidence for a "Friday the 13th" superstition before the 19th century. The earliest known documented reference in English occurs in Henry Sutherland Edwards' 1869 biography of Gioachino Rossini, who died on a Friday 13th.
He [Rossini] was surrounded to the last by admiring friends; and if it be true that, like so many Italians, he regarded Fridays as an unlucky day and thirteen as an unlucky number, it is remarkable that one Friday 13th of November he died.
Several theories have been proposed about the origin of the Friday the 13th superstition.
One theory states that it is a modern amalgamation of two older superstitions: that thirteen is an unlucky number and that Friday is an unlucky day.
The fear of Friday the 13th has been called friggatriskaidekaphobia (Frigga being the name of the Norse goddess for whom "Friday" is named and triskaidekaphobia meaning fear of the number thirteen), or paraskevidekatriaphobia a concatenation of the Greek words Paraskeví (Παρασκευή, meaning "Friday"), and dekatreís (δεκατρείς, meaning "thirteen") attached to phobía (φοβία, from
Aquaphobia is a persistent and abnormal fear of water. Aquaphobia is a specific phobia that involves a level of fear that is beyond the patient's control or that may interfere with daily life. People suffer aquaphobia in many ways and may experience it even though they realize the water in an ocean, a river, or even a bathtub poses no imminent threat. They may avoid such activities as boating and swimming, or they may avoid swimming in the deep ocean despite having mastered basic swimming skills. This anxiety commonly extends to getting wet or splashed with water when it is unexpected, or being pushed or thrown into a body of water.
Phobias (in the clinical meaning of the term) are the most common form of anxiety disorders. A study by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) found that between 8.7% and 18.1% of Americans suffer from phobias. Broken down by age and gender, the study found that phobias were the most common mental illness among women in all age groups and the second most common illness among men older than 25.
Of the simple phobias, aquaphobia is among the more common subtypes. In an article on anxiety disorders, Lindal and Stefansson suggest that aquaphobia may
Cher ( /ˈʃɛər/) (born Cheryl Sarkisian; May 20, 1946) is an American recording artist, television personality, actress, director, record producer, and philanthropist. Referred to as the Goddess of Pop, she has won an Academy Award, a Grammy Award, an Emmy Award, three Golden Globes, and a Cannes Film Festival Award for her work in film, music, and television. She is the only person in history to receive all of these awards. She began her career as a backup singer and came to prominence in 1965 as one-half of the pop rock duo Sonny & Cher with the success of their song "I Got You Babe". She subsequently established herself as a solo recording artist and became a television star in 1971 with The Sonny and Cher Comedy Hour, a variety show for which she won a Golden Globe. A well-received performance in the film Silkwood earned her a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress of 1983. In the following years, she starred in a string of hit films including Mask, The Witches of Eastwick, and Moonstruck, for which she won the Academy Award for Best Actress in 1988.
Cher, throughout a career spanning over 49 years, has broken many records. She is the only artist to reach
Gerard Arthur Way (born April 9, 1977) is an American musician and comic book writer who has served as lead vocalist and co-founder of the band My Chemical Romance since its formation in 2001. He is the executive producer of the band LostAlone's second album I'm a UFO in This City, and the writer of the Eisner Award-winning comic book The Umbrella Academy.
Gerard Way was born April 9, 1977 in Summit, New Jersey to Donna Lee (née Rush) and Donald Way. He has Italian ancestry on his mother's side and Scottish ancestry on his father's. He was raised in Belleville, New Jersey and first began singing publicly in the fourth grade, when he played the role of Peter Pan in a school musical production. His maternal grandmother, Elena Lee Rush, was a great creative influence who taught him to sing, paint, and perform from a young age; he has said that "she has taught me everything I know". Also, while in elementary school, the glam metal band Bon Jovi was instrumental in forming his love of music.
At the age of 15, Way was held at gunpoint, as he said in an April 2008 Rolling Stone interview: "I got held up with a .357 Magnum, had a gun pointed to my head and put on the floor,
Stanley Kubrick (/ˈkuːbrɪk/; July 26, 1928 – March 7, 1999) was an American film director, screenwriter, producer, cinematographer and editor. He is regarded as one of the greatest filmmakers of all time. His films, typically adaptations of novels or short stories, were noted for their "dazzling" and unique cinematography, attention to details to achieve realism and an inspired use of music scores. Kubrick's films covered a variety of genres, including war, crime, romantic and black comedies, horror, epic and science fiction. Kubrick was also noted for being a perfectionist, using painstaking care with scene staging and working closely with his actors.
Starting out as a photographer in New York City, he taught himself all aspects of film production and directing after graduating from high school. His earliest films were made on a shoestring budget, followed by one Hollywood blockbuster, Spartacus, after which he spent most of the rest of his career living and filming in the United Kingdom. His home became his workplace where he did his writing, research, editing and management of production details. This allowed him to have almost complete artistic control, but with the rare
Woody Allen (born Allan Stewart Konigsberg; December 1, 1935) is an American screenwriter, director, actor, comedian, author, playwright, and musician whose career spans over half a century.
He began as a comedy writer in the 1950s, penning jokes and scripts for television and also publishing several books of short humor pieces. In the early 1960s, Allen started performing as a stand-up comic, emphasizing monologues rather than traditional jokes. As a comic, he developed the persona of an insecure, intellectual, fretful nebbish, which he insists is quite different from his real-life personality. In 2004, Comedy Central ranked Allen in fourth place on a list of the 100 greatest stand-up comics, while a UK survey ranked Allen as the third greatest comedian.
By the mid-1960s Allen was writing and directing films, first specializing in slapstick comedies before moving into more dramatic material influenced by European art films during the 1970s. He is often identified as part of the New Hollywood wave of filmmakers of the mid-1960s to late '70s. Allen often stars in his own films, typically in the persona he developed as a standup. Some of the best-known of his over 40 films are Annie
Sam John Hopkins (March 15, 1912 – January 30, 1982), better known as Lightnin’ Hopkins, was an American country blues singer, songwriter, guitarist and occasional pianist, from Houston, Texas. Rolling Stone magazine included Hopkins at number 71 on their list of the 100 greatest guitarists of all time.
