a machine that makes electricity on a industrial scale.
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The Genkai Nuclear Power Plant (玄海原子力発電所, Genkai genshiryoku hatsudensho, Genkai NPP) is a nuclear power plant located in the town of Genkai in the Higashimatsuura District in the Saga Prefecture. It is owned and operated by the Kyūshū Electric Power Company.
The reactors were all built by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and are of the 2 and 4-loop M type pressurized water reactor. Unit 3 has been selected as a special Plutonium fuel test case. The plant is on a site with a total of 0.87 square kilometers.
Saga does not lie on a fault line and receives the fewest earthquakes in Japan. The 2005 Fukuoka earthquake was felt at the plant, but there was no equipment damage.
All reactors at the Genkai plant use low enriched (3-4%) Uranium dioxide fuel.
Genkai 1 belongs to the first generation of PWR built by Mitsubishi, based on imported technology.
Genkai 2 is the first reactor of the second generation of Mitsubishi's PWR, fully using its own technology.
Genkai 3 and 4 represent the third generation of Mitsubishi's PWR, with further improvements.
In early 2011, Units 2 and 3 were suspended for routine maintenance. Following the Tohoku earthquake, Kyushu Electric voluntarily sought
The Barron Gorge Hydroelectric Power Station (or Barron Gorge Hydro) in Queensland, Australia is a electricity power station commissioned in 1963 with a maximum capacity of 66 megawatts (MW). It is located in the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area 20 km north-west of Cairns. It replaced an earlier station which was the first underground power station in the country and the first hydroelectric station in Queensland. The power station was refurbished in 2006.
The conceptualisation for construction of a hydroelectric power station on the Barron River was first suggested in 1906. It was nearly 30 years before completion was realised. The 3.8 MW plant was the first underground power station in Australia and supplied the Cairns area with electricity for 28 years. The site presented many challenges including precipitous cliffs, torrential rain, and raging floods.
During the initial construction phase the delivery of equipment was complex. It first came by train to a rail siding, was transferred over the falls and then lowered by tramway to the worksite below. Hauling equipment from Cairns was relatively easy. There was no road in the early 1930s but there was the railway on the opposite
The Nizhny Novgorod Hydroelectric Station or Nizhny Novgorod GES (Russian: Нижегоро́дская ГЭС) is a hydroelectric station on the Volga river. Located near Zavolzhye, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, it belongs to the Volga-Kama Cascade of dams.
Construction started in 1948 and was completed in 1959. Complex consists of concrete spillway dam, 7 earth-fill dams and 3 dikes total 18.6 km long and up to 40 m high, power plant house, and two single-chamber two-lane locks with an intermediate pond. Installed power is 520 MW, average annual production is 1510 GWh. Power house has 8 generator units with Kaplan turbines, each 65 MW at 17 m head. The dam with total waterfront length of 13 km forms Gorky Reservoir.
Construction began in 1948. Although it was a medium-size project, e.g. compared to Volga Hydroelectric Station, it was often called an 'innovation testing range'. It also was the USSR longest dam.
More than 15,000 people came to the construction site. Construction site's infrastructure has been built along with construction of the station. Many industries of Zavolzhye and Gorodets owe their existence to station construction. Zavolzhye town was built from scratch. 8,500 houses and 700
The Itaipu Dam (Guarani: Itaipu, Portuguese: Itaipu, Spanish: Itaipú; Portuguese pronunciation: [ita.iˈpu], Spanish pronunciation: [itaiˈpu]) is a hydroelectric dam on the Paraná River located on the border between Brazil and Paraguay. The name "Itaipu" was taken from an isle that existed near the construction site. In the Guaraní language, Itaipu means "the singing stone".
The dam is the largest operating hydroelectric facility in terms of annual energy generation, generating 94.7 TWh in 2008 and 91.6 TWh in 2009, while the annual energy generation of the Three Gorges Dam was 80.8 TWh in 2008 and 79.4 TWh in 2009. The dam's 14,000 MW installed capacity is second to the Three Gorges Dam's 22,500 MW, though. It is a binational undertaking run by Brazil and Paraguay at the Paraná River on the border section between the two countries, 15 km (9.3 mi) north of the Friendship Bridge. The project ranges from Foz do Iguaçu, in Brazil, and Ciudad del Este in Paraguay, in the south to Guaíra and Salto del Guairá in the north. The installed generation capacity of the plant is 14 GW, with 20 generating units providing 700 MW each with a hydraulic design head of 118 m. In 2008 the plant
The Dinorwig Power Station (/dɨˈnɔrwɪɡ/; Welsh: [dɪˈnɔrwɪɡ]) is a 1,800 MW pumped-storage hydroelectric scheme, near Dinorwig, Llanberis in Snowdonia national park in Gwynedd, north Wales. It comprises 16 km of tunnels, 1 million tons of concrete, 200,000 tons of cement and 4,500 tons of steel.
The original purpose of the scheme, it is claimed, was to deal with the difficulty that National Grid would have had if the large numbers of nuclear power stations then planned had been built. These are technically and economically inflexible, ideally needing to run at full output all of the time and, effectively, storage capacity was needed for some of the night-time power when the demand for power dropped off. Electric night storage heaters and the Economy 7 tariff fulfil a similar purpose.
The stalling of the UK nuclear power programme in the late 1980s and the coincident dash for gas increased the proportion of dispatchable plant on the network, making the use of pumped storage for day/night load balancing less attractive. As a result, a similar facility planned for Exmoor was never built.
Today, Dinorwig is operated not as a peaking station i.e. to help meet peak loads, but rather as a
The Inga Dams, located in western Democratic Republic of the Congo 140 miles southwest of Kinshasa, are two hydroelectric dams on the largest waterfalls in the world, Inga Falls. Here the Congo River drops 96 metres and has an average flow of 42,476 m³/s.
Currently, the two hydroelectric dams, Inga I and Inga II, operate at low output. The existing dams are famous white elephants, with total installed capacity 1,775 MW, of former Président Mobutu Sese Seko, part of the Inga-Shaba project. They also served a political purpose, by allowing Kinshasa to control the energy supply of the sometimes rebellious Shaba province.
Plans are underway to rehabilitate the two dams. Also, there are plans for Inga III and Grand Inga, two massive new hydroelectric stations.
Projections indicate that Inga III would generate 4,500 megawatts of electricity. Inga 3 is the centerpiece of the Westcor partnership, which envisions the interconnection of the electric grids of the DRC, Namibia, Angola, Botswana, and South Africa. The World Bank, the African Development Bank, the European Investment Bank, JFPI Corporation, bilateral donors and the southern African power companies have all expressed interest in
Nagarjuna Sagar Dam (Telugu: నాగార్జునసాగర్ ఆనకట్ట) is the world's largest masonry dam at the time of its construction, which is built across Krishna River at Nagarjuna Sagar in Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh, India. The construction duration of the dam was between the years of 1955 and 1967. The dam created a water reservoir whose capacity is 11,472 million cubic metres. The dam is 490 ft (150 m). tall and 1.6 km long with 26 gates which are 42 ft (13 m). wide and 45 ft (14 m). tall. Nagarjuna Sagar was the earliest in the series of large infrastructure projects initiated for the Green Revolution in India; it also is one of the earliest multi-purpose irrigation and hydro-electric projects in India. The dam provides irrigation water to the Nalgonda District, Prakasam District, Khammam District, Krishna District and Guntur District and electric power to the national grid.
The proposal to construct a dam to use the excess waters of the Krishna river was sketched out by the British Engineers in 1903 on the supervision of Hyderabad Nizams. Since then, various competing sites in Siddeswaram, Hyderabad and Pulichintala were identified as the most suitable locations for the
The Snowy Mountains scheme is a hydroelectricity and irrigation complex in south-east Australia. It consists of sixteen major dams; seven power stations; a pumping station; and 225 kilometres of tunnels, pipelines and aqueducts and was constructed between 1949 and 1974. The Chief engineer was Sir William Hudson. It is the largest engineering project undertaken in Australia.
The Scheme's construction is seen by many "as a defining point in Australia's history, and an important symbol of Australia's identity as an independent, multicultural and resourceful country".
The water of the Snowy Mountains Region is captured at high elevations and diverted inland to the Murray River and the Murrumbidgee River, through two tunnel systems driven through the Snowy Mountains.
The water falls 800 metres and travels through large hydro-electric power stations which generate peak-load power for the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales and Victoria.
The scheme is operated by Snowy Hydro Limited. Since corporatisation in 2002 Snowy Hydro operates as a Corporations Act company, owned by the New South Wales, Victorian and Federal Governments.
The Snowy Mountains Hydro-electric Power Act 1949
Tianwan Nuclear Power Station (Chinese: 田湾核电站/田灣核電站) is a large nuclear power station in Lianyungang prefecture level city, Jiangsu province, People's Republic of China. It is considered to be the largest nuclear plant on mainland China. It is located on the coast of the Yellow Sea approximately 30 kilometers east of Lianyungang proper.
The nuclear power plant consists of two reactor units each rated at 1,000 MW capacity and constructed by Russia's Atomstroyexport. The first reactor began full operations in 2006 and the second in 2007. According to a news report of Russia Today, the IAEA has referred to the station as the "safest nuclear power plant in the world".
Construction commenced on 20 October 1999 for the first unit, and on 20 October 2000 for the second reactor unit. The first reactor went critical on 20 December 2005. Construction of the second reactor finished in May 2007 and commercial operation began in August.
On 23 November 2010, Jiangsu Nuclear Power Corporation signed a contract with Atomstroyexport according to which Atomstroyexport will supply 1060 MWe VVER-1000 reactors for units 3 and 4.
This is the first time the two countries have co-operated on a nuclear
The Monticello Nuclear Generating Plant is a nuclear power plant located in Monticello, Minnesota, along the Mississippi River. The site, which began operating in 1971, has a single nuclear reactor (boiling water reactor) of the General Electric BWR-3 design generating 613 megawatts, but studies are ongoing to uprate it to 700 MWe.
Currently the plant is both owned and operated by Xcel Energy The reactor was originally licensed to operate until 2010, however on November 8, 2006, it was extended to operate until 2030. The plant has had a solid operating history and is one of only two plants in the United States to never have received an Enforcement Action from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the other facility is North Anna Nuclear Generating Station.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission defines two emergency planning zones around nuclear power plants: a plume exposure pathway zone with a radius of 10 miles (16 km), concerned primarily with exposure to, and inhalation of, airborne radioactive contamination, and an ingestion pathway zone of about 50 miles (80 km), concerned primarily with ingestion of food and liquid contaminated by radioactivity.
The 2010 U.S. population within 10
Pangue Hydroelectric Plant is a hydroelectric power station in Bío Bío Region, Chile. It lies west of Callaqui volcano at the confluence of the rivers Pangue and Huiri-Huiri. The plant uses water from the upper Bío Bío River and produces 467 MW of electricity. The plant was built by Endesa in 1996.
The penstock delivering water to the power plant has a hydraulic head of 103 m and a design volume of 500 m³/second. Pangue contributes 10% of the electricity fed into the Chilean integrated grid, making it the third larges power station after Ralco (640 MW) and Pehuenche (500 MW). The dam is made of roller-compacted concrete, using about a million cubic meter of concrete. The dam and power plant were built from 1993 to 1996. Behind the dam lies a reservoir of 500 hectares, 14 km long and 360 m wide. This makes it one of the most efficient large hydropower plants in the world, as measured by the relation between electricity production and area flooded. The construction of Pangue, just as the one of Ralco, generated controversies between environmentalists, the Government and the private power company Endesa, because the dam impacted the indigenous Pehuenche people, whitewater rafting
Dartmouth Power Station is a hydroelectric power station at Dartmouth Dam on the Mitta Mitta River in Victoria, Australia. Dartmouth has one turbo generator, with a generating capacity of 180 MW of electricity, the largest single hydroelectric turbine in Australia. It is owned and operated by AGL.
Dartmouth was commissioned in 1981.
The turbine casing and concrete machine block surrounding it were destroyed in 1990 when two steel beams entered the turbine. The station was subsequently re-built and re-commissioned in 1993.
Lake Siriu is an artificial dam lake in Romania, on the Buzău River valley. Construction of the dam started in 1982, and the 42 MW Nehoiaşu hydroelectric plant was opened in 1994.
The dam is a 122 m high embankment dam with a clay core, the second largest embankment dam in Romania.
The Affric / Beauly hydro-electric power scheme for the generation of hydro-electric power is located in the western Highlands of Scotland. It is based around Glen Strathfarrar, Glen Cannich and Glen Affric, and Strathglass further downstream.
The scheme was developed by the North of Scotland Hydro-Electric Board, with plans being approved in 1947.
The largest dam of the scheme is at Loch Mullardoch, at the head of Glen Cannich. From there, a tunnel takes water to Loch Beinn a' Mheadhoinn (Loch Benevean) in Glen Affric, via a small underground power station near Mullardoch dam. Loch Benevean is also dammed, with a tunnel taking water to the main power station of Fasnakyle, near Cannich.
To the north in Glen Strathfarrar, Loch Monar is dammed, and a 9 km tunnel carries water to an underground power station at Deanie. Further down the glen, the River Farrar is dammed just below Loch Beannacharan, with a tunnel to take water to Culligran power station (also underground).
The River Farrar joins with the River Glass near Struy to form the River Beauly. Downstream on the River Beauly, dams and power stations have been built in gorges at Aigas and Kilmorack.
As the rivers in this scheme
The Akosombo Dam (also referred to as the Akosombo Hydroelectric Project), is a hydroelectric dam on the Volta River in southeastern Ghana in the Akosombo gorge and part of the Volta River Authority. The construction of the dam flooded part of the Volta River Basin, and the subsequent creation of Lake Volta. Lake Volta is the world's largest man-made lake, covering 8,502 square kilometres (3,283 sq mi), which is 3.6% of Ghana's land area.
The primary purpose of the Akosombo Dam was to provide electricity for the aluminum industry. The Akosombo Dam was called "the largest single investment in the economic development plans of Ghana." Its original electrical output was 912 MW, which was upgraded to 1,020 MW in a retrofit project that was completed in 2006.
The flooding that created the Lake Volta reservoir displaced many people and had a significant impact on the environment.
The dam was conceived in 1915 by geologist Albert Ernest Kitson, but no plans were drawn until the 1940s. The development of the Volta River Basin was proposed in 1949, but because there was not sufficient funds, the American company Volta Aluminum Company (Valco) loaned money to Ghana so that the dam could be
The Fall of Foyers (Scottish Gaelic: Eas na Smùide, meaning the smoking falls) is a waterfall on the River Foyers, which feeds Loch Ness, in Highland, Scotland, United Kingdom.
The waterfall has "a fine cascade", having a fall of 165 feet. It is located on the lower portion of the River Foyers at grid reference NH497203. The river enters Loch Ness on the East side, North-East of Fort Augustus.
This waterfall influenced Robert Addams to write a paper in 1834 about the motion aftereffect.
The flow over the falls has been much reduced since 1895 when North British Aluminium Company built an aluminium smelting plant on the shore of Loch Ness which was powered by electricity generated by the river. The plant shut in 1967 and the site is now part of a Pumped-storage hydroelectricity system.
The Felsenau power plant (German: Kraftwerk Felsenau) is a hydroelectric power plant located on the river Aar in Bern, Switzerland. It was built in 1909 by the city's utility company, Energie Wasser Bern. After a 1989 modernisation, the turbine hall is now used as a museum. The plant's current power output is 11.5 megawatts.
The main building was designed by Eduard Locher and Alfred Brunschwyler in a then-popular historicising style as a "palace of technology". The 1989 expansion is by Vladimir Grossen and Bea Baumann.
The Gandhi Sagar Dam is one of the four dams built on India's Chambal River. The dam is located in the Mandsaur district of the state of Madhya Pradesh. It is a masonry gravity dam, standing 62.17 metres (204.0 ft) high, with a gross storage capacity of 7.322 billion cubic metres from a catchment area of 22,584 km (8,720 sq mi). The dam's foundation stone was laid by then-Prime Minister of India Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru on 7 March 1954, and construction was completed in 1960.
The dam sports a 115 MW hydroelectric power station at its toe, with five 23 MW generating units each providing a total energy generation of about 564 GWh. The water released after power generation is utilised for the irrigation of 427,000 hectares (1,060,000 acres) by the Kota Barrage, which is located 104 kilometres (65 mi) downstream of the dam, near the city of Kota in the state of Rajasthan.