Robert "Mack" McCormick stated, "Hopkins is the embodiment of the jazz-and-poetry spirit, representing its ancient form in the single creator whose words and music are one act".
Born Sam John Hopkins in Centerville, Texas, Hopkins' childhood was immersed in the sounds of the blues and he developed a deeper appreciation at the age of 8 when he met Blind Lemon Jefferson at a church picnic in Buffalo, Texas. That day, Hopkins felt the blues was "in him" and went on to learn from his older (somewhat distant) cousin, country blues singer Alger "Texas" Alexander. Hopkins had another cousin, the Texas electric blues guitarist Frankie Lee Sims, with whom he later recorded. Hopkins began accompanying Blind Lemon Jefferson on guitar in informal church gatherings. Jefferson supposedly never let anyone play with him except for young Hopkins, who learned much from and was influenced greatly by
Robert Sylvester Kelly (born January 8, 1967), known by his stage name R. Kelly, is an American singer-songwriter and record producer. Often referred to as the King of R&B, Kelly is recognized as one of the most successful R&B artists of all-time. A native of Chicago, Illinois, Kelly began performing during the late 1980s and debuted in 1992 with the group Public Announcement. In 1993, Kelly went solo with the album 12 Play. He is known for a collection of major hit singles including "Bump n' Grind", "Your Body's Callin'", "I Believe I Can Fly", "Gotham City", "Ignition (Remix)", "If I Could Turn Back the Hands of Time", "The World's Greatest", "I'm a Flirt", and the hip-hopera "Trapped in the Closet". In 1998, Kelly won three Grammy Awards for "I Believe I Can Fly".
Kelly has written, produced, and remixed songs for many artists including The Winans, The Isley Brothers, Charlie Wilson, Quincy Jones, K-Ci & JoJo, Aaliyah, Janet Jackson, Whitney Houston, Toni Braxton, Michael Jackson, Hi-Five, Nivea, Ciara, Mary J. Blige, Luther Vandross, Gerald LeVert, Raheem DeVaughn, Ruben Studdard, Jaheim, Kelly Price, Tamia, Maxwell, Celine Dion, Britney Spears, Usher, B2K, Twista, Tyrese,
Nosophobia is a specific phobia, an irrational fear of contracting a disease, from Greek "nosos" for "disease" (as the 1913 Webster's Dictionary put it, "morbid dread of a disease"). Primary fears of this kind are fear of contracting pulmonary tuberculosis, venereal diseases, cancer, and heart diseases.
Some authors suggested that the medical students' disease must be referred to as nosophobia rather than "hypochondriasis", because the quoted studies show a very low percentage of hypochondriacal character of the condition.
Ablutophobia (from Latin ablutere 'to wash off") is the persistent, abnormal and unwarranted fear of bathing, washing, or cleaning. This phobia is a situational specific phobia. Ablutophobia tends to be more common in children and women than in men.
Its symptoms and treatment are basically the same as for most specific phobias.
Gephyrophobia (from Greek γέφυρα - gephura, "bridge" and φόβος - phobos, "fear") is an anxiety disorder brought about by the fear of bridges. As a result, sufferers of gephyrophobia may avoid routes that will take them over bridges.
Dr. Michael Liebowitz, founder of the Anxiety Disorders Clinic at the New York State Psychiatric Institute, says, "It's not an isolated phobia, but usually part of a larger constellation ... It's people who get panic attacks. You get light-headed, dizzy; your heart races. You become afraid that you'll feel trapped.".
The New York Thruway Authority will lead gephyrophobiacs over the Tappan Zee Bridge. A driver can call the authority in advance and arrange for someone to drive the car over the bridge for them. The authority performs the service about six times a year.
The Maryland Transportation Authority offers a similar service for crossing the Chesapeake Bay Bridge.
The Mackinac Bridge Authority, which oversees the Mackinac Bridge, which connects Michigan’s Upper and Lower peninsulas, will drive one's car across its span for any needy gephyrophobiacs. Some thousand drivers take advantage of this free program each year.
Gephyrophobia is also the name of
Glossophobia or speech anxiety is the fear of public speaking or of speaking in general. The word glossophobia comes from the Greek γλῶσσα glōssa, meaning tongue, and φόβος phobos, fear or dread. Many people only have this fear, while others may also have social phobia or social anxiety disorder.
Stage fright may be a symptom of glossophobia.
The more specific symptoms of speech anxiety can be grouped into three categories: physical, verbal, and non-verbal. Physical symptoms result from the sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) responding to the situation with a "fight-or-flight" reaction. Since the modus operandi, or method of operating, of the symphatetic system is all-or-nothing, adrenaline secretion produces a wide array of symptoms at once - all of which are supposed to enhance your ability to fight or escape a dangerous scenario. These symptoms include acute hearing, increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, dilated pupils, increased perspiration, increased oxygen intake, stiffening of neck/upper back muscles, and dry mouth. Some of these may be alleviated by drugs such as beta-blockers, which bind to the adrenalin receptors of the
Radiophobia is an abnormal fear of ionizing radiation, in particular, fear of X-rays. The term is also used in a non-medical sense to refer to general opposition to the use of nuclear energy.
Fear of ionizing radiation is not unnatural, since it can pose significant risks; however this fear may become abnormal and even irrational, often owing to poor information or understanding, but also as a consequence of traumatic experience.
In 1954, the Castle Bravo test caught the Japanese fishing boat Daigo Fukuryū Maru in its radiation plume, even though it was fishing outside the predicted fallout area. All of the crew fell sick, and Kuboyama Aikichi, the boat's chief radioman, died less than seven months later, on September 23, 1954. It was later estimated that about a hundred fishing boats were contaminated to some degree by fallout from the test. Inhabitants of the Marshall Islands were also exposed to fallout, and a number of islands had to be evacuated entirely.