The dam's reservoir area is the second-largest in India (after the Hirakud Reservoir), and attracts a large number of migratory and non-migratory birds throughout the year. The International Bird Life Agency (IBA) has qualified the reservoir under "A4iii" criteria, as the congregation of waterbirds is reported to
Hunterston B Power Station is a nuclear power station in North Ayrshire, Scotland. It is located about 9 km south of Largs and about 4 km north-west of West Kilbride. It is operated by EDF Energy. It currently generates up to 1000 MW and is due to operate until 2016.
The construction of Hunterston B was undertaken by a consortium known as The Nuclear Power Group (TNPG). The two advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGR) were supplied by TNPG and the turbines by C. A. Parsons & Co. Hunterston B started generating electricity on 6 February 1976.
Its net electrical output was 1,215 MW. In 2007 the reactors were restricted to operating at a reduced level of around 70% of full output (around 850 MWe net). Subsequent work during maintenance shutdowns have resulted in Reactor 3 operating at around 75% (460Mwe net) in early 2011, and Reactor 4 at around 71% (430 MWe net). In total this equates to around 980MWe gross (output from the generators based on 90MW internal load) and is capable of supplying the electricity needs of over 1 million homes.
On 3 December 1977 The Times reported that seawater had entered the reactor through a modification of the secondary cooling system. The secondary cooling
The Karun-4 Dam is an arch dam on the Karun River in the province of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, Iran. The Karun has the highest discharge of Iran's rivers. The objectives of the construction of Karun-4 dam and hydroelectric power plant are electric power supply and flood control.
The dam is a concrete double curvature arch-type and 230 metres (750 ft) high from the foundation. The arch dam design is an ideal one for a dam built in a narrow, rocky gorge to hold back water in a reservoir. The dam is curved. Because of the arch shape, the force of the backed up water presses downward against the dam and has the effect of strengthening the dam foundation. The dam withholds a reservoir with a surface area of 29 square kilometres (11 sq mi) and capacity of 2.19 cubic kilometres (1,780,000 acre·ft).
The dam's first study was conducted in 1995 and river diversion began in 1997. Concrete pouring began in 2006 and the power plant began producing electricity in November 2010. On December 11, 2010, the second generator for the dam became operational and was connected to the grid. The dam will eventually have an installed capacity of 1,000 MW. The dam was inaugurated on 6 July 2011 by Iranian
The Kashiwazaki–Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant (柏崎刈羽原子力発電所, Kashiwazaki-Kariwa genshiryoku-hatsudensho, Kashiwazaki–Kariwa NPP) is a large, modern (housing the world's first ABWR) nuclear power plant on a 4.2-square-kilometer (1,038 acres) site including land in the towns of Kashiwazaki and Kariwa in Niigata Prefecture, Japan on the coast of the Sea of Japan, from where it gets cooling water. The plant is owned and operated by The Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO).
It is the largest nuclear generating station in the world by net electrical power rating. It was approximately 15 miles from the epicenter of the second strongest earthquake to ever occur at a nuclear plant, the Mw 6.6 July 2007 Chūetsu offshore earthquake. This shook the plant beyond design basis and initiated an extended shutdown for inspection, which indicated that greater earthquake-proofing was needed before operation could be resumed.
The plant was completely shut down for 21 months following the earthquake. Unit 7 was restarted after seismic upgrades on May 9, 2009, followed later by three other units. However all units have since been stopped for regular inspection.
There are seven units, which are all lined up
Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant is located in Somervell County, Texas. The nuclear power plant is located 40 miles (65 km) southwest of Ft. Worth and about 60 miles (100 km) southwest of Dallas. It relies on nearby Squaw Creek Reservoir for cooling water. The plant has about 1,300 employees and is operated by Luminant Generation, a subsidiary of Energy Future Holdings Corporation.
Construction of the two Westinghouse pressurized water reactors began in 1974. Unit 1, originally rated at 1,084 MWe, came online on April 17, 1990. Its current, 40-year operating license is valid until February 8, 2030. Unit 2, 1,124 MWe, followed on April 6, 1993 and is licensed to operate until February 2, 2033 when it has to renew its license. As of 2006 Unit 2 was the second-last power reactor to come online in the USA, followed only by Watts Bar 1.
In June 2008, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approved a request to increase the generating capacity of units 1 and 2 by approximately 4.5% each. Luminant Generation Co. implemented the changes during refueling outages. Unit 1 was uprated in autumn 2008 with a capacity increase of approximately 1,210 to 1,259 MWe and Unit 2, the capacity of
Amaravathi Dam at Amaravathinagar, 25 km south on SH 17 from Udumalpet, is located in Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary in Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu, India. The 9.31 km², 33.53 m deep Amaravathi Reservoir was created by this steep dam. It was built primarily for irrigation and flood control and now also has 4 megawatts of electric generating capacity installed. It is notable for the significant population of Mugger Crocodiles living in its reservoir and catchment basin.
The dam was built in 1957 during K. Kamaraj's administration across the Amaravati River about 25 km upstream and south from Thirumoorthy Dam. Capacity of the dam has shrunk 25% from 4 tmcft to 3 tmcft due to siltation of the reservoir. during 2003-04, the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board proposed to install 4 MW electric generating capacity from the dam, which is now in operation.
There is a well laid-out park where one may climb steep steps on the dam to have a picturesque view north of the plains below and south to the Anaimalai Hills and Palni Hills above. Boating for tourists in the dam began on 14 January 2011.
Yankee Rowe Nuclear Power Station (decommissioned) was a nuclear power plant in Rowe, Massachusetts, that operated from 1960 to 1992.
The Yankee Nuclear Power Station (YNPS) - also known as "Yankee Rowe" - was the third commercial nuclear power plant built in the United States and the first built in New England. The 185-megawatt electric pressurized-water Yankee Rowe plant, located on the Deerfield River in the town of Rowe in western Massachusetts, permanently shut down on February 26, 1992 after more than 31 years of producing electricity for New England electric consumers.
Construction of the plant was completed in 1960 at a cost of $39 million. The capital cost was $45 million against an estimated cost of $57 million, according to the engineering consultant Kenneth Nichols, who had been deputy to Groves on the Manhattan Project.. During its 32-year operating history, the Yankee plant generated over 34 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity, and had a lifetime capacity factor of 74%.
The plant, the first large-scale nuclear unit and the first privately-owned pressurized-water plant, was shut down prematurely due to reactor pressure vessel embrittlement concerns, a safety factor
The Hassi R'Mel integrated solar combined cycle power station is a hybrid power station near Hassi R'Mel in Algeria. The plant combines a 25 MW parabolic trough concentrating solar power array, covering an area of over 180,000 m, in conjunction with a 130 MW combined cycle gas turbine plant, so cutting carbon emissions compared to a traditional power station. The output from the solar array will be used in the steam turbine.
The construction contract was signed on January 5, 2007 and the plant is to be developed by New Energy Algeria (NEAL) , a joint venture between Sonatrach Sonelgaz and SIM.
The station began producing electricity in June 2011. It was inaugurated July 14, 2011 .
Balakovo nuclear power station (Russian: Балаковская АЭС [ pronunciation (help·info)]) is located in the city of Balakovo, Saratov Oblast, Russia, about 900 kilometers south-east of Moscow. It consists of four operational reactors; a fifth unit is still under construction. Owner and operator of the nuclear power station is Rosenergoatom.
Balakovo NPP participates in a twinning program between nuclear power stations in Europe and Russia; since 1990 it has been in partnership with Biblis Nuclear Power Plant.
On 27 June 1985 during startup of the first reactor unit, a human error (later attributed to inexperience and haste) unexpectedly opened a pressurizer relief valve, and 300°C steam entered the staff work area. Fourteen people were killed. This event is cited as one of the predecessors of the Chernobyl disaster.
The Balakovo Nuclear Power Plant has four operating units:
The Dnieper Hydroelectric Station (Ukrainian: ДніпроГЕС - DniproHES, Russian: ДнепроГЭС - DneproGES, also known as Dneprostroi Dam) is the largest hydroelectric power station on the Dnieper River, placed in Zaporizhia, Ukraine.
In the lower current of the Dnieper River there were almost 100 km long part of the river filled with rapids. Now this is the distance between the modern cities Dnepropetrovsk and Zaporozhie In the 19th century engineers worked on the projects to make the river navigable. The projects for the flooding of the rapids were proposed by N. Lelyavsky in 1893, V. Timonov in 1894, S. Maximov and G. Graftio in 1905, A. Rundo and D. Yuskevich in 1910, I. Rozov and L. Yurgevich in 1912, Mohylko. While the main objective of these projects was to improve navigation, hydropower generation appeared concurrently, in terms of "utiliztion of the freely flowing water". G. Graftio's project of 1905 included three dams with a small area of flooding.
Lenin's slogan "Communism is Soviet power plus the electrification of the whole country" became a motto for Soviet industrialization. On February 7, 1920, the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of the Soviets announced the
The Tehri Dam is a multi-purpose rock and earth-fill embankment dam on the Bhagirathi River near Tehri in Uttarakhand, India. It is the primary dam of the THDC India Ltd. and the Tehri hydroelectric complex. Phase 1 was completed in 2006, the Tehri Dam withholds a reservoir for irrigation, municipal water supply and the generation of 1,000 MW of hydroelectricity. One more project of the installed capacity of 1,000 MW pumped storage hydroelectricity are under construction.
A preliminary investigation for the Tehri Dam Project was completed in 1961 and its design was completed in 1972 with a 600 MW capacity power plant based on the study. Construction began in 1978 after feasibility studies but was delayed due to financial, environmental and social impacts. In 1986, technical and financial assistance was provided by the united nation of india
The dam is a 260.5 metres (855 ft) high rock and earth-fill embankment dam. Its length is 575 metres (1,886 ft), crest width 20 metres (66 ft), and base width 1,128 metres (3,701 ft). The dam creates a reservoir of 2.6 cubic kilometres (2,100,000 acre·ft) with a surface area of 52 square kilometres (20 sq mi). The installed hydrocapacity is
The Clinton Power Station is located near Clinton, Illinois, USA. The nuclear power station has a General Electric boiling water reactor on a 14,300 acres (57.9 km) site with an adjacent 5,000 acres (20.2 km) cooling reservoir, Clinton Lake. Due to inflation and cost overruns, Clinton's final construction cost exceeded $2.6 billion. The power station began service on April 24, 1987 and is currently capable of generating 1,043 MW.
After more than a decade of operation the plant's original owner, Illinois Power, deduced that it was not economical to own and operate only one nuclear generating station. They subsequently sold Clinton Generating Station to Exelon Corporation for a more modest price of $40 million dollars, with the purchase including the fuel in the reactor vessel and responsibility of all the radioactive waste in the spent fuel storage pool. The reactor design is of the type called the Generation II reactor. Clinton Nuclear Station is a BWR-6 with a Mark III containment structure. The present reactor operating license was issued April 17, 1987, and will expire September 29, 2026.
The Operator and Owner is the Exelon Corporation.
In September 2003, Exelon submitted an
The Hamaoka Nuclear Power Plant (浜岡原子力発電所, Hamaoka Genshiryoku Hatsudensho, Hamaoka NPP) is a nuclear power plant located in Omaezaki city, Shizuoka Prefecture, on Japan's east coast, 200 km south-west of Tokyo. It is managed by the Chubu Electric Power Company. There are five units contained at a single site with a net area of 1.6 km (395 acres). A sixth unit began construction on December 22, 2008. On January 30, 2009, Hamaoka-1 and Hamaoka-2 were permanently shut down.
On 6 May 2011, Prime Minister Naoto Kan requested the plant be shut down as an earthquake of magnitude 8.0 or higher is estimated 87% likely to hit the area within the next 30 years. Kan wanted to avoid a possible repeat of the Fukushima nuclear disaster. On 9 May 2011, Chubu Electric decided to comply with the government request. In July 2011, a mayor in Shizuoka Prefecture and a group of residents filed a lawsuit seeking the decommissioning of the reactors at the Hamaoka nuclear power plant permanently.
Hamaoka is built directly over the subduction zone near the junction of two tectonic plates, and a major Tokai earthquake is said to be overdue. The possibility of such a shallow magnitude 8.0 earthquake in the
Kozjak Hydro Power Plant is a large hydroelectric power plant on the river Treska which creates an artificial lake Kozjak, the largest in Republic of Macedonia. It is located in the western part of the country in the municipality of Makedonski Brod.
The power plant has two turbines with a nominal capacity of 41 MW each having a total capacity of 82 MW.
The lake is 32 km (20 mi) long, with maximum depth of 130 m (430 ft). The maximum elevation of the lake is 469.9 m and it has a capacity of about 380 million m³ of water. There is an abundance of fish in the lake.
The construction of the dam started in August 1994. The reservoir started filling in May 2003, and the two power generators finally went online in July and September 2004.
The Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station is a nuclear power plant located in Tonopah, Arizona, about 45 miles (80 km) west of central Phoenix. It is the largest nuclear generation facility in the United States, averaging over 3.3 gigawatts (GW) of electrical power production in 2008 to serve approximately 4 million people. Arizona Public Service (APS) owns 29.1% of the station and operates the facility. Other owners include Salt River Project (17.5%), El Paso Electric Co. (15.8%), Southern California Edison (15.8%), PNM Resources (10.2%), Southern California Public Power Authority (5.9%), and the Los Angeles Dept. of Water & Power (5.7%).
Located in the Arizona desert, Palo Verde is the only nuclear generating facility in the world that is not situated adjacent to a large body of above-ground water. The facility evaporates water from the treated sewage of several nearby municipalities to meet its cooling needs.
The facility is on 4,000 acres (16 km) of land and consists of three Combustion Engineering pressurized water reactors, each with an original capacity of 1.27 gigawatts electrical, current (2007) maximum capacity of 1.24 gigawatts electrical, and typical operating capacity
Rheidol power station is a 56 MW hydroelectric scheme near Aberystwyth, Wales. It was built between 1957 and 1962 and was officially opened on 3 July 1964. It has been operated by Statkraft since 2008 after it was transferred from E.ON UK as part of a swap for shares.
Monju (もんじゅ) is a Japanese sodium-cooled fast reactor, located in Tsuruga, Fukui Prefecture. Construction started in 1986 and the reactor achieved criticality for the first time in April 1994. Its name is a reference to Manjusri.
Monju is a sodium cooled, MOX-fueled, loop-type reactor with three primary coolant loops, producing 280 MWe from 714 MWt.
An accident in December 1995, in which a sodium leak caused a major fire, forced a shutdown. A subsequent scandal involving a cover-up of the scope of the accident delayed its restart until May 6, 2010, with renewed criticality reached on May 8, 2010. In August 2010 another accident, involving dropped machinery, shut down the reactor again. As of June 2011, the reactor has only generated electricity for one hour since its first testing two decades prior. As of the end of 2010, total funds spent on the reactor amounted to ¥1.08 trillion. An estimated ¥160-170 billion would be needed to continue to operate the reactor for another 10 years.
The plant is located on a site that spans 1.08 km (267 acres), the buildings occupy 28,678 m (7 acres), and it has 104,680 m of floor space. It employs 368 workers.
On December 8, 1995, the reactor
The Bureya Dam (locally referred to as Bureyskaya, Russian: Бурейская ГЭС) is a hydroelectric dam on the Bureya River in the Russian Far East.
Bureya hydroelectric power station was built by Bureyagesstroy. Construction started in 1976, but was halted until 1999. In 1999, RAO UES restarted the project. The dam was completed and the first unit was launched in 2003. The construction of the whole complex was completed in 2009.
The reservoir reached its specified level during the summer-autumn monsoon season of 2009. It was accompanied with first use of spillways during planned tests. Despite the fact that all primary construction works on power station was completed, it will be officially commenced for exploitation by government commission in 2011. Therefore, officially, the complex is still under construction.
Bureya Dam is a gravity dam with height of 139 metres (456 ft) and crest length of 810 metres (2,660 ft).
The power station has an installed capacity of 2010 MW, the full capacity. Power is generated by utilizing six turbines, each with a capacity of 335 MW. The facility is owned by RusHydro.
The Iron Gate II (Romanian: Porţile de Fier II, Serbian: Ђердап II, Đerdap II) is a large dam on the Danube River, between Romania and Serbia.
The project started in 1977 as a joint-venture between the governments of Romania and Yugoslavia for the construction of large dam on the Danube River which would serve both countries. At the time of completion in 1984 the dam had 16 units generating a total of 432 MW, divided equally between the two countries at 216 MW each.