This incident created widespread fear of uncontrolled and unpredictable nuclear weapons, and also of radioactively contaminated fish affecting the Japanese food supply. With the publication of Sir Joseph Rotblat's findings
Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by immoderate food restriction and irrational fear of gaining weight, as well as a distorted body self-perception. It typically involves excessive weight loss. Anorexia nervosa usually develops during adolescence and early adulthood. Due to the fear of gaining weight, people with this disorder restrict the amount of food they consume. This restriction of food intake causes metabolic and hormonal disorders. Outside of medical literature, the terms anorexia nervosa and anorexia are often used interchangeably; however, anorexia is simply a medical term for lack of appetite and people with anorexia nervosa do not in fact, lose their appetites.
People suffering from anorexia have extremely high levels of ghrelin (the hunger hormone that tells the brain when it is time to eat) in their blood. The high levels of ghrelin suggests that their bodies are trying to desperately switch the hunger aspect on, however, that hungers call is being suppressed, ignored, or overridden. Nevertheless, one small single-blind study found that intravenous administration of ghrelin to anorexia nervosa patients increased food intake by 12–36% over the trial
From Greek -phobia, fear of... .A term describing one afraid of bacteria or germs, or, more commonly, of being infected by them. Extreme bacteriophobes may refuse to go outside for fear of the germs out there, or insist that their possession and anyone who comes near them are steralised to prevent infection.An example of a bacteriophobe is the cartoon character 'Bubble Boy' in the Weebl and Bob episode 'Germs', created by Jonti Picking, Skoo and others. Howard Hughes had this kind of phobia in which it made him eccentric to the public.
Seeley Joseph Booth is a fictional character in the US television series Bones (2005–present), portrayed by David Boreanaz. Agent Booth is a co-protagonist of the series with his girlfriend Dr. Temperance Brennan (Emily Deschanel), whom he affectionately refers to as "Bones".
Seeley Booth is a former sniper in the United States Army's 101st Airborne Division, 75th Ranger Regiment, and Special Forces. He is also an expert knife thrower. Before leaving the Army, Booth held the rank of master sergeant. He served in the Gulf War, Somalia and Kosovo. While in the military he earned a Bronze Star, National Defense Service Medal and the Army Good Conduct Medal. For a time, he held the record for the longest shot ("Well over a kilometer") made in combat.
Acting as a liaison between the FBI and the Jeffersonian Institute, Booth frequently consults with his professional partner Dr. Brennan and her team, whom he refers to as "squints" or "squint squad". Booth's approach to solving crimes is different from that of Brennan and her team; he prefers a more human, interpersonal and intuitive set of methods. While Booth values the information uncovered by Brennan, he often finds their methods
Benjamin Jackson Burnley IV (born March 10, 1978) is an American musician, best known as the lead vocalist, rhythm guitarist and primary songwriter for the band Breaking Benjamin.
Benjamin Burnley was born in Atlantic City, New Jersey and grew up there and in Selinsgrove, Pennsylvania. At 18, he dropped out of high school and moved to Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, where he became a roommate of former Breaking Benjamin bass player Jonathan Price. He taught himself to play guitar by listening to Nirvana's Nevermind (he cites Nirvana as his biggest influence). Before Breaking Benjamin was formed, Burnley earned money playing cover songs in various coffee houses as a solo artist. It was during this era that his band got its name. After performing a Nirvana cover, Ben knocked over a microphone (in imitation of his lifelong idol Kurt Cobain) and cracked it. The mic's owner walked onstage and said, "I'd like to thank Benjamin for breaking my fucking microphone."
In 1998, Burnley and former lead guitarist Aaron Fink, got together (along with Nick Hoover and Chris Lightcap) and started the band “Breaking Benjamin.” Eventually Ben wanted to try something different and went out to California to
Joan Crawford (March 23, 1905 – May 10, 1977), born Lucille Fay LeSueur, was an American actress in film, television and theatre.
Starting as a dancer in traveling theatrical companies before debuting on Broadway, Crawford was signed to a motion picture contract by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1925. Initially frustrated by the size and quality of her parts, Crawford began a campaign of self-publicity and became nationally known as a flapper by the end of the 1920s. In the 1930s, Crawford's fame rivaled MGM colleagues Norma Shearer and Greta Garbo. Crawford often played hardworking young women who find romance and financial success. These "rags-to-riches" stories were well received by Depression-era audiences and were popular with women. Crawford became one of Hollywood's most prominent movie stars and one of the highest paid women in the United States, but her films began losing money and by the end of the 1930s she was labeled "box office poison".
After an absence of nearly two years from the screen, Crawford staged a comeback by starring in Mildred Pierce (1945), for which she won the Academy Award for Best Actress. In 1955, she became involved with the Pepsi-Cola Company through her
Kirsten Caroline Dunst (born April 30, 1982) is an American actress, singer and model. She made her film debut in Oedipus Wrecks, a short film directed by Woody Allen for the anthology New York Stories (1989). At the age of 12, Dunst gained widespread recognition playing the role of vampire Claudia in Interview with the Vampire (1994), a performance for which she was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress. She appeared in Little Women the same year and in Jumanji the following year to further acclaim. After supporting roles in the television series ER (1996) and films such as Wag the Dog (1997), Small Soldiers (1998) and The Virgin Suicides (1999), Dunst transitioned into romantic comedies and comedy dramas, starring in Drop Dead Gorgeous (1999), Bring It On (2000), Get Over It and Crazy/Beautiful (both 2001).
Dunst achieved international fame as a result of her portrayal of Mary Jane Watson in the Spider-Man trilogy (2002–07). Since then her films have included the romantic comedy Wimbledon (2004), the romantic science fiction Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind (2004) and Cameron Crowe's tragicomedy Elizabethtown (2005). She played the title role in
Neophobia (from Greek νέος - neos, "new, young" and φόβος - phobos, "fear") is the fear of new things or experiences. It is also called cainotophobia or cainophobia (Greek καινός - kainos, "new, fresh").
In psychology, neophobia is defined as the persistent and abnormal fear of anything new. In its milder form, it can manifest as the unwillingness to try new things or break from routine. Mild manifestations are often present in young children (who want the small portion of the world that they "know" to remain constant) and elderly people (who often cope using long established habits and don't want to learn "new tricks").
In biomedical research, neophobia is often associated with the study of taste. Food neophobia is an important concern in pediatric psychology.
Neophobia is also a common finding in aging animals, although apathy could also explain, or contribute to explain, the lack of exploratory drive systematically observed in aging. Researchers argued that the lack of exploratory drive was likely due, neurophysiologically, to the dysfunction of neural pathways connected to the prefrontal cortex observed during aging.
Robert Anton Wilson theorized, in his book Prometheus Rising,
Alan Shore is a fictional character on the television series The Practice and Boston Legal, played by James Spader. The character first appeared in the final season of The Practice. Alan is one of the main characters in Boston Legal. Spader won multiple Emmy awards for both the series, and the character.
Alan was born in 1962 in Dedham, Massachusetts. He is of Scottish descent; his great-grandfather immigrated to the United States from Scotland in 1903. Alan's childhood friends included Paul Stewart (whom he first met in kindergarten) and Tom Dougan (who later became a priest). Alan lost his virginity at age 14 to a friend of his mother; he slept with Paul's mother when he was 16. One of his neighbors was Catherine Piper, his future secretary. According to one of his courtroom speeches, Alan has a sister. At one point in his life, he had to seek the help of a sex surrogate named Joanna to help him deal with perhaps his most shocking, outrageous paraphilia: an arguable "attraction" to his mother because of her simply measuring his leg for trousers, which to Alan was the only loving touch he had ever received from his family growing up. Alan notes that he once impregnated his college
Hypnophobia or somniphobia is an abnormal fear of sleep. It may result from a feeling of control loss, or from repeating nightmares. The prefix Hypno- originates from the Greek word hypnos, which means sleep.
One potential cause of hypnophobia can be seeing someone else who has a sleep terror, incident or other triggering event, such as on television or in person, thus making the hypnophobic also afraid to sleep.
Hypnophobia is typically thought to have numerous symptoms which affect the body. These symptoms can affect the patient both physically, and mentally. Many feel anxiety when talking about the subject of sleep or even thinking about it. Although hypnophobia is a relatively common form of anxiety disorder it can be difficult to treat.
The symptoms may differ for different patients and may experience them in their own way. There are numerous prescription drugs for hypnophobia, but the side effects and withdrawal symptoms can be severe. The prescribed drugs do not cure this illness but only temporarily suppress the symptom .
The causes of hypnophobia are not quite understood. Numerous patients who report having this phobia claim the source to be reoccurring nightmares.
Heliophobia (from Greek ἥλιος - helios, "sun" and φόβος - phobos, "fear") has two meanings:
Heliophobia is a problem that afflicts hundreds of people, but one that suffers from a lack of true research. The Pacific Health Center suggested that many people have been staying away from the sun because of growing fears about skin cancer. This is not technically heliophobia, simply an unfounded and illogical solution. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (if it includes an intense fear of getting skin cancer) can also cause heliophobia. It should also be noted that any form of heliophobia that is based on fears can result in agoraphobia. Although most cases of agoraphobia are not due to heliophobia, some are.
Medical conditions such as keratoconus, which is an eye disorder that results in extreme optic sensitivity to sunlight and bright lights, and porphyria cutanea tarda, which causes the skin to be overly sensitive to sunlight to the point of causing blisters, can result in heliophobia.
Since heliophobia forces its victims indoors, heliophobia causes a Vitamin D deficiency problem. However, this can be corrected by taking Vitamin D supplements or consuming Vitamin D fortified foods.
Mysophobia (from Greek μύσος - musos, "uncleanness" and φόβος - phobos, "fear"; also called germophobia/germaphobia, a combination of germ and phobia to mean "fear of germs", as well as bacillophobia, bacteriophobia, and spermophobia) is a pathological fear of contamination and germs. Someone who has such a fear is referred to as a mysophobe. The term was coined by Dr. William Alexander Hammond in 1879 when describing a case of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) exhibited in repeatedly washing one's hands. Mysophobia has long been related to the OCD of constantly washing one's hands. However, Harry Stack Sullivan, an American psychologist and psychoanalyst, notes that while fear of dirt underlies the compulsion of a person with this kind of OCD, his or her mental state is not about germs; instead, this person feels the hands must be washed. Other names for abnormal persistent fear of dirt and filth include molysmophobia or molysomophobia, rhypophobia, and rupophobia.
George Robert "Bob" Newhart (born September 5, 1929), is an American stand-up comedian and actor. Noted for his deadpan and slightly stammering delivery, Newhart came to prominence in the 1960s when his album of comedic monologues The Button-Down Mind of Bob Newhart was a worldwide bestseller and reached #1 on the Billboard pop music charts—it remains the 20th best-selling comedy album in history. The follow-up album, The Button-Down Mind Strikes Back! was also a massive success, and the two albums held the Billboard #1 and #2 spots simultaneously, a feat unequaled until the 1991 release of Use Your Illusion I and Use Your Illusion II by hard rock band Guns N' Roses.
Newhart later went into acting, starring in two long-running and prize-winning situation comedies, first as psychologist Dr. Robert "Bob" Hartley on the 1970s sitcom The Bob Newhart Show and then as innkeeper Dick Loudon on the 1980s sitcom Newhart. He also had a third, short-lived sitcom in the nineties titled Bob. Newhart also appeared in film roles such as Major Major in Catch-22, and Papa Elf in Elf. He provided the voice of Bernard in the Walt Disney animated films The Rescuers and The Rescuers Down Under. One of
The Haphephobia (also known as aphephobia, haphophobia, hapnophobia, haptephobia, haptophobia, thixophobia) is a rare specific phobia that involves the fear of touching or of being touched. It is an acute exaggeration of the normal tendencies to protect one's personal space, expressed as a fear of contamination or of the invasion, and extending even to people whom its sufferers know well.
Sometimes the fear is restricted specifically, or predominantly, to being touched by people of the opposite sex. In women, this is often associated with a fear of sexual assault. Dorais reports that many boys who have been the victims of sexual abuse have a fear of being touched, quoting one victim who describes being touched as something that "burns like fire", causing him to freeze up or to lash out.