The Romanian part of the power station was modernised and another 2 units were installed; the nominal capacity of the 10 units was increased from 27 MW to 32 MW thus having an installed capacity of 321 MW. The Romanian side of the power station produces approximately 1.3 TWh per annum.
The Serbian part of the power station currently have 10 units with nominal capacity of 27 MW each and entire power generation capacity of 270 MW.
Current entire power generation capacity of the power station is 591 MW.
The Sakuma Dam (佐久間ダム, Sakuma damu) is a dam on the Tenryū River, located on the border of Toyone, Kitashitara District, Aichi Prefecture on the island of Honshū, Japan. It is one of the tallest dams in Japan and supports a 350 MW hydroelectric power station. Nearby a frequency converter station is installed, allowing interchange of power between Japan's 50 Hz and 60 Hz AC networks.
The potential of the Tenryū River valley for hydroelectric power development was realized by the Meiji government at the start of the 20th century. The Tenryū River was characterized by a high volume of flow and a fast current. Its mountainous upper reaches and tributaries were areas of steep valleys and abundant rainfall, and were sparsely populated. However, the bulk of investment in hydroelectric power generation in the region was centered on the Ōi River, and it was not until the Taishō period that development began on the Tenryū River. Private entrepreneur Fukuzawa Momosuke founded the Tenryūgawa Electric Power (天竜川電力, Tenryūgawa Denroku), which later became Yasaku Hydroelectric (矢作水力電気, Yasaku Suiroku Denki) before it was nationalized into the pre-war government monopoly Japan Electric Generation
Trojan Nuclear Power Plant was a pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant located southeast of Rainier, Oregon, United States, and the only commercial nuclear power plant to be built in Oregon. After sixteen years of service it was closed by its operator, Portland General Electric (PGE), almost twenty years before the end of its design lifetime. Decommissioning and demolition of the plant began in 1993 and was completed in 2006.
While operating, Trojan represented more than 12% of the electrical generation capacity of Oregon. For comparison, more than 80% of Oregon's electricity came from hydropower from dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers, with the rest mainly from fossil fuels. The site lies directly south of the small city of Prescott, on the banks of the Columbia River.
Construction of Trojan began February 1, 1970. First criticality was achieved on December 15, 1975 and grid connection on December 23, 1975. Commercial operation began on May 20, 1976 under a 35-year license to expire in 2011. The single 1130 megawatt unit at Trojan was then the largest pressurized water reactor built. It cost $450 million to build the plant.
Environmental opposition dogged Trojan from
The Dez Dam (Persian: سد دز) is a large hydroelectric dam built in Iran in 1963 by an Italian consortium.
The dam is on the Dez River in the Northwestern province of Khuzestan, the closest city being Dezful. It is 203 metres (666 ft) high, making it one of the highest in the world, and has a reservoir capacity of 3.340 million cubic meters. At the time of construction the Dez Dam was Iran's biggest development project.
It is also possible to visit powerhouse which is located at the east side of the dam in the mountains. The powerhouse has eight vertical Francis turbines.
The dam's current problem is the annual loss of reservoir capacity due to the erosion of soil in upstream areas.
Impregilo was involved with building the Dez dam. The water from the reservoir went to irrigate 160 square kilometres (62 sq mi), only one-fifth of the area that the dam’s designers claimed would be irrigated. The irrigated land was largely for the benefit of foreign agribusiness corporations, including Mitsui, Chase Manhattan, Bank of America, Shell, John Deere and Transworld Agricultural Development Corporation. About 17,000 farmers lost their land to agribusinesses. Years later, many were still
The Crystal River 3 Nuclear Power Plant, also simply called the Crystal River Nuclear Plant, is a nuclear power plant located in Crystal River, Florida. The power plant is the third plant built (hence its name) as part of the 4,700 acre (19 km²) Crystal River Energy Complex which contains a single pressurized water reactor, while sharing the site with four fossil fuel power plants.
The Crystal River reactor normally produces 860 MW, but it has been offline since September 2009 when a refuelling and 20% uprate outage began. During the upgrade, workers discovered a gap in the concrete containment dome. The NRC investigated and found that the gap was caused by workers applying more pressure to the concrete than it could handle while cutting a hole through which to replace the steam generators. (Taking in the generators in through the equipment hatch was not an option as there was no room to maneuver the generators inside the hatch). The plant had originally been due to restart in April 2011 following the uprate, but in June 2011 Progress Energy said that it did not expect it to restart until 2014. Repair costs were estimated to be between $900 million and $1.3 billion.
Ardnacrusha power plant is a hydroelectric power station which was originally referred to as The Shannon Scheme. It is located near Ardnacrusha within County Clare approximately 1.5 miles (2.4 km) from the Limerick border. It is Ireland's largest river hydroelectric scheme and is operated on a purpose built canal connected to the River Shannon. The plant includes fish ladders so that returning fish, such as salmon, can climb the river safely past the power station.
The generating plant at Ardnacrusha is composed of three vertical-shaft Francis turbine generators (commissioned in 1929) and one vertical-shaft Kaplan turbine generator (commissioned in 1934) operating under an average head of 28.5 metres. The scheme originally was designed for six turbines, with four turbines fitted. The 85 MW of generating plant in Ardnacrusha was adequate to meet the electricity demand of the entire country in the early years. The full output equates to about 332,000 MWh generated on an annual basis. Ardnacrusha generates at 10.5 kilovolts (kV) but this is transformed to 40 kV for local distribution and to 110 kV for long distance transmission.
The first plan to harness the Shannon's power between
Nuclear power station Smolensk (Russian: Смоленская АЭС [ pronunciation (help·info)]) is a nuclear power station in Russia. It is located in the Smolensk region, in Desnogorsk province, approximately 100 km from Smolensk, 120 km from Bryansk and 320 km from Moscow. Smolensk Nuclear Power Plant is the biggest NPP in the Nechernozem region of Russia.
Smolensk NPP operates three RBMK-1000 reactors (1000MW water-cooled graphite-moderated channel-type reactors). The plant was supposed to have four units but the construction of the 4th reactor was stopped in 1986 following the Chernobyl disaster.
All the units are equipped with emergency response systems, which can prevent release of radioactive material into the environment even in case of serious accident; for example breakage of pipes in the reactor cooling circuit. The reactor cooling circuit is housed in hermetic reinforced concrete boxes that can withstand a force of 4.5 kg/cm.
Sellafield is a nuclear reprocessing site, close to the village of Seascale on the coast of the Irish Sea in Cumbria, England. The site is served by Sellafield railway station. Sellafield is an off-shoot from the original nuclear reactor site at Windscale, which is currently undergoing decommissioning and dismantling. Calder Hall, another neighbour of Windscale is also undergoing decommissioning and dismantling of its 4 nuclear power generating reactors.
Sellafield was previously owned and operated by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and then, following the division of UKAEA in 1971, British Nuclear Fuels Ltd (BNFL). However since 1 April 2005, it has been owned by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) and is now operated by Sellafield Ltd.
In 2008 the NDA contracted the management of Sellafield Ltd to Nuclear Management Partners, a consortium of US company URS, British company AMEC, and AREVA of France. The initial contract is for five years, with extension options to 17 years.
Facilities at the site include the THORP nuclear fuel reprocessing plant and the Magnox nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. It is also the site of the remains of Calder Hall, the
The Tokuyama Dam (徳山ダム, Tokuyama damu) is an embankment dam near Ibigawa, Ibi District, Gifu Prefecture in Japan. The dam was completed in 2008 and will support a 153 MW hydroelectric power station that is expected to be complete in 2014. The dam was originally intended to withhold the upper reservoir of a 400 MW pumped-storage power station until a design change in 2004. The dam is also intended for flood control and water supply. It is the largest dam by structural volume in Japan and withholds the country's largest reservoir by volume as well.
In December 1957, Electric Power Development Company (J-Power) selected the Ibi River for study at the 23rd Electric Power Development Coordinating Meeting. By May 1976, the Ministry of Construction released their bulletin "Policy on Tokuyama Dam Construction Project". In December 1982, the project was incorporated into the Electric Power Development Basic Plan. It was approved by the government in 1998. The original project was a pumped-storage hydroelectric scheme which consisted of the Tokuyama Dam as the upper reservoir, the Sugihara Dam as the lower and the 400 MW Sugihara Power Plant.
Construction on the dam started in May 2000 but
Chapelcross was a Magnox nuclear power plant located near the town of Annan in Dumfries and Galloway in south west Scotland. It was the sister plant to Calder Hall in Cumbria, England, both commissioned and originally operated by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority.
The primary purpose of both plants was to produce weapons-grade plutonium for the UK's nuclear weapons programme, but they also generated electrical power for the National Grid.
Chapelcross occupies a 92 hectare site on the location of former World War II training airfield, RAF Annan, located 3 km north east of the town of Annan in the Annandale and Eskdale district within the Dumfries and Galloway region of south west Scotland. The nearest hamlet is Creca.
Chapelcross was the sister plant to Calder Hall in Cumbria, England. Construction was carried out by Mitchell Construction and was completed in 1959. The primary purpose was to produce plutonium for the UK's nuclear weapons programme (see WE.177). Electricity was always considered to be a by-product.
The Chapelcross Works was officially opened on 2 May, 1959 by the Lord Lieutenant of Dumfriesshire, Sir John Crabbe. It was initially owned and operated by the
Hojum Power Station (alt. Håjum Power Station) is the second hydroelectric power station in Trollhättan, the first one being the older Olidan Power Station. While the first two turbines were taken into service in 1938, a third one was built and started in 1992. The first two are rated at 50 MW, while the third is rated at 70 MW.
The station is mainly located underground in a large mountain hall. This design was chosen because of the political instability in Europe at the time, which later led to the second world war. The relatively small building above ground was drawn by the Swedish architect Erik Hahr.
The Ivaylovgrad Dam(язовир „Ивайловград“) is located in the eastern Rhodope Mountains and is situated on the Arda river, Southern Bulgaria. There are another two large dams of the Arda upstream - Kardzhali Dam and Studen Kladenets Dam to the west of Ivaylovgrad Dam.
The reservoir has a total volume of 157,000,000 m (127,000 acre·ft) and a drainage basin of 5,128 km (1,980 sq mi). It is situated at an average 120 m above sea level, its dam being 250 m (820 ft) long and 73 m (240 ft) high. The top of the dam consists of six spillways, totaling 83.5 m (274 ft) m in length.
Ivaylovgrad Reservoir is an attractive place for tourists and fishermen, where rudd is caught in great numbers.
Arda Hydro Power Cascade consist of three large hydro power sites, mainly used for electricity generation, with a total installed capacity of 331 MW and a total annual output of over 520 GWh/y. Ivaylovgrad hydroelectric power plant (HPP) is the last stage of the Arda cascade. The initial plans for the construction of a dam on the Arda date to as early as 1948. Construction began in 1959 and was completed in 1964, with the HPP starting production the same year. "Ivaylovgrad" Hydroelectric Power Plant is
The Kawerau Power Station is a 100-megawatt geothermal power plant located just outside the town of Kawerau in the Bay of Plenty Region of New Zealand. The power station is situated within the Kawerau geothermal field, which is part of the Taupo Volcanic Zone. Completed in July 2008 by Mighty River Power at a cost NZ$300 million, the plant's capacity proved greater than expected. The station is the largest single generator geothermal plant in New Zealand.
The Kawerau geothermal power station boosted the country's geothermal capacity by 25 percent and significantly increased local generation capacity in the Eastern Bay of Plenty. The plant meets approximately one third of residential and industrial demand in the region and provides cost certainty to local industry including Norske Skog Tasman.
The station uses a single Fuji turbine and steam from geothermal bores. The two phase fluid is flashed/separated twice to produce high and low pressure steam to feed the turbine.
The Kawerau field also supplies process steam to the Kawerau pulp and paper mill. This is used for process and power generation. Two small binary power plants use waste hot geothermal water for power generation.
The Shimane Nuclear Power Plant (島根原子力発電所, Shimane genshiryoku hatsudensho, Shimane NPP) is a nuclear power plant located in the town of Kashima-chou in the city of Matsue in the Shimane Prefecture. It is owned and operated by the Chūgoku Electric Power Company.
This plant was once said to be the closest nuclear power plant to a prefecture capital. However, on March 31, 2005, the area of Kashima-chou merged with Matsue (it was formerly in the Yatsuka District), making it exactly the same city as the prefecture capital.
New Scientist magazine has reported that, in June 2006, a previously unknown geological fault was identified close to the Shimane Nuclear Power Plant, but it is expected to be years before the plant is strengthened.
It is located on a site that is 1.92 square kilometres (470 acres).
The BN-600 reactor is a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor, built at the Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Station, in Zarechny, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia. Designed to generate electrical power of 600 MW in total, the plant dispatches 560 MW to the Middle Urals power grid. It has been in operation since 1980.
The plant is a pool-type reactor, where the reactor, coolant pumps, intermediate heat exchangers and associated piping are all located in a common liquid sodium pool. The reactor system is housed in a concrete rectilinear building, and provided with filtration and gas containment features. There have been incidents involving sodium/water interactions from tube breaks in the steam generators, a sodium fire from a leak in an auxiliary system, and a sodium fire from a leak in a secondary coolant loop while shut down. All these incidents were classified at the lowest level on the International Nuclear Event Scale, and none of the events prevented restarting operation of the facility after repairs.
The reactor core is 1.03 meters tall with a diameter of 2.05 meters. It has 369 fuel assemblies, mounted vertically, each consisting of 127 fuel rods enriched to between 17–26% U. In comparison,
The Capanda Dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Kwanza River in Malanje Province, Angola. The facility generates power by utilizing four turbines and 130 MW each, totalling the installed capacity to 520 MW. The dam was constructed by Gamek, a government body, for a total cost of US$4 billion. An additional cost of more than US$400 million was spent in repairing the damage caused during UNITA's occupation of the area at the time of the Angolan Civil War in 1992 and 1999.
The Fukushima II Nuclear Power Plant (福島第二原子力発電所, Fukushima Dai-Ni ( pronunciation) Genshiryoku Hatsudensho, Fukushima II NPP, 2F), or Fukushima Dai-ni (dai-ni, characters 第二, means "number two"), is a nuclear power plant located on a 1,500,000-square-metre (370-acre) site in the town of Naraha and Tomioka in the Futaba District of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. The Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) runs the plant.
After the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, the four reactors at Fukushima II automatically shut down.
Japan's worst nuclear incident occurred at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, a 11.5 kilometres (7.1 mi) boundary to boundary road journey to the north, after the same March 11 earthquake.
All reactors in the Fukushima II Nuclear Power Plant are BWR-5 type with electric power of 1,100 MW each (net output: 1,067 MW each).
The reactors for units 1 and 3 were supplied by Toshiba, and for units 2 and 4 by Hitachi. Units 1–3 were built by Kajima while the unit 4 was built by Shimizu and Takenaka. The design basis accident for an earthquake was between 0.42 g (4.15 m/s) and 0.52 g (5.12 m/s) and for a tsunami was 5.2 m.
The Fukushima Daini plant is connected to
Tumut Hydroelectric Power Station is a series of three hydroelectric power stations on the Tumut River in New South Wales, Australia, that are part of the Snowy Mountains Scheme.
The generating assets of the three Tumut power stations are owned by Snowy Hydro Limited, a company whose shareholders include the governments of Australia, New South Wales, and Victoria. The company is also licenced to manage the water rights used by the power stations.
Tumut 1 is located below ground, near Cabramurra at 35°52′53″S 148°22′01″E / 35.88139°S 148.36694°E / -35.88139; 148.36694 (Tumut 1). It has four turbines with a generating capacity of 329.6 MW. The power station was completed in 1959, and has 292.6 metres rated head.
Tumut 2 is located below ground, near Cabramurra at 35°56′55″S 148°21′50″E / 35.94861°S 148.36389°E / -35.94861; 148.36389 (Tumut 2). It has four turbines with a generating capacity of 286.4 MW. The power station was completed in 1962, and has 262.1 metres rated head.
Tumut 3 is located above ground below Talbingo Dam at 35°36′40″S 148°17′29″E / 35.61111°S 148.29139°E / -35.61111; 148.29139 (Tumut 3). Equipped with six turbines the power station has a generating
The Yusufeli Dam is a proposed embankment dam on the Çoruh River near Yusufeli in Artvin Province within the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. The Yusufeli Dam will be the second largest dam within the larger Çoruh River Development Plan which plans to build 13 dams, of which 2 are operational and another 2 are under construction. The dam's main purpose is hydroelectric power production and it will support a 540 MW power station. The dam is controversial because of its projected impact on the biodiversity within its reservoir area along with the relocation of locals.
The first studies on the Yusufeli Dam were carried out in the 1970s and it was included in the Coruh River Hydropower Development Master Plan in 1982. The feasibility report was completed in 1986 and the project was added to the national plan in 1997. Currently, Resettlement Action Plans are being negotiated before the project can begin.
The Yusufeli will be a rock-fill embankment dam with a height of 270 m (886 ft) from its foundation and 223 m (732 ft) from the river's thalweg (lowest point of river bed). It will have a crest length of 410 m (1,345 ft) and crest width of 15 m (49 ft) while being composed of
Berke Dam is concrete arch-gravity dam built on the Ceyhan river in southern Turkey. There is a hydroelectric power plant, established in 2001 at the dam, with a power output of 510 MW (four facilities at 128 MW each).
The Eguzon dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Creuse River in central France. Construction took place from 1922 to 1926 and, at the time, was the largest dam in Europe.
The dam is 61 metres high and 300 metres across, with the thickness varying from 54 metres at the base to 5 metres at the top. The water behind the dam creates the Eguzon Lake (also known as the Chambon Lake) which, at 312 hectares, is the largest body of water in the region, and is popular with watersports enthusiasts.
Electricity generation is via six valves, with a power of 12 MW each, giving an annual electricity production of 101 million kWh.
Hirakud Dam (Oriya: ହୀରାକୁଦ ବନ୍ଧ) is built across the Mahanadi River, about 15 km from Sambalpur in the state of Orissa in India. Built in 1957, the dam is one of the world's longest earthen dam. Behind the dam extends a lake, Hirakud Reservoir, 55 km long. Hirakud Dam is the longest man-made dam in the world, about 16 mi (26 km) in length. It is one of the first major multipurpose river valley project started after India's independence. The name of the dam is mostly mis-pronounced in North India as Hirakund which is actually Hirakud.
Before the devastating floods of 1937, Sir M. Visveswararya proposed a detailed investigation for storage reservoirs in the Mahanadi basin to tackle the problem of floods in the Mahanadi delta. In 1945, under the chairmanship of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, the then Member of Labour, it was decided to invest in the potential benefits of controlling the Mahanadi for multi-purpose use. The Central Waterways, Irrigation and Navigation Commission took up the work.
On 15 Mar 1946, Sir Howthrone Lewis, the then Governor of Orissa, laid the foundation stone of the Hirakud Dam. A project report was submitted to the government in June 1947. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru laid
The Almus Dam (Almus Barajı in Turkish) is an earthen embankment dam that is near the town of Almus (28 kilometers East of Tokat city in center north of Turkey) and is located on the River Yesilirmak which runs into the Black Sea. The main purposes of the dam is irrigation, flood control and hydroelectricity. The hydroelectric power plant (established in 1966) at the dam has a capacity of 27 megawatts (three facilities at 9 megawatts each). The dam contains 3,405,000 m (36,650,000 sq ft) of material and irrigates an area of 21,350 hectares. The dam's spillway is capable of discharging a maximum 2,800 m/s (98,881 cu ft/s) and its bottom outlet a maximum of 50 m/s (1,766 cu ft/s).
Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR-I) is a decommissioned research reactor and U.S. National Historic Landmark located in the desert about 18 miles (29 km) southeast of Arco, Idaho. At 1:50 pm on December 20, 1951 it became the world's first electricity-generating nuclear power plant when it produced sufficient electricity to illuminate four 200-watt light bulbs. It subsequently generated sufficient electricity to power its building, and continued to be used for experimental purposes until it was decommissioned in 1964.
As part of the National Reactor Testing Station (now known as the Idaho National Laboratory), EBR-I's construction started in late 1949. The reactor itself was designed by a team led by Walter Zinn at the Argonne National Laboratory. In its early stages, the reactor plant was referred to as Chicago Pile 4 (CP-4) and Zinn's Infernal Pile. Installation of the reactor at EBR-I took place in early 1951 (the first reactor in Idaho) and it began power operation on August 24, 1951. On December 20 of that year, atomic energy was successfully harvested for the first time. The following day the reactor produced enough power to light the whole building. The power plant
The Lac de Vouglans is the reservoir of the hydro-electric power station at Vouglans on the River Ain in the département of Jura in the region of Franche-Comté in eastern France. The dam, the Barrage de Vouglans is at coordinates 46°23′51″N 5°39′56″E / 46.3975°N 5.66556°E / 46.3975; 5.66556 (Barrage de Vouglans).
The lake lies on Jurassic rock crushed into north to south ridges by the Alpine orogeny. It is therefore long and narrow, though rather sinuous in plan. It is about 30 kilometres long though only 21 km in a straight line. It lies in the valley of the Ain, impounded by the dam at Cernon. The old village of Vouglans was displaced by its construction in 1968 by Électricité de France (EDF).
The buildings of the Carthusian monastery of Vaucluse were also moved to make way for the rising waters.
The lake is arranged for tourism with view-points scattered through the woods which cover the hillsides along its shores and places set up for bathing and boating.
The annual mean flow of water at the dam is 40.80 cubic metres per second.
Blowering Power Station is one of several hydroelectric power stations in the Snowy Mountains Scheme, New South Wales, Australia. Blowering has one turbine generator, with a generating capacity of 80 MW of electricity.
The power station was completed in 1969, and has 86.6 metres rated hydraulic head.
It is part of the extensive Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric Scheme, a vast hydroelectricity and irrigation complex constructed in south-east Australia between 1949 and 1974 and now run by Snowy Hydro.
Ghazi-Barotha Hydropower Project (Urdu: غازى بروتھا) is a 1,450 Megawatt run-of-the-river hydropower project on the Indus River in Pakistan.
About 1,600 cubic meter per second of water is diverted from the Indus River near the town of Ghazi about 7 km downstream of Tarbela Dam (3,478 MW). It then runs through a 100 metre wide and 9 metre deep open power channel down to the village of Barotha where the power complex is located. In the reach from Ghazi to Barotha, the Indus River inclines by 76 meters over a distance of 63 km. After passing through the powerhouse, the water is returned to the Indus. In addition to these main works, transmission lines stretch 340 km.
The World Bank classed it "A" for adequate attention to environmental and social issues. The project took about 10 years and $2.2 billion to complete.
The Ghazi-Barotha Hydropower Project is a major run-of-river power project designed to meet the acute power shortage in Pakistan. The feasibility report was prepared during the first tenure of Nawaz Sharif's administration and the Government of Pakistan entered into an agreement for the financing and construction of the project on 7th March 1996.
The main project elements
Hartlepool power station is a nuclear power station situated on the northern bank of the mouth of the River Tees, 2.5 mi (4.0 km) south of Hartlepool in County Durham, North East England. The station has a net electrical output of 1,190 megawatts, which is 2% of Great Britain's peak electricity demand of 60 GW. Electricity is produced through the use of two advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGR). Hartlepool was only the third nuclear power station in the United Kingdom to use AGR technology. Hartlepool power station was also the first power station to be built as close to a major urban area.
Originally planned in 1967, with construction starting in 1969, the station started generating electricity in 1983, and was completed in 1985, initially being operated by the Central Electricity Generating Board. With privatisation of the UK's electric supply industry in 1990, the station has been owned by Nuclear Electric and British Energy, but is now owned and operated by EDF Energy. On 18 October 2010 the British government announced that Hartlepool was one of the eight sites it considered suitable for future nuclear power stations.
With the economic success of another advanced gas-cooled
The Lipno Dam ((Czech) přehrada Lipno) is a dam with hydroelectric plant constructed along the Vltava River in the Czech Republic.
Due to frequent flooding and subsequent damage, the Vltava River in Southern Bohemia had been problematic for the Český Krumlov and other settlements, through which it flowed. To harness the power of the river, and to prevent continued catastrophe, it was decided that a hydroelectric plant would be built high on the Vltava. Preparatory work at the town of Lipno began in 1951. Construction proper on the dam began in 1952, and the dam was completed in 1960.
The stream bed of the Vltava near Lipno was chosen because it has a slight incline, facilitating the construction of a reservoir there. The dam is built along the highest-elevated stage of the Vltava River's cascade (roughly 726 metres above sea level), thus enabling large amounts of hydropower out-put. This area is mountainous, and borders the Šumava National Park and Nature Reserve. A smaller reservoir near Vyšší Brod is linked to the main reservoir by an artificial underground waterway. This smaller reservoir, labeled 'Lipno II', serves to level the water of the main reservoir.
Lipno Hydro Power
White Cliffs Solar Power Station was Australia's first solar power station. It is located at White Cliffs, New South Wales, which was chosen as it has the highest insolation in New South Wales, and in 1981 when the station was constructed had no grid connection.
Constructed by a team from Australian National University, the station consisted of fourteen three-metre parabolic dishes, each covered by more than 2000 mirrors and mounted on a heliostatic mounting. The dishes each focussed the sun's rays on a collector, where water was boiled. The resulting steam drove a three-cylinder Uniflow steam engine, made by modifying a Lister diesel engine, delivering up to 25kWe. Batteries were used to provide 24 hour power to selected buildings in the township, and an existing diesel generator retained to provide battery charging when either low insolation or strong winds prevented use of the solar station for extended periods.
In 1996, following grid connection of the township, the station was converted to photovoltaic. The dishes were resurfaced, and the original collectors each replaced by a cluster of 16 water-cooled photovoltaic cells. In its new form, the station delivers up to 45kWe. The
Hinkley Point C nuclear power station is a proposed development for a new nuclear power station in Somerset, England.
On 18 October 2010 the British government announced that Hinkley Point was one of the eight sites it considered suitable for future nuclear power stations. Electricité de France (EdF) submitted an application for development consent to the Infrastructure Planning Commission on 31 October 2011.
A protest group, Stop Hinkley, has been formed to campaign for the closure of Hinkley Point B and oppose any expansion at the Hinkley Point site. In October 2011, more than 200 protesters blockaded the site. In February 2012, protesters set up camp in an abandoned farm on the site of the proposed Hinkley Point C nuclear power station.
In January 2008 the UK government to give the go-ahead for a new generation of nuclear power stations to be built. Hinkley Point C, in conjunction with Sizewell C, could contribute 13% of UK electricity in the early 2020s.
Until November 2004 EDF was a government corporation, but it is now a limited-liability corporation under private law (société anonyme). The French government partially floated shares of the company on the Paris Stock Exchange
Hunterston A nuclear power station was a Magnox power station located at Hunterston in Ayrshire, Scotland, adjacent to Hunterston B and is currently being decommissioned.
Construction of the power station, which was undertaken by a consortium of GEC and Simon Carves, began in 1957 and the facility was opened by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother on 22 September 1964. Hunterston A had two Magnox reactors capable of generating 180 MWe each. The reactors were supplied by GEC and the turbines by C.A. Parsons & Company. The main civil engineering contractor was Mowlem.
The Magnox reactors used natural uranium fuel (in magnox alloy 'cans') within a graphite core, and were cooled by carbon dioxide gas. Each reactor, which consisted of more than 3000 fuel channels, was enclosed in a steel pressure vessel. Eight boilers, known as Steam Raising Units, were located around each reactor. An outer building, mainly of glass, provided weather protection. The six 60MW generators were located in an adjoining turbine hall.
The Hunterston A reactor design was unique in that each was raised up to a height of over 10 metres to enable refuelling to take place from underneath. This meant that
Nalubaale Power Station, often known by its old name, Owen Falls Dam, is a hydroelectric power station across the White Nile near to its source at Lake Victoria in Uganda. Nalubaale is the Luganda name for Lake Victoria.
In 1947, Sir Charles Redvers Westlake (an English engineer) reported to the Colonial Government of Uganda recommending the construction of a hydroelectric dam at Owen Falls near the city of Jinja, which in turn led to the establishment of the Uganda Electricity Board (UEB), with Westlake as its first chairman. The dam was completed in 1954, submerging Ripon Falls. It supplies electricity to Uganda and parts of neighbouring Kenya and Tanzania. Maintenance and availability of the station declined seriously during the government of Idi Amin.
Before that, water levels on Lake Victoria were moderated by a natural rock dam on the north side of the lake. Rising lake waters would spill over the natural dam into the White Nile, which flowed through Uganda, Sudan, and Egypt before emptying into the Mediterranean Sea. When water levels dropped too low, flow into the river ceased. When the current dam was built, a treaty between Uganda and Egypt ensured that the natural flow
The San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) is a nuclear power plant located on the Pacific coast of California, in the northwestern corner of San Diego County, south of San Clemente. The site is surrounded by the San Onofre State Park and sits next to Interstate 5. The landmark spherical containment buildings around the reactors are designed to prevent unexpected releases of radiation. The closest tectonic fault line is the Cristianitos fault, which is considered inactive or "dead". The plant has been the site of many protests by anti-nuclear groups.
The facility is operated by Southern California Edison. Edison International, parent of SCE, holds 78.2% ownership in the plant; San Diego Gas & Electric Company, 20%; and the City of Riverside Utilities Department, 1.8%. The plant employs over 2,200 people. The plant is located in Nuclear Regulatory Commission Region IV.
The plant's two reactors (Units 2 and 3) have been shut down since January 2012 due to premature wear found on tubes in steam generators, which apparently contributed to the accidental release of a small amount of radioactive steam.
Unit 1, a first generation Westinghouse pressurized water reactor that operated
The South Texas Project Electric Generating Station (also known as STPEGS, South Texas Project or STP), is a nuclear power station southwest of Bay City, Texas, United States. The STP occupies a 12,200 acre (49 km²) site on the Colorado River about 90 miles (145 km) southwest of Houston. It consists of two Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactors and is cooled by a 7,000-acre (28 km) reservoir, which eliminates the need for cooling towers.
STP was the first nuclear power plant in Texas, beginning operation in 1988. In 1996, the two South Texas units were two of the top 20 electricity-generating nuclear units worldwide.
STP is unique in its design of the safety systems for the reactors. Each unit has three, rather than the customary two, fully independent emergency core-cooling systems (ECCS) and associated support systems. However the addition of the third safety train was not fully recognized and credited by nuclear safety regulations during the plant licensing process. The third ECCS system provides significant real-risk reduction, and the utility undertook efforts to gain regulatory recognition of these features. These efforts led in part to the plant's engineering staff becoming
Wellington Dam Hydro Power Station is a hydroelectric power station near Collie, Western Australia. It has one water turbine with a generating capacity of 2 MW of electricity.
The Wellington Dam Hydro Power Station is one of two hydro power stations in Western Australia.
The dam was constructed in 1933 and enlarged in 1956, and the power station was built in the 1950s.
Wellington Dam is the largest dam in the South West and the second largest in Western Australia, and is fed by the Collie River.
In December 2009 the Water Corporation started a $41 million project to strengthen the dam wall.
Wellington Dam was built in the early 1900s to supply water to the Great Southern Towns Water Supply system— the pipeline system that supplies water to the wheatbelt towns in Southern WA. Supplying towns as far North as Northam, East to Lake Grace, South to Katanning. The line basically runs parallel to the Goldfields water supply scheme (from Mundaring Weir to Kalgoorlie) and the two lines even join somewhere. It gets its water from the Collie River catchment, which started going salty during the 1960s and 1970s. Much re-afforestation work has been happening since the 1980s to slow down the
Yarrawonga Weir Power Station is a hydroelectric power station at Lake Mulwala on the Murray River, Victoria, Australia. Yarrawonga Weir has a generating capacity of 9.5MW of electricity, and was commissioned in 1994.
The Pak Mun Dam (Thai: เขื่อนปากมูล) is a gravity dam located 5.5 km west of the confluence of the Mun and Mekong rivers in Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand. It was constructed by the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) with support from the World Bank at a total cost of US$240 million, and completed in 1994.
The project has been criticized for adverse effects on the fisheries of the Mun River, insufficient compensation payments to affected villagers, and failure to produce the projected power output. The immediate impact of the dam was to flood 117 square kilometres of land and displace around 3,000 families. In all around 25,000 villagers claim to have been affected by the dam. Protests have been staged at the dam site and outside Government House in Bangkok. EGAT has paid out US$44.24 million in relocation compensation, plus US$15.8 million for loss of fisheries.