In the 1962 movie David and Lisa, Keir Dullea portrays a teenager committed to a mental hospital for the treatment of aphephobia. While there, he falls in love with Lisa (Janet Margolin), and he begins to realize why he's been institutionalized.
In the 2006 Carl Hiaasen novel, Nature Girl, the philandering Boyd Shreave feigns aphenphosmphobia to try to hide from his wife the real reason that he
Sarah Jessica Parker (born March 25, 1965) is an American actress and producer.
She is best known for her leading role as Carrie Bradshaw on the HBO television series Sex and the City (1998–2004), for which she won four Golden Globe Awards, three Screen Actors Guild Awards, and two Emmy Awards. She played the same role in the 2008 feature film based on the show, Sex and the City: The Movie, and in its sequel, Sex and the City 2, which opened on May 26, 2010. Parker has also appeared in many other films.
Sarah Jessica Parker was born in Nelsonville, Ohio, the daughter of Barbara Parker (née Keck), a nursery school operator and teacher, and Stephen Parker, an entrepreneur and journalist. She was one of a total of eight children from her parents' marriage and her mother's second marriage (her full siblings include actors Timothy Britten Parker and Pippin Parker). After her parents' divorce, her mother married Paul Forste, a truck driver and account executive who was a part of Parker's life from an early age. Parker's father, a native of Brooklyn, was of Eastern European Jewish background; his family's original surname was "Bar-Kahn" ("son of Kohen"). Parker's mother was of English and
Michael Joseph Jackson (August 29, 1958 – June 25, 2009) was an American recording artist, entertainer and businessman. Often referred to as the King of Pop, or by his initials MJ, Jackson is recognized as the most successful entertainer of all time by Guinness World Records. His unparalleled contributions to music, dance, and fashion, along with a much-publicized personal life, made him a global figure in popular culture for over four decades. The seventh child of the Jackson family, he debuted on the professional music scene along with his brothers as a member of The Jackson 5 in 1964, and began his solo career in 1971.
In the early 1980s, Jackson became a dominant figure in popular music. The music videos for his songs, including those of "Beat It", "Billie Jean", and "Thriller", were credited with breaking down racial barriers and transforming the medium into an art form and promotional tool. The popularity of these videos helped to bring the then relatively new television channel MTV to fame. With videos such as "Black or White" and "Scream" he continued to innovate the medium throughout the 1990s, as well as forging a reputation as a touring solo artist. Through stage and
Dental phobia is a fear, or phobia, traditionally defined as an irrational and exaggerated fear of dentist and dental procedures, also referred to as dental fear. Some controversy exists with regards to whether the fear is "irrational", as dental phobia is most commonly caused by previous bad experiences. It can be argued that the fear of dentists is logical, as it requires sharp metal objects and ear-piercing drills to be placed in the mouth, an extremely pain-sensitive area of the body.
Dental phobia may better be defined as an extreme and persistent fear which results in the individual's avoidance of attending a dentist at all costs, unless possibly when a physical problem becomes overwhelming. Even thinking or hearing about going to the dentist will cause marked psychological distress, and the phobia may interfere with social functioning.
Dental phobia (which may also be referred to as odontophobia, dentophobia, dentist phobia, or dental anxiety) is one of the specific phobia. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), the diagnostic criteria of specific phobia include
Panphobia (from Greek πᾶν - pan, neuter of "πᾶς" - pas, "all" and φόβος - phobos, "fear") also called omniphobia, pantophobia, or panophobia, is a phobia known as a "non-specific fear" or "the fear of everything" and is described as "a vague and persistent dread of some unknown evil". Panphobia is not registered as a type of phobia in medical references.
Howard Michael "Howie" Mandel (born November 29, 1955) is a Canadian comedian, actor, television host, and voice actor. He is well known as host of the NBC game show Deal or No Deal, as well as the show's daytime and Canadian-English counterparts. Before his career as a game show host, Mandel was best known for his role as rowdy ER intern Dr. Wayne Fiscus on the NBC medical drama St. Elsewhere. He is also well known for being the creator and star of the children's cartoon Bobby's World. On June 6, 2009, he hosted the 2009 Game Show Awards on GSN. Mandel became a judge on NBC's America's Got Talent, replacing David Hasselhoff, in the fifth season of the reality talent contest. Mandel has mysophobia.
He was born and lived in the Willowdale area of Toronto, Ontario. His family is of Jewish ancestry and he is a distant cousin to Itzhak Perlman. His father was a lighting manufacturer and a real estate agent. After getting expelled from his high school for impersonating a member of the school board and signing a construction contract to make an addition to his school, Mandel became a carpet salesman who would later open a carpet sales business of his own. He was a stand-up comedian at
Triskaidekaphobia (from Greek tris meaning "3", kai meaning "and", deka meaning "10" and phobia meaning "fear" or "morbid fear") is fear of the number 13; it is a superstition and related to a specific fear of Friday the 13th, called paraskevidekatriaphobia or friggatriskaidekaphobia.
The term was first used by Isador Coriat in Abnormal Psychology.
There is a myth that the earliest reference to thirteen being unlucky or evil is from the Babylonian Code of Hammurabi (circa 1780 BCE), where the thirteenth law is omitted. In fact, the original Code of Hammurabi has no numeration. The translation by L.W. King (1910), edited by Richard Hooker, omitted one article:
If the seller have gone to (his) fate (i. e., have died), the purchaser shall recover damages in said case fivefold from the estate of the seller.
Other translations of the Code of Hammurabi, for example the translation by Robert Francis Harper, include the 13th article.
Some Christian traditions have it that at the Last Supper, Judas, the disciple who betrayed Jesus, was the 13th to sit at the table. However, the Bible itself says nothing about the order at which the Apostles sat. Also, the number 13 is not uniformly bad in
Agoraphobia (from Greek ἀγορά, "marketplace"; and φόβος/φοβία, -phobia) is an anxiety disorder characterized by anxiety in situations where the sufferer perceives the environment as being difficult to escape or get help. These situations include, but are not limited to, wide-open spaces, as well as uncontrollable social situations such as may be met in shopping malls, airports, and on bridges. Agoraphobia is defined within the DSM-IV TR as a subset of panic disorder, involving the fear of incurring a panic attack in those environments. The sufferer may go to great lengths to avoid those situations, in severe cases becoming unable to leave their home or safe haven.