In response to concerns about the dam's likely impact on fisheries on the Mun River, a fish ladder was incorporated into the scheme to allow fish into the Mun River to spawn. However, the ladder appears to have been unsuccessful: a report from the World Commission on Dams found that of 265 fish
Vajiralongkorn Dam, formerly named the Khao Laem Dam, is a concrete-face rock-fill dam (CFRD) in Thong Pha Phum district in Kanchanaburi, Thailand. The dam lies across the Khwae Noi River (River Kwai) and was renamed Vajiralongkorn Dam after Crown Prince Maha Vajiralongkorn on July 13, 2001. Vajiralongkorn Dam is Thailand's first CFRD and supplies a 300 MW hydroelectric power station with water.
Dam construction began in 1979 and took five years to complete. Its reservoir started filling with water in June, 1984. Three 100MW hydropower generators came on line in October and December, 1984 and February 1985 respectively. The reservoir created by the dam has a maximum storage capacity of 8,860 million cubic meters covering a total catchment area of 3,720 square kilometers. Average runoff into the reservoir is approximately 5,500 million cubic meters per year.
The Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Station (NPS) (Russian: Белоярская атомная электростанция им. И. В. Курчатова [ pronunciation (help·info)]), was the second of the then Soviet Union's nuclear plants. It is situated by Zarechny in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia. Zarechny township was created to service the station, which is named after the Beloyarsky District. The closest city is Yekaterinburg.
Beloyarsk NPS was the first to put graphite-moderated reactors into operation to produce electrical power. The single reactor now in operation is a BN-600 fast breeder reactor, generating 600 MWe. It is the largest fast neutron power reactor in service in the world. Three turbines are connected to the reactor. The BN-600 reactor core is 1.03 metres (41 in) tall and has a diameter of 2.05 metres (81 in). It has 369 fuel assemblies, each consisting of 127 fuel rods with an enrichment of 17-26% U. In comparison, typical enrichment in other Russian reactors is in the range of 3-4% U. BN-600 reactors use liquid sodium as a coolant. As with most Russian nuclear power plants the station lacks a containment building.
Two earlier reactors were constructed at Beloyarsk: an AMB-100 reactor (operational 1964-1983)
Ben Cruachan (Gaelic: Cruach na Beinne) is a 1126 m mountain that is the highest point in Argyll and Bute, Scotland. It gives its name to the Cruachan Dam, a pumped-storage hydroelectric power station located in a cavern inside the mountain, Cruachan! is the Battle cry for Highland clans Campbell and MacIntyre.
It is the high point of a ring of mountains, known as the Cruachan Horseshoe, that surrounds the power station reservoir. The horseshoe includes a further Munro (Stob Diamh), a Corbett (Beinn a' Bhuiridh), and several subsidiary summits.
Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant (Chinese: 大亚湾核电站; pinyin: Dàyàwān Hédiànzhàn) is located on Daya Bay in Longgang District, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China, north of Hong Kong. Daya Bay has two 944 MWe PWR nuclear reactors based on the Framatone ANP French 900 MWe three cooling loop design, which started commercial operation in 1993 and 1994.
Although located within Guangdong Province, in 1985 the building of Daya Bay nuclear power plant incited controversies and raised objections from prominent politicians in the neighboring Hong Kong, such as Martin Lee and Szeto Wah, legislative councilors, district board members. A million people, or one fifth of Hong Kong's population, signed a petition opposing nuclear power. Over a hundred community groups dealt with the construction topics with the opposition focusing on environmental issues and the rights of Hong Kong residents.
Unit 1 began power operations on August 31, 1993, and Unit 2 began power operations on February 2, 1994. The reactors were designed and built by the French National Company, Framatome, with Chinese participation. Daya Bay is 25% owned by Hong Kong-listed CLP Holdings, which buys about 70% of the plant's output to supply
The Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant (女川原子力発電所, Onagawa ( pronunciation) genshiryoku hatsudensho, Onagawa NPP) is a nuclear power plant located on a 1,730,000 m (432 acres) site in Onagawa in the Oshika District and Ishinomaki city, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. It is managed by the Tohoku Electric Power Company. It was the most quickly constructed nuclear power plant in the world.
The Onagawa-3 unit was used as a prototype for the Higashidori Nuclear Power Plant.
The plant conforms fully to ISO 14001, a set of international environmental management standards. The plant's waste heat water leaves 7 degrees Celsius higher than it came in and is released 10 meters under the surface of the water, in order to reduce adverse effects on the environment All the reactors were constructed by Toshiba.
Shut down manually on 25 February 2005 because it was determined that the reactor containment leaked small amounts of nitrogen. The unit was restarted once Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency was satisfied that the countermeasures taken by the plant operator to prevent a reoccurrence were adequate.
Small fire in the administrative offices. Did not affect functioning of the plant.
The Onagawa Nuclear
The Sendai Nuclear Power Plant (川内原子力発電所, Sendai genshiryokuhatsudensho, Sendai NPP) is a nuclear power plant located in the city of Satsumasendai in the Kagoshima Prefecture. It is owned and operated by the Kyūshū Electric Power Company.
The plant is on a site of 1.45 km (358 acres), employs 277 workers, and indirectly employs 790.
The reactors are of the 3-loop M type pressurized water reactor, built by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries.
On 14 December 2011 the Kyushu Electric Power Company published the outcome of the primary safety assessments or "stress-tests" for three of its suspended nuclear reactors: two of them located at the Sendai Nuclear Power Plant in prefecture Kagoshima Prefecture, the third at was located the Genkai Nuclear Power Plant in Saga prefecture. The reports were sent to the Japanese Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency. The papers were also sent to the local authorities of the prefectures where the plants were located, because the reactors are not allowed to be restarted without their consent. According to the test, the reactors could withstand a seismic shock of 945 to 1,020 gals and tsunami-waves of a height of 13 to 15 meters. The power company asked its
The Solar Project consists of the Solar One, Solar Two and Solar Tres solar thermal power plants based in the Mojave Desert, USA and Andalucía, Spain.
Solar Two was demolished in 2009.
Solar One was a pilot solar-thermal project built in the Mojave Desert just east of Barstow, CA, USA. It was the first test of a large-scale thermal solar power tower plant. Solar One was designed by the Department of Energy (DOE), Southern California Edison, LA Dept of Water and Power, and California Energy Commission. It was located in Daggett, CA, about 10 miles (16 km) east of Barstow.
Solar One's method of collecting energy was based on concentrating the sun's energy onto a common focal point to produce heat to run a steam turbine generator. It had hundreds of large mirror assemblies, or heliostats, that track the sun, reflecting the solar energy onto a tower where a black receiver absorbed the heat. High-temperature heat transfer fluid was used to carry the energy to a boiler on the ground where the steam was used to spin a series of turbines, much like a traditional power plant.
In the late 1970s, a competition was held by DoE to obtain the best heliostat design for the project. Several
The Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Generating Station occupies a site near Jenkinsville, South Carolina, in Fairfield County, South Carolina, approximately 20 miles (32 km) northwest of Columbia. The nuclear power station includes the decommissioned experimental Carolinas-Virginia Tube Reactor (CVTR) unit, just outside the site of the old town of Parr, SC. The CVTR was a 17 MWe, heavy water reactor. Its cooling water is supplied by the Monticello Reservoir (not to be confused with the Monticello Nuclear Generating Station in Minnesota), which is also used by a pumped storage (hydroelectric) unit.
This plant has one Westinghouse pressurized water reactor, which has received approval of a 20-year license extension, taking the license expiration from 2022 to 2042.
In 2001, the Summer unit operated at 79.9 percent of capacity, producing 6.76 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity. In 2007 it produced 8.48 billion kilowatt-hours, increasing its capacity factor to 100.2 percent.
About two-thirds (66.7 percent) of the Summer plant is owned by its operator, the South Carolina Electric & Gas Company (SCE&G, a subsidiary of the SCANA corporation). The remaining 33.3 percent is owned by the South
The Alvin W. Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, also known as Plant Vogtle, is a 2-unit nuclear power plant located in Burke County, near Waynesboro, Georgia in the southeastern United States. It is named after the Alabama Power and Southern Company board chairman, Alvin Vogtle.
Each unit has a Westinghouse pressurized water reactor (PWR), with a General Electric turbine and electric generator. Units 1 and 2 were completed in 1987 and 1989, respectively. Each unit is capable of producing approximately 1,200 MW of electricity when online, for a combined capacity of 2,400 MW. Southern Nuclear lists the capacity as 1,215 MW each, for a combined output of 2,430 MW. The twin natural-draft cooling towers are 548 ft (167 m) tall and provide cooling to the plant's main condensers. Four smaller mechanical draft cooling towers provide service water cooling to auxiliary safety and non safety components and remove the decay heat from the reactor when the plant is offline. One natural-draft tower and two service water towers serve each unit.
During Vogtle's construction, capital investment required jumped from an estimated $660 million to $8.87 billion. This huge increase was typical of the
The Aviemore Dam is a dam of the Waitaki River in New Zealand. Built from earth and concrete in the 1960s (and completed in 1968) to dam Lake Aviemore, it is one of the major dams of Meridian Energy, and is used to power a hydroelectric power plant. It is a part of the Waitaki River Hydroelectric System, a scheme which supplies 30% of New Zealand's considerable amount of hydropower.
The dam is located over unequal ground underneath, due to the line of the Waitangi Fault. On the northern side in Canterbury, the dam is founded on solid rock, and consists of a 335-metre-long concrete structure. On the southern side in Otago, the dam crosses the fault as a 457 m long earth dam. During the construction of the concrete section, low-heat cement was first used in a large-scale application in New Zealand, to allow quick concrete pouring without the need for cooling elements.
The dam contains 4 francis turbines of 55 Megawatt each (220 MW total), with the generators being 4 x 11 kV. The facility produces approximately 942 GWh of electricity per year. The net hydraulic head is 37 m, with the penstocks (water pipes leading to the turbines) being the largest in New Zealand (as of 2007), with 7
The Belo Monte Dam (formerly known as Kararaô) is a hydroelectric dam complex on the Xingu River in the state of Pará, Brazil, recently halted by the Brazilian Federal court. The planned installed capacity of the dam complex would be 11,233 megawatts (MW), which would make it the second-largest hydroelectric dam complex in Brazil and the world's third-largest in installed capacity, behind the Three Gorges Dam in China and the Brazilian-Paraguayan Itaipu Dam. Considering the oscillations of flow river, guaranteed minimum capacity generation from the Belo Monte Dam would measure 4,571 MW, 39% of its maximum capacity. Transmission lines would connect electricity generated by the dams' turbines to the main Brazilian power grid, which would distribute it throughout the country, both for residential and commercial consumption and to supply the growth of such industries as aluminium transformation and metallurgy. Brazil's rapid economic growth over the last decade has provoked a huge demand for new and stable sources of energy, especially to supply its growing industries. In Brazil, 46% of the energy consumed comes from renewable energy sources, and hydroelectric power plants produce over
The Haditha Dam (Arabic: سد حديثة) or Qadisiya Dam is an earth-fill dam on the Euphrates, north of Haditha (Iraq), creating Lake Qadisiyah (Arabic: Buhayrat al-Qadisiyyah). The dam is just over 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) long and 57 metres (187 ft) high. The purpose of the dam is to generate hydroelectricity, regulate the flow of the Euphrates and provide water for irrigation. It is the second-largest hydroelectric contributor to the power system in Iraq behind the Mosul Dam.
The Haditha Dam was conceived in the late 1960s but construction did not begin until 1977. The Haditha Dam's embankment was designed by the Soviet Union's Ministry of Energy as well as its power station being designed and constructed by Yugoslavian firms. It was conceived of as a multi-purpose dam that would generate hydroelectric power, regulate the flow of the Euphrates, and provide water for irrigation. Construction lasted between 1977 and 1987 and was a joint undertaking by the Soviet Union and Iraq. The cost of the initial construction of the Haditha Dam is estimated at US$830 million.
With the creation of the Haditha Reservoir, the ancient archeological site of Usiyeh along with Anah were flooded. Usiyeh
Indian Point Energy Center (IPEC) is a three-unit nuclear power plant station located in Buchanan, New York just south of Peekskill. It sits on the east bank of the Hudson River, 38 miles north of New York City. The plant generates over 2,000 megawatts of electrical power, comprising as much as 30 percent of the electricity used in New York City and Westchester County.
The plant is owned and operated by Entergy Nuclear Northeast, a subsidiary of Entergy Corporation, and includes two operating Westinghouse pressurized water reactors – designated Indian Point 2 and Indian Point 3 – which Entergy bought from Consolidated Edison and the New York Power Authority respectively. The facility also contains the permanently shut down Indian Point Unit 1 reactor. Total employment at the site is 1,100.
There is a debate between Entergy and various opponents over whether the two Indian Point reactors should continue to operate beyond 2014 and 2016, when their initial 40-year operating licenses are scheduled to expire. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission is moving toward granting a 20-year extension for each reactor, while Governor Andrew Cuomo wants them shut down at the end of their current
The Paks Nuclear Power Plant (Hungarian: Paksi Atomerőmű), located 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) from Paks, central Hungary, is the first and only operating nuclear power station in Hungary. Altogether, its four reactors produce more than 40 percent of the electrical power generated in the country.
VVER is the Soviet designation for a pressurized water reactor. The number following VVER, in this case 440, represents the power output of the original design. The VVER-440 Model V213, was a product of the first uniform safety requirements drawn up by the Soviet designers. This model includes added emergency core cooling and auxiliary feedwater systems as well as upgraded accident localization systems.
Each reactor contains 42 tons of slightly enriched uranium dioxide fuel. Fuel takes on average three years to be used (or "burned") in the reactors; after this the fuel rods are stored for five years in an adjacent cooling pond before being removed from the site for permanent disposal.
The power plant is nearly 100% owned by state-owned power wholesaler Magyar Villamos Művek (MVM). A few shares are held by local municipalities, while a voting preference or "golden" share is held by the Hungarian
Pullinque Hydroelectric Plant is a hydroelectric power station in Los Ríos Region, Chile. The plant uses water from Pullinque Lake and produces 48.6 MW of electricity. The plant was built by ENDESA in 1962 but is currently owned by Pullinque S.A. On October 16 of 2003 about 40 Mapuches occupied the plant claiming that it was built on land stolen from them. The occupation ended with an agreement about meeting in one week to discuss the problem.
The Shika Nuclear Power Plant (志賀原子力発電所, Shika genshiryoku hatsudensho, Shika NPP) is a nuclear power plant located in the town of Shika, Ishikawa, Japan. It is owned and operated by the Hokuriku Electric Power Company. It is on a site that is 1.6 km (395 acres).
On June 18, 1999 during an inspection, an emergency control rod insertion was to be performed on Unit 1. One rod was to be inserted into the reactor, however, due to improper following of the procedure, instead of one rod inserting, 3 rods withdrew. For the next 15 minutes, the reactor was in a dangerous criticality state. This event was not revealed until March 15, 2007, since it was covered up in the records. Unit 1 remained shut down, pending judicial and bureaucratic evaluation.
Immediately after the event was revealed, the president of the Hokuriku Electric Power Company was called to the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry office and ordered to shut down the unit 1 reactor. Note that this was not the same president as when the event happened in 1999.
On June 5, 2007 the committee chairman of the Japan Nuclear Safety Commission inspected the control rod housing and drive mechanisms and evaluated that the event was
The Geysers is a complex of 22 geothermal power plants, drawing steam from more than 350 wells, located in the Mayacamas Mountains 72 mi (116 km) north of San Francisco, California. The largest in the world, the Geysers has 1517 MW of active installed capacity with an average production factor of 63% (955 MW). Calpine Corporation operates and owns 19 of the 22 active plants in the Geysers and is currently the United States' largest producer of geothermal energy. Two other plants are owned jointly by the Northern California Power Agency and the City of Santa Clara's municipal Electric Utility (now called Silicon Valley Power). The Bottle Rock Power plant owned by the US Renewables Group was expected to be reopened in 2007. Another plant is under development by Ram Power Corp, formerly Western Geopower, with operation set to begin in 2010. Since the activities of one geothermal plant affects those nearby, the consolidation of plant ownership at The Geysers has been beneficial because the plants operate cooperatively instead of in their own short-term interest.
The Geysers geothermal development spans an area of around 30 square miles (78 km) in Sonoma, Lake and Mendocino counties in
The Fierza Hydroelectric Power Station (Albanian: Liqeni i Fierzës) is a large hydroelectric power station on the Drin River, in Albania. The facility generates power with four 125 MW turbines, totalling the installed capacity to 500 MW.
This rock-fill dam measures 152 m (499 ft) in height, and 380 m (1,250 ft) in length along the crest. Construction began in 1971 and was completed eight years later in 1979. The dam is one of the three hydroelectric dams on the Drin River.
Murray 1 Power Station is one of several hydroelectric power stations in the Snowy Mountains Scheme, New South Wales, Australia. Murray 1 has ten turbo generators, with a generating capacity of 950 MW of electricity and is located 10 kilometers North of the tourist village of Khancoban along the Alpine Way. Visitors travelling in 2wd vehicles are required to use snow chains during winter months.
The power station was completed in 1967, and has 460.2 metres rated head.
Although the power station is physically located in the state of New South Wales, it has, since 1 July 2008 been allocated to the Victoria region of the National Electricity Market.
The Ohaaki Power Station is a geothermal power station owned and operated by Contact Energy. A distinctive feature of this power station is the 105 m high natural draft cooling tower, the only one of its kind in New Zealand.
Although initially constructed to generate 104 MW, decline in the steamfield has meant maximum net capacity is about 65 MW with an annual output of around 400 GWh pa.
There are currently three turbines in operation. One smaller turbine runs off high pressure steam which then backfeeds into the main intermediate pressure system that feeds the two main units. Condensers on the back end of the main turbines are fed cooled water from the cooling tower to condense the steam back into water. Additional condensate gained in this process is reinjected back into the ground.
The plant is located adjacent to the Ohaaki Marae (Ngāti Tahu) on the banks of the Waikato River in New Zealand. Gradual sinking of the marae has been attributed to draw-off of geothermal fluids by the power station. The area of the marae is sinking approximately 170mm a year. In the 1960s, the marae was moved to its present location because the previous site was flooded when the dam for the Ohakuri
The Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant is a Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) nuclear reactor used for electric power generation. It is located on a 1,770-acre (7.2 km²) site in Rhea County, Tennessee, near Spring City, between the cities of Chattanooga and Knoxville. Watts Bar Unit 1 is the most recent civilian reactor to come on-line in the United States. Watts Bar supplies enough electricity for about 750,000 households in the Tennessee Valley.
This plant has one Westinghouse pressurized water reactor, one of two reactor units whose construction commenced in 1973. Unit 1 was completed in 1996, and has a winter net dependable generating capacity of 1,167 megawatts.
TVA is currently working to finish the partially completed Unit 2. Unit 2 was about 80% complete when its construction was stopped in 1988. The official reason given for halting construction was a decrease in demand for electricity. Unit 2 remains partly completed (several of its parts being used on other TVA units), but on August 1, 2007 the TVA Board approved completion of the unit. Construction resumed on October 15, 2007, with the reactor expected to begin operation in 2015. The project is expected to cost $2.5 billion,
Archimede solar power plant is a concentrated solar power plant at Priolo Gargallo near Syracuse in Sicily, Italy. The plant was inaugurated on 14 July 2010. It is the first concentrated solar power plant to use molten salt for heat transfer and storage which is integrated with a combined-cycle gas facility. It uses technology developed by ENEA and Archimede Solar Energy, a joint venture between Angelantoni Industrie and Siemens Energy. Archimede is owned and operated by Enel.
The plant is called "Archimedes" (the famous resident of the nearby Magna Graecia Hellenistic city of Syracuse) after the rows of huge parabolic mirrors used to capture the sun's rays, which recall the "burning mirrors" that Archimedes is said to have used to set fire to the Roman ships besieging Syracuse during the Siege of Syracuse (214–212 BC). The existing gas-fired power plant on the site was augmented by Archimede. It produces 5 megawatts of electricity, enough for 4,500 families.
The solar thermal power plant consists of a field of about 30,000 square metres (320,000 sq ft) of mirrors (the parabolic collectors) that concentrate sunlight onto 5,400 metres (17,700 ft) of pipe carrying the molten salt
Bradwell nuclear power station is a disused Magnox power station located on the Dengie peninsula at the mouth of the River Blackwater, Essex.
Construction of the power station, which was undertaken by a consortium involving Clarke Chapman, Head Wrightson, C. A. Parsons & Co., A. Reyrolle & Co., Strachan & Henshaw and Whessoe and known as the Nuclear Power Plant Company ('NPPC'), began in December 1957 and electricity generation started in 1962. It had two Magnox reactors with a design output of 300 (MW) of net electical output although this was reduced to 242 megawatts (MW) net electrical in total. as a result of the discovery of breakaway oxidation of mild steel components inside the reactor vessel. Its peak output, achieved in the early 1960s, was nearly 10% above the design value. On a typical day it could supply enough electricity to meet the needs of three towns the size of Chelmsford, Colchester and Southend put together. The reactors were supplied by The Nuclear Power Group ('TNPG') and the turbines by C. A. Parsons & Co.
Bradwell was built on the edge of a former World War II airfield, one and a half miles from the Essex coastline. Its location was deliberately chosen as
The Enrico Fermi Nuclear Generating Station is a nuclear power plant on the shore of Lake Erie near Monroe, in Frenchtown Charter Township, Michigan. It is approximately halfway between Detroit, Michigan, and Toledo, Ohio. It is also visible from parts of Amherstburg and Colchester, Ontario as well as on the shore of Lake Erie in Ottawa County, Ohio. Two units have been constructed on this site. The first unit's construction started in 1963, and the second unit reached criticality in 1988.
The plant is named after the Italian nuclear physicist Enrico Fermi, most noted for his work on the development of the first nuclear reactor as well as many other major contributions to nuclear physics. Fermi won the 1938 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on induced radioactivity.
On October 5, 1966, Fermi 1, a prototype fast breeder reactor, suffered a partial fuel meltdown, although no radioactive material was released. After repairs it was shut down by 1972.
On August 8, 2008, John McCain was taken on a 45-minute tour of the plant, becoming the first actively campaigning presidential candidate to visit a nuclear plant.
The 94 MWe prototype fast breeder reactor Fermi 1 unit under construction
Hinkley Point A nuclear power station was a Magnox power station located on a 19.4-hectare (48-acre) site in Somerset on the Bristol Channel coast, 5 miles (8 km) west of the River Parrett estuary.
The construction of the power station, which was undertaken by a consortium backed by English Electric, Babcock International Group and Taylor Woodrow Construction, began in 1957. The reactors and the turbines were supplied by English Electric.
The power station, which is currently being decommissioned, had twin Magnox reactors, each supplying steam to a turbine alternator set which was designed to produce 500 MWe but, after de-rating of the reactor power output due to corrosion concerns, producing 221 MWe.
The design followed the principles established by the Calder Hall nuclear power station, in that it used a reactor core of natural uranium fuel in Magnox alloy cans within a graphite moderator, all contained in a welded steel pressure vessel. The core was cooled by CO2 pumped by six nominal 7,000 hp (5.2MW) gas circulators, which transported the hot gas from the core to the six Steam Raising Units (boilers) via steel ducts. The gas circulators could be driven by induction motors
The Ikata Nuclear Power Plant (伊方発電所, Ikata hatsudensho, Ikata NPP) is a nuclear power plant in the town of Ikata in the Nishiuwa District in Ehime Prefecture, Japan. It is the only nuclear plant on the island of Shikoku. It is owned and operated by the Shikoku Electric Power Company.
The plant is on a site with an area of 860,000 m (212 acres). 47% of the site is green, compared to the other plants Yonden operates which are 13.8, 45.5, 20.1, and 21.2%.
The previous graph scale is wrong, it should be GWh instead of TWh ...
On March 3, 2004 there was a coolant leak in Unit 3.
On August 13, 2003 The maximum burnup for spent fuel was changed from 48,000 MWd/ton to 55,000 MWd/ton.
Ikata - 1 became the world's first all-in-one extraction of the core internals in a PWR. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries did replacement work of the upper and lower internals in order to accommodate more control rods and allow for higher fuel burnup.
Ikata - 3 loaded a partial MOX fuel core for the cycle beginning February 24, 2010.
On Sunday 4 September reactor no. 1 was shut down for regular inspections. These check-ups would last at least three months. At that time reactor No.3 was also shut down, although the
Kolkewadi Dam or Kolkiwadi Dam is a dam located in the Konkan region of Maharashtra, India. It is located in Kolkiwadi, three kilometres near the village of Alore, near Chiplun.
The dam is part of the Koyna Hydroelectric Project. It contributes in the 3rd stage of power generation of the Koyna Hydroelectric Project. The electricity is generated in the underground power station located at the base of the dam. The total installed generating capacity of the 3rd stage of the project is 320 MW. The project is run by the Maharashtra State Electricity Board, also known as the MSEB. The area behind the dam is one of the most sparsely populated areas in the state.
The spillway of the dam is located at the center. It has 3 radial gates.
The Takahama Nuclear Power Plant (高浜原子力発電所, Takahama hatsudensho, Takahama NPP) is a nuclear power plant located in the town of Takahama, Ōi District, Fukui Prefecture. It is owned and operated by the Kansai Electric Power Company. It is on a site with an area of 1.6 km.
On 17 February 2012, Kansai Electric Power Co. announced that on 21 February 2012 reactor no. 3 would taken off the grid for a regular checkup and maintenance. After that date, only two commercial nuclear power plants were still operating in Japan: The no. 6 reactor of TEPCO at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa plant in prefecture Niigata, which was scheduled for checkups on 26 March 2012, and the No. 3 reactor at the Tomari plant in Hokkaido of Hokkaido Electric Power Co.; there regular maintenance was planned in late April 2012. From 5 May until 1 July 2012, Japan had no operating nuclear power plants. In July Ōi Nuclear Power Plant units 3 and 4 became Japan's only operating nuclear power plant.
The Tomari Nuclear Power Plant (泊発電所, Tomari hatsudensho, Tomari NPP) is the only nuclear power plant in Hokkaidō, Japan. It is located in the town of Tomari in the Furuu District and managed by the Hokkaido Electric Power Company. All of the reactors are Mitsubishi designs. The plant site totals 1,350,000 m (334 acres), with an additional 70,000 m of reclaimed land.
The plant was originally going to be located on an island and be named the Kyowa-Tomari NPP, but there was a change in plans and the location and name was changed.
Seismic research in 2011 showed that the March 11th quake was caused by the simultaneous movement of multiple active faults at the coast of the Pacific Ocean in northern Japan, and that much bigger earthquakes could be triggered than the plants were built to withstand. In February the Tokai Daini Plant in Ibaraki Prefecture and the Tomari power facility in Hokkaido, said that it could not rule out the possibility that the plant was vulnerable. Other nuclear power stations declared that the active faults near their nuclear plants would not move at the same time, and even if it did happen, the impact would be limited. NISA would look into the evaluation of
The Duane Arnold Energy Center (DAEC) is located on a 500-acre (2.0 km) site on the west bank of the Cedar River, two miles (3 km) north-northeast of Palo, Iowa, USA, or eight miles (13 km) northwest of Cedar Rapids. It is Iowa's only nuclear power plant.
DAEC entered operation in June 1974. It currently generates a net power output of approximately 615 megawatts using a single General Electric Mark I boiling water reactor.
The majority owner and operator is NextEra Energy Resources (70%). The Central Iowa Power Cooperative owns 20% and the Corn Belt Power Cooperative owns 10%.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission defines two emergency planning zones around nuclear power plants: a plume exposure pathway zone with a radius of 10 miles (16 km), concerned primarily with exposure to, and inhalation of, airborne radioactive contamination, and an ingestion pathway zone of about 50 miles (80 km), concerned primarily with ingestion of food and liquid contaminated by radioactivity.
The 2010 U.S. population within 10 miles (16 km) of Duane Arnold was 107,880, an increase of 8.2 percent in a decade, according to an analysis of U.S. Census data for msnbc.com. The 2010 U.S. population within 50
The Galloway hydro-electric power scheme is a network of dams and hydro-electric power stations in Galloway, south west Scotland. It was built between 1930 and 1936.
The generating stations draw water from the River Ken, River Dee and River Doon through reservoirs at Loch Doon, Kendoon, Carsfad, Clatteringshaws, and Tongland. The unusual modernist stations were designed by Scottish civil engineer, Sir Alexander Gibb.
The scheme, which is today operated by Scottish Power, can produce a total peak power of around 106 megawatts.
The scheme was authorized by the Galloway Water Power Act on 10 May 1929, by which the Galloway Water Power Company was incorporated. Chairman of the board was former colonial administrator Lord Meston. Also on the board was Robert Brand, managing director of the project's underwriter, Lazard Brothers and Company.
Design was carried out by William McLellan of Merz & McLellan. Construction began three years later in 1932 and was completed in 1936. The scheme was made viable by the recent formation of the National Grid which made generation of electricity in remote areas useful. Hydro power was particularly helpful to this grid because of its ability to be
Grand Gulf nuclear power station is a General Electric boiling water reactor. It lies on a 2,100 acres (8.5 km) site near Port Gibson, Mississippi. The site is wooded and contains two lakes. The plant has a 520-foot (158 m) cooling tower.
Grand Gulf is operated by Entergy Nuclear and owned jointly by System Energy Resources, Inc. (90%) and by South Mississippi Electric Power Association (10%).
On September 22, 2005 it was announced that Grand Gulf had been selected as the site for a GE ESBWR reactor. For details, see Nuclear Power 2010 Program. Next to the vacant, waiting Grand Gulf field is an unfinished concrete structure that was to be the containment structure for a twin to the existing unit. In December 1979, staggered by construction cost Entergy (then called Middle South Utilities) stopped work on this unit.
In 2007, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued an Early Site Permit (ESP) to Grand Gulf. In 2008, Entergy and NuStart submitted a Combined Construction and Operating License (COL) application for a potential new nuclear unit at the Grand Gulf.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission defines two emergency planning zones around nuclear power plants: a plume
The Kanaker Hydro Power Plant is a hydroelectric power plant adjacent to the Hrazdan River near Armenia's capital city of Yerevan. It is next to the RUSAL ARMENAL aluminum smelter in Kanaker and has an installed electric capacity of 102 MW.
The Krasnoyarsk Dam is a 124-metre (407 ft) high concrete gravity dam located on the Yenisey River about 30 kilometres (19 mi) upstream from Krasnoyarsk in Divnogorsk, Russia. It was constructed from 1956 to 1972 and supplies 6,000 MW of power, mostly used to supply the KrAZ (Krasnoyarsky Aluminievyy Zavod, Krasnoyarsk Aluminum Plant). Both power and aluminum plants are controlled by the RUSAL company.
As a result of the damming, the Krasnoyarskoye reservoir was created. This reservoir, also known as Krasnoyarskoye More (Krasnoyarsk Sea), has an area of 2,000 square kilometres (770 sq mi) and a volume of 73.3 cubic kilometres (18 cu mi). It is 388 km (241 mi) in length and 15 km (9 mi) in width at its widest, has an average depth of 36.6 m (120.1 ft), and a depth of 105 m (344 ft) near the dam.
The Krasnoyarsk dam has greatly affected the local climate. Before the dam was built, the Yenisey in that area was free from ice around 196 days per year. Now it is free from ice the entire year up to 300 to 400 km downstream. The huge amount of water stored in Krasnoyarskoye reservoir makes the local climate more warm and humid.
The dam is equipped with a canal inclined plane to allow
The Mingechevir Hydro Power Plant is one of Azerbaijan's largest hydro power plant having an installed electric capacity of 402 MW. It was built as a part of Mingachevir reservoir on Kura River.
The length of the hydroelectric dam is 1,550 m (5,090 ft), its width is 16 m (52 ft) and height is 80 m (260 ft).
The PM-1 pressurized-water reactor was built as part of the US Army Nuclear Power Program(ANPP) to develop small pressurized water and boiling water nuclear power reactors for use in remote sites.
PM-1 went critical at Sundance, Wyoming, on February. 25, 1962.
Retired Master Sargent Cliff Coon headed up the dismantling of the reactor in 1969.
CHARACTERISTICS OF PM-1 (SUNDANCE)
The Ullum Dam is a dam on the San Juan River, in Province of San Juan, Argentina. It is located at the gorge of the Quebrada de Ullum, 18 km upstream from the provincial capital San Juan, and creates a reservoir with an area of 32 km², a volume of 440 million m³, and average and maximum depths of 15 and 40 m, respectively. The reservoir feeds a hydroelectric power station with an installed power capacity of 41 MW.