Although mostly thought to be a fear of public places, it is now believed that agoraphobia develops as a complication of panic attacks. However, there is evidence that the implied one-way causal relationship between spontaneous panic attacks and agoraphobia in DSM-IV may be incorrect. Onset is usually between ages 20 and 40 years and more common in women. Approximately 3.2 million, or about 2.2%, of adults in the US between the ages of 18 and 54, suffer from agoraphobia. Agoraphobia can account for approximately 60% of
Anthropophobia or Anthrophobia (literally "fear of people", from Greek: ἄνθρωπος, ánthropos, "man" and φόβος, phóbos, "fear"), also called interpersonal relation phobia or social phobia, is pathological fear of people or human company. It is prevalent amongst Chinese and Japanese societies.
Anthropophobia is an extreme, pathological form of shyness and timidity. Being a form of social phobia, it may manifest as fears of blushing or meeting others' gaze, awkwardness and uneasiness when appearing in society, etc. A specific Japanese cultural form is known as taijin kyofusho.
Anthropophobia can be best defined as the fear of people in crowded situations, but can also go beyond and leave the person uncomfortable when being around just one person. Conditions vary depending on the person. Some cases are mild and can be handled while more serious cases can lead to complete social withdrawal and the exclusive use of written and electronic communication.
Like most phobias, anthropophobia can be traced back to traumatic experiences. Since social phobias are more complex than a fear of spiders or other organisms, it is believed that this specific phobia of people may be due to genetics and
Cosmo Kramer, usually referred to as simply "Kramer", is a fictional character on the American television sitcom Seinfeld (1989–1998), played by Michael Richards. The character is loosely based on comedian Kenny Kramer, Larry David's former neighbor across the hall. Kramer is the friend and neighbor of main character Jerry Seinfeld, residing in Apartment 5B, and is friends with George Costanza and Elaine Benes. Of the series' four central characters, only Kramer has no visible means of support; what few jobs he holds seem to be nothing more than larks.
His trademarks include his upright hairstyle and vintage wardrobe, the combination of which led to his categorization as a "hipster doofus"; his taste in fruit; his love of occasional smoking, Cuban cigars in particular; his bursts through Jerry's apartment door; frequent pratfalls and his penchant for nonsensical, percussive outbursts of noise to indicate skepticism, agreement, annoyance, and a variety of other inexplicable responses. He has been described as "an extraordinary cross between Eraserhead and Herman Munster". Kramer appeared in all but two episodes: "The Chinese Restaurant" and "The Pen", in the second and third
Ergophobia, also called ergasiophobia, is an abnormal and persistent fear (or phobia) of work, finding work or functioning, ergophobia may also be a subset of either social phobia or performance anxiety. Sufferers of ergophobia experience undue anxiety about the workplace environment even though they realize their fear is irrational. Their fear may actually be a combination of fears, such fear of failing at assigned tasks, fear of speaking before groups at work (both of which are types of performance anxiety), or fear of socializing with co-workers (a type of social phobia).
"Ergophobia" is derived from the Greek "ergon" (work) and "phobos" (fear). "Ergo" is also used to form other English words, including "ergometer" (a device that measures the amount of work done by muscles) and "ergonomics" (an applied science that designs interfaces and working environments with the aim of maximizing functionality and improving worker comfort).
Gymnophobia (from Greek γυμνός - gumnos, "naked" and φόβος - phobos, "fear") is a fear (phobia) of nudity. Gymnophobics experience anxiety from nudity, even if they realize their fear is irrational. They may worry about seeing others naked or being seen naked, or both. Their fear may stem from a general anxiety about sexuality, from a fear that they are physically inferior, or from a fear that their nakedness leaves them exposed and unprotected.
Gymnophobia should not be confused with avoidance or shunning of many forms of nudity on modesty or other rational or moral grounds. Many people avoid public nudity as well as nudity in private situations, and some have an aversion to nudity as an aspect of prudishness or body shame.
Gymnophobia refers to an actual fear of nudity, but most sufferers with the condition learn how to function in general society despite the condition. They may, for example, avoid changing rooms, washrooms, showers, and beaches. However, the condition can be regarded as an anxiety disorder if the person cannot control the phobia or it is interfering with their daily life. Gymnophobia is common among children, especially those undergoing puberty. Child
Joanna Chmielewska is the pen name of Irena Kühn neé Becker (born 2 April 1932 in Warsaw), a Polish writer and screenplay author. Her work is often described as "ironic detective stories". Her novels, which have been translated into at least nine languages, have sold more than 6 million copies in Poland and over 10 million copies in Russia.
Joanna Chmielewska graduated as an architect in 1954 from Warsaw University of Technology, and worked as a designer before devoting herself to writing. Her first short story was published in the magazine Kultura i Życie (Culture and Life) in 1958 and her first novel, Klin (The Wedge), in 1964. She loves horse races and gambling: both hobbies have been mentioned extensively in her books. She is also a connoisseur of amber, a passion which form the basis for her 1998 novel Złota mucha (The Golden Fly).
To date, she has written more than fifty novels. Most frequently, the protagonist is a woman called Joanna that inherits many characteristics from Chmielewska herself. She also often writes about Joanna's friends like Alicja (We Are All Suspects, All in Red), co-workers (We Are All Suspects, Wild Protein) or family (The Forefathers' Wells, Bad
Fear of needles, also known as needle phobia, is the extreme fear of medical procedures involving injections or hypodermic needles. It is occasionally referred to as aichmophobia, belonephobia, enetophobia, or trypanophobia.
The condition was officially recognized in 1994 in the DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th edition) as a specific phobia of blood/injection/injury type. Phobic level responses to injections cause sufferers to avoid inoculations, blood tests, and in the more severe cases, all medical care.