The region is arid, with mean annual rainfall below 85 mm, and is traversed by the rivers San Juan and Jáchal. The dam is employed to regulate the flow to irrigate about 800 km² of the Tulum Valley for agriculture, which is the basis of the economy of San Juan. It also allows for recreational and tourist activities.
Work on the dam began in 1969, and the facility was inaugurated on December 3, 1980.
Rosemanowes Quarry, near Penryn, Cornwall, United Kingdom, was the site of an early experiment in extracting geothermal energy from the earth using hot dry rock (HDR) technology.
The site was chosen because the granite in the area has the highest heat flow in England (120 milliwatts per square metre).
The trials began in 1977 in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis and an earlier trial in the United States at Fenton Hill. It concluded in 1980, although studies continued until 1991. Funding for the initial project was provided by the Department of Energy (now the Department of Trade and Industry) and by the European Commission. The research facilities and staff transferred to Camborne School of Mines Associates Limited in 1992, the trading arm of the Camborne School of Mines. The project had two aims 1) To see if hot dry rocks could be fractured by water pressure alone, enabling a current of cold water from an inlet borehole to pass easily through the mass and to be collected at an outlet borehole some distance away. The trial proved to be successful, and showed that explosives were not required to fracture this Cornish hot granite at depth. 2)To find out if the rocks were hot enough to
The Kaunas Hydroelectric Power Plant, located on the Nemunas River about 7.4 kilometres (4.6 mi) southeast of downtown Kaunas, Lithuania, was completed in 1960. Its dam created the Kaunas Reservoir. Owned by Lietuvos Energija, it operates in conjunction with the Kruonis Pumped Storage Plant.
The plant, which has a capacity of 100.8 megawatts, generated 316 gigawatt-hours of electricity in 2002. It supplies about 3% of the electrical demand in Lithuania.
A renovation was begun in 2005, with work to be performed in partnership with the multinational conglomerate Alstom. The first phase was completed in November 2008; completion is scheduled for the end of 2009.
The Callaway Plant is a nuclear power plant located on a 5,228-acre (21 km²) site in Callaway County, Missouri, near Fulton, Missouri. It began operating on December 19, 1984. The plant, which is the state's only commercial nuclear unit, has one 1,190-megawatt Westinghouse four-loop pressurized water reactor and a General Electric turbine-generator. It is owned by the Ameren Corporation and operated by Ameren Missouri.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission defines two emergency planning zones around nuclear power plants: a plume exposure pathway zone with a radius of 10 miles (16 km), concerned primarily with exposure to, and inhalation of, airborne radioactive contamination, and an ingestion pathway zone of about 50 miles (80 km), concerned primarily with ingestion of food and liquid contaminated by radioactivity.
The 2010 U.S. population within 10 miles (16 km) of Callaway was 10,092, an increase of 3.8 percent in a decade, according to an analysis of U.S. Census data for msnbc.com. The 2010 U.S. population within 50 miles (80 km) was 546,292, an increase of 15.0 percent since 2000. Cities within 50 miles include Fulton (11 miles to city center), Jefferson City (26 miles to city
The Indirasagar Dam is a multipurpose key project of Madhya Pradesh on the Narmada River at Narmadanagar in the Khandwa district of Madhya Pradesh in India. The foundation stone of the project was laid by late Smt Indira Gandhi, former Prime Minister of India on 23 October 1984. The construction of main dam started in 1992. The down stream projects of ISP are Omkareshwar, Maheshwar and Sardar Sarovar Project.
The Project envisages construction of a 92 m high and 653 m long concrete gravity dam. It provides Irrigation in 1,230 square kilometres of land with annual production of 2700 million units in the districts of Khandwa and Khargone in Madhya Pradesh and power generation of 1000 MW installed capacity (8x125). The reservoir of 12,200,000,000 m (9,890,701 acre·ft) was created. In terms of storage of water, it withholds the largest reservoir in India, with capacity of 12.22 billion cu m, followed by Bharkra Nangal in Himachal Pradesh. The dam, built as a joint venture between Madhya Pradesh irrigation and National Hydroelectric Power Corporation is the source of the Indra Gandhi canal. It was commissioned on May 2005.
River Narmada, fifth largest river in India, with a river flow
Manapouri Power Station is an underground hydroelectric power station on the western arm of Lake Manapouri in Fiordland National Park, in the South Island of New Zealand. At 850 MW installed capacity (although limited to 800 MW due to resource consent limits), it is the largest hydroelectric power station in New Zealand, and the second largest power station in New Zealand. The station is noted for the controversy and environmental protests by the Save Manapouri Campaign against the raising the level of Lake Manapouri to increase the station's head, which galvanised New Zealanders and were one of the foundations of the New Zealand environmental movement.
Completed in 1971, Manapouri was largely built to supply electricity to the Tiwai Point aluminium smelter near Bluff, some 160 km (99 mi) to the southeast, as well as into the South Island transmission network. The station utilises the 230-metre (750 ft) drop between the western arm of Lake Manapouri and the Deep Cove branch of the Doubtful Sound 10 km (6.2 mi) away to generate electricity. The construction of the station required the excavation of almost 1.4 million tonnes of hard rock to build the machine hall and a 10 km tailrace
Sizewell nuclear power stations are two nuclear power stations located near the small fishing village of Sizewell in Suffolk, England. Sizewell A, with two magnox reactors, is now in the process of being decommissioned, while Sizewell B has a single pressurised water reactor and is the UK's newest nuclear power station. A third power station is planned.
The site of Sizewell A occupies 245 acres (99 hectares) north of Sizewell. It is on a low plateau above flood level. The geological foundation comprises low grade Norwich Crag topsoil above stiff London Clay. The crag predominantly consists of medium dense and dense sands with thin layers of clay and silt. This extends to a depth of 200 feet (60 metres) below ground level.
The site is reached by road, with the nearest railhead about one mile inland at Sizewell Halt. Sidings were installed at the railhead primarily to transport irradiated elements to the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority plant at Sellafield, Cumbria.
The Midlands Project Group of the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) planned and managed the project. The main contract was placed in November 1960 and construction work on Sizewell A began on 1 April 1961.
The Merowe Dam, also known as Merowe High Dam, Merowe Multi-Purpose Hydro Project or Hamdab Dam, is a large dam near Merowe Town in northern Sudan, about 350 km (220 mi) north of the capital Khartoum. Its dimensions make it the largest contemporary hydropower project in Africa. It is situated on the river Nile, close to the 4th Cataract where the river divides into multiple smaller branches with large islands in between. Merowe is a city about 40 km (25 mi) downstream from the construction site at Hamdab. The main purpose for building the dam was the generation of electricity.
The dam is designed to have a length of about 9 km (5.6 mi) and a crest height of up to 67 m (220 ft). It will consist of polystyrene-faced rockfill dams on each river bank, an earth-rock dam with a pepper core in the left river channel and a live water section in the right river channel (sluices, spillway and power intake dam with turbine housings). Once finished, it will contain a reservoir of 12.5 km (3.0 cu mi), or about 20% of the Nile's annual flow. The reservoir lake is planned to extend 174 km (108 mi) upstream.
The powerhouse will be equipped with ten 125 MW Francis turbines, each one designed for a
The Nellis Solar Power Plant is located within Nellis Air Force Base in Clark County, Nevada, northeast of Las Vegas. The Nellis solar energy system will generate in excess of 25 gigawatt-hours (90 TJ) of electricity annually and supply more than 25% of the power used at the base. The system was inaugurated in a ceremony on December 17, 2007, with Nevada Governor Jim Gibbons activating full operation of the 14 megawatt (MW) array.
Occupying 140 acres (57 ha) of land leased from the Air Force at the western edge of the base, this ground-mounted solar system employs an advanced sun tracking system, designed and deployed by SunPower. The system contains approximately 70,000 solar panels, and the peak power generation capacity of the plant is approximately 13 MW AC. This means the ratio of average to peak output, or capacity factor, of this plant is around 22%.
The energy generated will support more than 12,000 military and civilians at Nellis who are responsible for Air Force advanced combat training, tactics development and operational testing. Construction began on April 23, 2007, and operation of the first 5 MW began on October 12, 2007.
Under the terms of the Power Purchase
The Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station is a decommissioned nuclear power plant built by the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) in Herald, California.
In 1966, SMUD purchased 2,100 acres (8 km) in southeast Sacramento County for a nuclear power plant, which was built in Herald, 25 miles (40 km) south-east of downtown Sacramento.
In the early 1970s, a small pond was expanded to a 160-acre (0.6 km) lake to serve as an emergency backup water supply for the station. The lake has always received its water from the Folsom South Canal and has no relationship with the power plant's daily water supply. Surrounding the lake is 400 acres (1.6 km) of recreational area originally operated by the County of Sacramento for day-use activities.
The 2,772 MWt Babcock and Wilcox pressurized water reactor (913 MWe) achieved initial criticality on 16 September 1974 and entered commercial operation on 17 April 1975.
On 20 March 1978 a failure of power supply for the plant's non-nuclear instrumentation system led to steam generator dryout. (ref NRC LER 312/78-001). In an ongoing study of "precursors" that could lead to a nuclear disaster if additional failures were to have occurred, in 2005
The Roaring Meg hydro scheme refers to two small hydro electricity power stations fed by the Roaring Meg Dam. The scheme is located next to the Roaring Meg Stream in the Kawarau Gorge, near Cromwell, New Zealand. Roaring Meg is owned and operated by Pioneer Generation.
The scheme was built by the Otago Central Power Board starting in 1934 and commissioned 1936, at a cost of 40,000 pounds.. At times the lower station has been flooded by the Kawarau River.
The scheme starts with the 10m high Roaring Meg Dam located 3.6km upstream from the confluence with the Kawarau River. The intake flows into a series of pipes connected to the power stations. The upper station discharges into both a pipe feeding the lower station and the Roaring Meg Stream, while the lower station discharges into the Kawarau River.
Annual energy production from both stations is approximately 30 GWh.
Lower Roaring Meg station:
Upper Roaring Meg station:
The Shoalhaven Scheme is a dual-purpose water supply and hydro-electric power generation scheme in New South Wales. It was built as a joint project between the Electricity Commission of NSW and the NSW Metropolitan Water Sewerage and Drainage Board. Management has subsequently been passed from those bodies to Eraring Energy and the Sydney Catchment Authority.
Water in the scheme is stored in three principal dams and reservoirs: Tallowa Dam, Fitzroy Falls Reservoir and Wingecarribee Reservoir.
Tallowa Dam is a concrete dam, located just downstream of the junction of the Kangaroo and Shoalhaven rivers. The dam was completed in 1976. It is 43 metres tall, 528 m long, and holds 75,000 megalitres. The lake created by the dam is called Lake Yarrunga.
Fitzroy Falls Reservoir consists of four separate earth and rockfill embankments, and was completed in 1974. The main embankment is 14 m tall and 1530 m long. The reservoir holds 9,950 megalitres. The 3300 m Wildes Meadow Canal connects the reservoir to the Burrawang Pumping Station. Burrawang Tunnel (2830 m) and Canal (1000 m) join the pumping station to the Wingecarribee Reservoir.
Wingecarribee Reservoir is located on the Wingecarribee
The Alicurá Dam (in Spanish, Embalse de Alicurá) is the first of five dams on the Limay River in northwestern Argentine Patagonia (the Comahue region), about 100 km from the city of San Carlos de Bariloche and 705 m above mean sea level. It was inaugurated in 1985.
The dam is used primarily for the generation of hydroelectricity with an installed capacity of 1,000 MW. The reservoir is also employed to raise Salmonidae.
The Alicurá reservoir has an area of 67.5 km², a mean depth of 48.4 m (maximum 110 m), and a volume of 3,215,000,000 m (2,606,443 acre·ft).
The Bratsk Hydroelectric Power Station (also referred to as 50 years of Great October) is a concrete gravity dam on the Angara River and adjacent hydroelectric power station. It is the second level of the Angara River hydroelectric stations cascade in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia. Located in Bratsk. From its full commissioning in 1967, the station was the world’s single biggest power producer until Canada's Churchill Falls was opened in 1971. Annually the station produces 22.6 TWh. Currently, the Bratsk Power Station operates 18 hydro-turbines, each with capacity of 250 MW, produced by the Leningrad Metal Works ("LMZ", Russian: ЛМЗ, Russian: Ленинградский Металлический завод) in the 1960s.
On the upper part of the dam there is the railway track of the Taishet-Lena line and a vehicle road.
There are no navigation passes, because Angara River has no through ship routes. Nevertheless, construction project includes the possibility to build a ship elevator.
The Turbine Hall contains 18 Francis hydroturbine units, 250 MW each, with a 106 m of operating head. 5,140 m long penstock forms the Bratsk Reservoir. With the 4,500 MW of output and 22.6 TWh of annual output, it is Russia's
The Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant (福島第一原子力発電所, Fukushima Dai-ichi ( pronunciation) Genshiryoku Hatsudensho, Fukushima I NPP), also known as Fukushima Dai-ichi (dai-ichi means "number one"), is a disabled nuclear power plant located on a 3.5-square-kilometre (860-acre) site in the towns of Okuma and Futaba in the Futaba District of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. First commissioned in 1971, the plant consists of six boiling water reactors (BWR). These light water reactors drove electrical generators with a combined power of 4.7 GWe, making Fukushima Daiichi one of the 15 largest nuclear power stations in the world. Fukushima I was the first nuclear plant to be designed, constructed and run in conjunction with General Electric, Boise, and Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The plant suffered major damage from the 9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami that hit Japan on March 11, 2011 and, as of October 2012, is not expected to reopen. The earthquake and tsunami disabled the reactor cooling systems, leading to nuclear radiation leaks and triggering a 30 km evacuation zone surrounding the plant. On April 20, 2011, the Japanese authorities declared the 20 km evacuation zone a no-go
The Los Reyunos Dam is a dam on the Diamante River, in central Mendoza Province, Argentina, some twenty-two miles (thirty-five kilometers) from the city of San Rafael. The dam, built of stone and compacted clay to minimize execution and cost, is 440 feet (134 meters) high and contains a reservoir covering an area of 1,828 acres (7.34 km²).
The dam is used to generate hydroelectricity. This is done in a power station located below the level of the reservoir. About one mile (two kilometer) downstream is a smaller, compensation dam called El Tigre. During the hours of decreased power demand, water is pumped from the reservoir of El Tigre back into Los Reyunos to stabilize the water level.
The reservoir is employed in raising Salmonidae and silverside, allowing for sport fishing. Los Reyunos Fishing and Nautical Club, along with private summer residences and a hotel, lies on the western shore of the reservoir and serves as a base for activities in the lake (such as windsurf, canoeing) and in the surrounding mountains (such as hiking).
Murray 2 Power Station is one of several hydroelectric power stations in the Snowy Mountains Scheme, New South Wales, Australia. Murray 2 has four turbo generators, with a generating capacity of 550MW of electricity.
The power station was completed in 1969, and has 264.3 metres rated head.
Although the power station is physically located in the state of New South Wales, it has, since 1 July 2008 been allocated to the Victoria region of the National Electricity Market .
Hume Power Station is a hydroelectric power station at the Hume Weir on the Murray River near Albury, New South Wales, Australia. Hume has two turbines with a combined generating capacity of 58 MW of electricity.
The power station was completed in 1957, running two 25 MW turbines. In 2000, they were each upgraded to 29 MW, according to Eraring.
The AEMO Registration List also gives the capacities of the two units HUMENSW and HUMEV as 29 MW.
However, according to the AEMO Generation Page, the capacity is 0 MW in NSW and 17 MW (available only in summer) in Victoria, suggesting a low average production due to the lack of water in the river. (empty in 2007).
The NSW Government releases daily information that the dam is currently (January 2010) releasing a sizable outflow which is used to generate power.
Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station is a Canadian nuclear power station located 2 km northeast of Point Lepreau, New Brunswick. The facility was constructed between 1975-1983 by NB Power, the provincially owned public utility.
The facility derives its name from the nearby headland situated at the easternmost part of Charlotte County, although the generating station itself is located several hundred meters inside Saint John County. It is administratively part of the local service district of Musquash, west of the city of Saint John.
The Point Lepreau station is the only nuclear facility located in Atlantic Canada and comprises 1 CANDU nuclear reactor located on the northern shore of the Bay of Fundy, having a net capacity of 635 MW (680 MW gross).