It is estimated that at least 10% of American adults have a fear of needles, and it is likely that the actual number is larger, as the most severe cases are never documented due to the tendency of the sufferer to simply avoid all medical treatment.
According to Dr. James G. Hamilton, author of the pioneering paper on needle phobia, it is likely that the form of needle phobia that is genetic has some basis in evolution, given that thousands of years ago humans who meticulously avoided stab wounds and other incidences of pierced flesh would have a greater chance of survival.
The discussion of the evolutionary basis of needle phobia in Dr. Hamilton's review article
Acrophobia (from the Greek: ἄκρον, ákron , meaning "peak, summit, edge" and φόβος, phóbos, "fear") is an extreme or irrational fear of heights. It belongs to a category of specific phobias, called space and motion discomfort that share both similar etiology and options for treatment.
Most people experience a degree of natural fear when exposed to heights, especially if there is little or no protection. Those who are confident in such situations may be said to have a head for heights.
Acrophobia sufferers can experience a panic attack in a high place and become too agitated to get themselves down safely. Between 2 and 5 percent of the general population suffer from acrophobia, with twice as many women affected as men.
"Vertigo" is often used (incorrectly) to describe a fear of heights, but it is more accurately a spinning sensation that occurs when one is not actually spinning. It can be triggered by looking down from a high place, or by looking straight up at a high place or tall object, but this alone does not describe vertigo. True vertigo can be triggered by almost any type of movement (e.g. standing up, sitting down, walking) or change in visual perspective (e.g. squatting
André René Roussimoff (19 May 1946 – 27 January 1993), best known as André the Giant, was a French and American professional wrestler and actor of Bulgarian and Polish descent. His best remembered acting role was that of Fezzik, the giant in the film The Princess Bride. His size was a result of acromegaly, and led to him being called "The Eighth Wonder of the World".
In the World Wrestling Federation (now known as WWE), Roussimoff was a one-time WWF Champion and a one-time WWF World Tag Team Champion. In 1993, André was the inaugural inductee into the WWF Hall of Fame.
André Roussimoff was born in Molien, France to Boris and Mariann Roussimouff, who were both of Bulgarian and Polish ancestry. As a child, he displayed symptoms of his gigantism very early, reaching a height of 6'3" (190.5 cm) and weight of 240 pounds (110 kg) by age 12. Unable to fit on the school bus, he was driven to school by playwright Samuel Beckett, a neighbor. Roussimoff was a good student, but he dropped out after the 8th grade since he did not think having a high school education was necessary for a farm laborer. He then worked on a farm, completed an apprenticeship in woodworking, and next worked in a
Anthrophobia, or Anthophobia (Greek: antho, "flower" and φόβος, phobos, "fear") is an abnormal or persistent fear of flowers. A person with anthrophobia may also be fearful of florists, wreaths, and bouquets. Anthrophobia is a clinical phobia generally classified under specific phobias, fear of a single specific panic trigger. Symptoms can include breathlessness, dizziness, excessive sweating, nausea, dry mouth, feeling sick, shaking, heart palpitations, inability to speak or think clearly, a fear of becoming mad or losing control, a sensation of detachment from reality, or a full blown anxiety attack.
Dental fear refers to the fear of dentistry and of receiving dental care. A severe form of this fear (specific phobia) is variously called dental phobia, odontophobia, dentophobia, dentist phobia, or dental anxiety. However, it has been suggested not to use the term "dental phobia" for people who do not feel their fears to be excessive or unreasonable and resemble individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder, caused by previous traumatic dental experiences.
It is estimated that as many as 75% of US adults experience some degree of dental fear, from mild to severe. Approximately 5 to 10 percent of U.S. adults are considered to experience dental phobia; that is, they are so fearful of receiving dental treatment that they avoid dental care at all costs. Many dentally fearful people will only seek dental care when they have a dental emergency, such as a toothache or dental abscess. People who are very fearful of dental care often experience a “cycle of avoidance,” in which they avoid dental care due to fear until they experience a dental emergency requiring invasive treatment, which can reinforce their fear of dentistry.
Women tend to report more dental fear than men, and younger
Greg David Miller (born November 3, 1984 in Orange, California) is a Minor League Baseball pitcher, who is currently a free agent. He was on the fast track to the majors in '03, but never fully recovered from a serious shoulder injury in the spring of '04.
Miller attended Esperanza High School, where he went 9-4 with a 1.50 ERA, 137 strikeouts and just 20 walks in 84 innings as a senior. He was selected by the Los Angeles Dodgers in the 1st round of the 2002 draft.
He started his first professional campaign in 2002 with the rookie league Great Falls Dodgers, helping them capture the Pioneer League Championship. Named by Baseball America as the league's eight-best prospect.
In 2003, he was honored as the Dodger organizations Minor League Pitcher of the Year after going 12-5 with a 2.21 ERA and 151 strikeouts in 142.1 innings for Single-A Vero Beach and Double-A Jacksonville. He was also named to the Florida State League All-Star team and the Baseball America 1st team Minor League All-Stars.
Entered the 2004 season rated by Baseball America as the #2 prospect and as having the best curveball and slider in the Dodger system.
His career was derailed when he missed the entire 2004
John Earl Madden (born April 10, 1936) is a former American professional football player in the National Football League, a former Super Bowl-winning head coach with the Oakland Raiders in the American Football League and later the NFL, and a former color commentator for NFL telecasts. In 2006, he was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in recognition of his coaching career. He is also widely known for the long-running Madden NFL video game series he has endorsed and fronted since 1988. Madden broadcast with Pat Summerall in the 1980s and 1990s, on CBS and later Fox. He was also the last color commentator for ABC's Monday Night Football before it moved to ESPN in 2006. His last regular role was as a commentator for NBC Sunday Night Football.
Madden has also written several books and has served as a commercial pitchman for various products and retailers. He retired from broadcasting on April 16, 2009 in order to spend more time with his family.
John Madden was born in Austin, Minnesota, to Earl Russell Madden and Mary Margaret (Flaherty) Madden. His father, an auto mechanic, moved the Madden family to Daly City, California, a suburb of San Francisco, when he was young. He
Phonophobia (from Greek φωνή - phōnē, "sound" and φόβος - phobos, "fear", also called ligyrophobia) is a fear of loud sounds. It can also mean a fear of voices, or a fear of one's own voice. For example, listening to a CD that starts with a minute of silence and then suddenly goes into loud rock music would be extremely startling for most people, assuming they had no prior knowledge of the content of the CD. Being startled is in itself a normal reaction, but the key difference is that people with ligyrophobia actively fear such an occurrence.
Ligyrophobics may be fearful of devices that can suddenly emit loud sounds, such as computer speakers or fire alarms. When operating a home theater system, computer, television, CD player, etc., they may wish to have the volume turned down all the way before doing anything that would cause the speakers to emit sound, so that once the command to produce sound is given, the user can raise the volume of the speakers to a comfortable listening level. They may avoid parades and carnivals due to the loud instruments such as drums. Other ligyrophobics also steer clear of any events in which fireworks are to be let off.
Another example is watching
Lipophobia (from Greek λίπος - lipos, "fat" and φόβος - phobos, "fear") refers to avoidance of fats in food.
In the United States the onset of the "national eating disorder" of lipophobia dates to 1977 when the nutritional guidelines titled Dietary Goals for the United States were announced by the United States Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs and limiting red meat was recommended.
Nomophobia is the fear of being out of mobile phone contact. The term, an abbreviation for "no-mobile-phone phobia", was coined during a study by the UK Post Office who commissioned YouGov, a UK-based research organisation to look at anxieties suffered by mobile phone users. The study found that nearly 53% of mobile phone users in Britain tend to be anxious when they "lose their mobile phone, run out of battery or credit, or have no network coverage". The study found that about 58% of men and 48% of women suffer from the phobia, and an additional 9% feel stressed when their mobile phones are off. The study sampled 2,163 people. Fifty-five percent of those surveyed cited keeping in touch with friends or family as the main reason that they got anxious when they could not use their mobile phones. The study compared stress levels induced by the average case of nomophobia to be on-par with those of "wedding day jitters" and trips to the dentists. Ten percent of those questioned said they needed to be contactable at all times because of work. It is, however, arguable that the word 'phobia' is misused and that in the majority of cases it is only a normal anxiety.
More than one in two
Osmophobia (oz′mō-fō′bē-ă, from Greek ὀσμή - osmē, "smell, odour" and φόβος - phobos, "fear") or olfactophobia (from Latin olfacto, "to smell at") refers to a fear, aversion, or psychological hypersensitivity to odors. The phobia generally occurs in chronic migraine sufferers who may have odor triggered migraines. Such migraines are most frequently triggered by foul odors, but the hypersensitivity may extend to all odors. One study found as many as 25% of migraine sufferers had some degree of osmophobia.
Some migraineurs treat their migraines with some success using pleasant odors, such as mint or lavender.
Rose Arianna McGowan (born September 5, 1973) is an American actress and singer. She is best known for her role as Paige Matthews in The WB Television Network supernatural drama series Charmed. She played Ann-Margret alongside Jonathan Rhys Meyers as Elvis Presley in the CBS mini-series Elvis. In 2008, she was guest programmer and co-host of TCM's film-series program, The Essentials.
She made her film debut in the 1992 comedy Encino Man, where she played a small role. Her performance as Amy Blue in the 1995 dark comedy film The Doom Generation brought her to a wider attention, and received an Independent Spirit Award nomination. McGowan then appeared in the 1996 hit horror film Scream and starred alongside Ben Affleck in the 1997 coming-of-age feature Going All the Way. Later, she appeared in several Hollywood films, including Devil in the Flesh (1998), Jawbreaker (1999), Ready to Rumble (2000), Monkeybone (2001) and The Black Dahlia (2006). In 2007, she was cast in the double-feature film directed by Robert Rodriguez and Quentin Tarantino Grindhouse. She also portrayed the character Grace in the crime thriller film Fifty Dead Men Walking (2008).
In 1996, McGowan was the cover
Goku, known as Son Goku (孫 悟空) in the original Japanese-language version and in the English language manga, is a fictional character and the protagonist of the Dragon Ball manga series written by Akira Toriyama. He is loosely based on Sun Wukong, a central character in the classical Chinese novel Journey to the West. Goku is introduced as an eccentric, monkey-tailed boy who practices martial arts and possesses superhuman strength. At first, Goku is believed to be an Earthling, but he is later revealed to be a member of an extraterrestrial warrior race called the Saiyans.
In Dragon Ball, Goku trains himself in various martial arts and searches the planet for the seven Dragon Balls. He meets other characters with similar goals, such as Bulma, with whom Goku travels to find the Dragon Balls. As Goku matures, he becomes one of Earth's strongest warriors and protects it from villains who wish to harm it. Goku is depicted as carefree and aloof when at ease but quickly serious when fighting. Goku is able to concentrate his chi and use it for energy-based attacks, the most prominent being his signature Kamehameha wave, in which Goku launches a blue energy blast from his hands.
Xenophobia is a dislike or fear of people from other countries or of that which is foreign or strange. Some definitions suggest xenophobia as arising from irrationality or unreason. It comes from the Greek words ξένος (xenos), meaning "stranger," "foreigner," and φόβος (phobos), meaning "fear."
Xenophobia can manifest itself in many ways involving the relations and perceptions of an ingroup towards an outgroup, including a fear of losing identity, suspicion of its activities, aggression, and desire to eliminate its presence to secure a presumed purity. Xenophobia can also be exhibited in the form of an "uncritical exaltation of another culture" in which a culture is ascribed "an unreal, stereotyped and exotic quality". Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action urges all governments to take immdiate measure and to develop strong policies to prevent and combat all forms and minifestations of racism, xenophobia or related intolerance, where necessary by enactment of appropriate legislation including penal measure.
Dictionary definitions of xenophobia include: deep-rooted, irrational hatred towards foreigners (Oxford English Dictionary; OED), unreasonable fear or hatred of the