The construction of a nuclear plant in New Brunswick has been discussed since the late 1950s. For over 15 years, engineers from the New Brunswick Electric Power Commission visited federal Crown corporation Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's Chalk River Laboratories in Ontario, to keep abreast of the latest trends in the field. Formal talks between Premier Richard Hatfield and the Canadian government began in 1972. Discussions
Toktogul Dam is a hydroelectric and irrigation dam on the Naryn River in the Jalal-Abad Province of Kyrgyzstan. It is concrete gravity dam with height of 215 metres (705 ft) and length of 292.5 metres (960 ft). It is a part of the Naryn-Syr Darya cascade. It is named after Toktogul Satilganov.
The Toktogul Hydroelectric Station has installed capacity of 1,200 MW, which makes it the largest power plant in the country. It has four turbines with capacity of 300 MW each.
Toktogul Reservoir (Kyrgyz: Токтогул суу сактагычы IPA: [toqtoʁul suː sɑqtɑʁɯtʃɯ]; Russian: Токтогульское водохранилище) is the largest of the reservoirs on the path of the Naryn River, a northern tributary of the Syr Darya. The reservoir has total capacity of 19.5 cubic kilometres (15,800,000 acre·ft), of which 14 cubic kilometres (11,000,000 acre·ft) is active capacity. Its length is 65 kilometres (40 mi) and its surface are is 284.3 square kilometres (109.8 sq mi). The maximal depth of the reservoir is 120 metres (390 ft).
The reservoir was created in 1976 after construction works on the dam were completed and the Kementub Valley was flooded. 26 communities were displaced and the main road through the region was
Waldpolenz Solar Park, which was the world’s largest thin-film photovoltaic (PV) power system at that time, was built by German developer and operator Juwi at a former military air base to the east of Leipzig in Germany. The power plant was initially 40 MW solar power system using state-of-the-art thin film technology, and was fully operational by the end of 2008. 550,000 First Solar thin-film modules from cadmium telluride (CdTe) are being used, which supply about 40,000 MWh of electricity per year.
It was extended to 52MWP in 2011 with the addition of a further 153,650 solar modules, also from First Solar.
The installation is located in the Muldentalkreis district in the state of Saxony in eastern Germany, built on half of the location’s 220 hectares in the townships of Brandis and Bennewitz. The investment costs for the Waldpolenz solar park amount to some 130 million euro.
Zion Nuclear Power Station was the third dual-reactor nuclear power plant in the Commonwealth Edison (ComEd) network and served Chicago and the northern quarter of Illinois. The plant was built in 1973, and the first unit started producing power in December, 1973. The second unit came online in September 1974. This power generating station is located on 257 acres (1.04 km) of Lake Michigan shoreline, in the city of Zion, Lake County, Illinois. It is approximately 40 direct-line miles north of Chicago, Illinois and 42 miles (68 km) south of Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
The Zion Nuclear Power Station was retired on February 13, 1998. The plant had not been in operation since February 1997, after a control-room operator accidentally shut down Reactor 1 and then tried to restart it without following procedures. Reactor 2 was already shut down for refueling at the time of the incident. ComEd concluded that the plant could not produce competitively priced power because it would have cost $435 million to order steam generators which would not pay for themselves before the plant's operating license expired in 2013.
All nuclear fuel was removed permanently from the reactor vessel and placed in the
The Yacyretá Dam or Hydroelectric Power Station Jasyretâ-Apipé (from Guaraní jasy retã, “land of the moon”) is a dam and hydroelectric power plant built over the waterfalls of Jasyretâ-Apipé in the Paraná River, between the Argentine Province of Corrientes and the Paraguayan City of Ayolas. The dam is named for Yacyretâ Island just upstream, much of which the dam submerged. The word “Yacyreta” is the Hispanicized spelling of the original Guaraní term Jasyretâ..
The dam is 808 meters long, and its installed equipment has a maximum power output of 3,100 MW, with an annual maximum power output of 19,080 GWh, and a maximum water flow rate of 55,000 cubic meters per second. Until February 2011, its reservoir was seven meters below its planned water level, only allowing it to operate at 60% capacity.
The project generated controversy and criticism during its planning and construction because of the effects it had on local ecology, particularly the flooding of a unique environment causing the extinction of numerous species. The financial management of the project also garnered criticism, as it greatly exceeded its original budget, ultimately costing more than $11 billion.
Bhakra Dam is a concrete gravity dam across the Sutlej River, and is near the border between Punjab and Himachal Pradesh in northern India.
The dam, located at a gorge near the (now submerged) upstream Bhakra village in Bilaspur district of Himachal Pradesh, is India's second tallest at 225.55 m (740 ft) high next to the 261m Tehri Dam. The length of the dam (measured from the road above it) is 518.25 m; it is 9.1 m broad. Its reservoir, known as the "Gobind Sagar", stores up to 9.34 billion cubic meters of water, enough to drain the whole of Chandigarh, parts of Haryana, Punjab and Delhi. The 90 km long reservoir created by the Bhakra Dam is spread over an area of 168.35 km. In terms of storage of water, it withholds the second largest reservoir in India, the first being Indira Sagar Dam in Madhya Pradesh with capacity of 12.22 billion cu m.
Described as 'New Temple of Resurgent India' by Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of India, the dam attracts tourists from all over India.
Nangal dam is another dam downstream of Bhakra dam. Sometimes both the dams together are called Bhakra-Nangal dam though they are two separate dams.
The Bhakra-Nangal multipurpose dams were among
Heysham Power Station is a nuclear power station located in Heysham, Lancashire, England, operated by British Energy. The site is divided into two separately-managed stations, Heysham 1 and Heysham 2, both of the advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) type, with two reactors each. In January 2009, EDF Energy bought out British Energy, and the Heysham sites have now been made into EDF Energy existing nuclear sites.
On 18 October 2010 the British government announced that Heysham was one of the eight sites it considered suitable for future nuclear power stations.
Construction of Heysham 1, which was undertaken by British Nuclear Design & Construction (BNDC), a consortium backed by English Electric, Babcock International Group and Taylor Woodrow Construction, began in 1970, with the first reactor commencing operations in 1983 and the second reactor following in 1984. However, initial production levels were low, and full commercial operation was only declared in 1989. It is likely to remain in operation until 2019. Its generating capacity is 1150 MWe. The reactors were supplied by National Nuclear Corporation and the turbines by GEC.
Heysham 1 shares its reactor design with Hartlepool power
Ohakuri is a dam and hydroelectric power station on the Waikato River, central North Island, New Zealand, midway between Taupo, Rotorua and Hamilton. Its dam is about 5 km upstream of the Atiamuri Dam.
It was commissioned in 1961 and construction was organised from the 'hydro town' of Mangakino. The dam eventually created Lake Ohakuri, the largest artificial lake on the Waikato, which drowned two thirds of the Orakei Korako geothermal area as well as hot springs and wahi tapu (Māori sacred sites) at Te Ohaaki. Creation of the dam forced Ngāti Tahu to relocate their Ohaaki Marae. The submerged area also included two of the world’s largest geysers (Minginui Geyser and Orakei Korako Geyser).
The construction in the face of these negative effects was considered justified at the time due to the serious electricity shortages plaguing the country after World War II, and by the fact that laws requiring public participation or consultation were not introduced until much later. While compensation to Māori land owners was paid based on the land take rules of the Public Works Act, the damage to the inhabitants of the area was to form basis of further legal actions under the Waitangi Tribunal
Oymapinar Dam is an arch dam built on the Manavgat river in Turkey in 1984. It is an arch dam in design, 185 m in height, built to generate hydroelectric power.
Oymapınar Dam is located 12 km north of Manavgat Waterfall. It is an artificial, freshwater dam with a capacity of 300 million cubic meters. It is 23 km upstream of Manavgat town 40 km east of city of Antalya in southern Turkey and located on the Manavgat River which runs into the Mediterranean.
The dam has four underground turbines with a total capacity of 540 megawatts. When built in 1984 it was the third largest dam in Turkey. As more dams have been built, it is the fifth largest.
Because of the arch design, the force of water pushing against the dam compacts the dam and strengthens it. The weight of the dam structure pushes it down firmly into the underlying rock. This design is ideal for dams built in rocky narrow gorges.
The dam was built by Bilfinger Berger and completed in 1984.
The PS10 Solar Power Plant (Spanish: Planta Solar 10), is the world's first commercial concentrating solar power tower operating near Seville, in Andalucia, Spain. The 11 megawatt (MW) solar power tower produces electricity with 624 large movable mirrors called heliostats. It took four years to build and so far cost €35 million (US$46 million). PS10 produces about 23,400 megawatt-hours (MW·h) per year, for which it receives €271 (US$360) per MW·h under its power purchase agreement; equating to a revenue of €6.3 million per year.
The mirrors were delivered by Abengoa, the solar receiver was designed and built by Tecnical-Tecnicas Reunidas, a Spanish engineering company; and the Solar Tower was designed and built by ALTAC, another Spanish engineering and construction company.
Each of the mirrors has a surface measuring 120 m² (1,292 square feet) that concentrates the sun's rays to the top of a 115 meter (377 ft) high, 40-story tower where a solar receiver and a steam turbine are located. The turbine drives a generator, producing electricity.
The PS10 is located 20 km west of Seville (which receives at least nine hours of sunshine 320 days per year, with 15 hours per day in mid
The Planta Solar 20 (PS20) solar power plant is a solar thermal energy plant in Sanlucar la Mayor near Seville in Andalusia, Spain. It is the world's most powerful solar power tower. The 20 megawatt (MW) solar power tower produces electricity with large movable mirrors called heliostats.
Construction of PS20 was started in 2006 and it commenced operation in 2009. It features several significant technological improvements over the earlier PS10. These include a receiver with higher efficiency, various improvements in the control and operational systems, and a better thermal energy storage system.
"PS20 consists of a solar field of 1,255 mirrored heliostats designed by Abengoa Solar. Each heliostat, with a surface area of 120 m (1,300 sq ft), reflects the solar radiation it receives onto the receiver, located on the top of a 165 m (541 ft) high tower, producing steam which is converted into electricity by a turbine generator."
"The remaining power plants will be built over the next few years. They will include low- and high-concentration photovoltaic, tower thermoelectric, parabolic-trough collector and Stirling dish plants. Abengoa Solar's parabolic trough plants, Solnova 1, 3 and 4,
The Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant was a completed General Electric nuclear boiling water reactor located adjacent to the Long Island Sound in East Shoreham, New York. The plant was built between 1973 and 1984 by the Long Island Lighting Company (LILCO), but never operated.
In 1983, the Suffolk County Legislature voted that the county could not be safely evacuated in the event of a serious nuclear accident at the plant, and governor of New York, Mario Cuomo, ordered state officials not to approve any LILCO-sponsored evacuation plan. The plant was completed in 1984 and in 1985 LILCO received federal permission for low-power 5 percent power tests.
The plant faced considerable public opposition after the 1979 Three Mile Island accident and the 1986 Chernobyl disaster. There were large protests and two dozen local groups opposed the plant. In 1981, 43 percent of Long Islanders opposed the plant; by 1986, that number had risen to 74 percent.
On May 19, 1989, LILCO agreed not to operate the plant in a deal with the state under which most of the $6 billion cost of the unused plant was passed on to Long Island residents. In 1992, the Long Island Power Authority bought the plant from LILCO.
Vermont Yankee is a General Electric boiling water reactor (BWR) type nuclear power plant currently owned by Entergy. It is located in the town of Vernon, Vermont, in the northeastern United States, and generates 620 megawatts (MWe) of electricity at full power. The plant began commercial operations in 1972. It provided 71.8% of all electricity generated in Vermont in 2008, which is 35% of the overall electricity used in the state. The plant is situated on the Connecticut River just above the Vernon Hydroelectric Dam. The reservoir pool created by the dam serves as the source of Vermont Yankee's cooling water.
The plant's operating license ran out in March 2012, and the question of whether its license will be renewed is complicated by the fact that Vermont is the only state in which the state government has a say in nuclear plant licensing, rather than just the federal government.
In February 2010, the Vermont Senate voted 26 to 4 against re-licensing of the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Plant after 2012, citing radioactive tritium leaks, misstatements in testimony by plant officials, a cooling tower collapse in 2007, and other problems. On March 21, 2011 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission
The Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (CCNPP) is a nuclear power plant located on the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay near Lusby, Calvert County, Maryland in the Mid-Atlantic United States.
The plant, owned and operated by CENG, a joint venture between Exelon and Électricité de France, has two 2700 megawatt thermal (MWth) Combustion Engineering Generation II two-loop pressurized water reactors. Each generating plant (CCNPP 1&2) produces approximately 850 megawatt electrical (MWe) net or 900 MWe gross. Each plant's electrical load consumes approximately 50 MWe. These are saturated steam plants (non-superheated) and are approximately 33% efficient (ratio of 900 MWe gross/2700 MWth core). Only the exhaust of the single high pressure main turbine is slightly superheated by a two stage reheater before delivering the superheated steam in parallel to the three low pressure turbines. Unit 1 uses a General Electric designed main turbine and generator, while Unit 2 uses a Westinghouse designed main turbine and generator. The heat produced by the reactor is returned to the bay, which operates as a cooling heat-sink for the plant.
Unit 1 went into commercial service in 1975 and Unit 2 in
The Cerros Colorados Complex is a group of dams and hydroelectricity generation facilities on the lower valley of the Neuquén River, in Neuquén, Argentina.
The complex was started in 1969, and the first machine started functioning in 1978. The complex was officially inaugurated on 31 October 1980. In 1993 it was privatized by a concession grant to Hidroeléctrica Cerros Colorados S.A. In 2000, Duke Energy acquired Cerros Colorados and the Alto Valle thermal power plant.
Cerros Colorados is itself part of a larger engineering scheme, commonly known as the El Chocón-Cerros Colorados Complex, which includes the dam and hydroelectric plant of El Chocón located upstream, on the Limay River.
Cerros Colorados consists of four dams (Portezuelo Grande, Loma de la Lata, Planicie Banderita and El Chañar), and takes advantage of two deep natural depressions, called Los Barreales and Mari Menuco.
The Portezuelo Grande Dam (upstream) re-routes the waters of the river towards Los Barreales Lake, except for those destined to irrigation, domestic supply and ecological use. The water in Los Barreales then flows toward Mari Menuco, through a passage controlled by the Loma de la Lata Dam. The water
Darlington Nuclear Generating Station is a Canadian nuclear power station located on the north shore of Lake Ontario in Clarington, Ontario. The facility derives its name from the Township of Darlington, the former name of the municipality in which it is located. The Darlington station is a large nuclear facility and comprises 4 CANDU nuclear reactors located on the northern shore of Lake Ontario, having a total output of 3,512 MWe (capacity net) when all units are online. It provides about 20 percent of Ontario's electricity needs, enough to serve a city of two million people. It is arguably one of the most advanced nuclear generating stations in the world.
The facility was constructed in stages between 1981–1993 by the provincial Crown corporation, Ontario Hydro. Unit 2 was brought online in 1990, Unit 1 in 1992, and Units 3 and 4 in 1993. In April 1999 Ontario Hydro was split into 5 component Crown corporations with Ontario Power Generation (OPG) taking over all electrical generating stations and which continues to operate the Darlington station. The Darlington reactors have been among the best performing in OPG's CANDU fleet, including a top year in 2008 in which the plant
Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant is a nuclear power plant located just north of the city of Bridgman, Michigan which is part of Berrien County, on a 650-acre (2.6 km) site 11 miles south of St. Joseph, Michigan, USA. The plant is owned by American Electric Power (AEP) and operated by Indiana Michigan Power, an AEP subsidiary. This is currently the company's only nuclear power plant, which has two nuclear reactors.
The construction cost of the power plant was $3.352 billion (2007 USD). The plant produces enough electricity to meet the needs of a city 1.25 million people.
The plant is connected to the power grid via one 765KV line that goes from the plant to AEP's DuMont substation near Lakeville, Indiana and by numerous 345KV lines, two of which interconnect with Consumers Energy/METC, connecting with the Palisades Nuclear Generating Station, owned by Entergy.
The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission renewed the operating licenses of both reactors on August 30, 2005. With the renewal, Unit One's operating license will expire in 2034 while Unit Two's will expire in 2037. The units were initially licensed for forty years from their operational date.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission defines
The Gezhouba Dam or Gezhouba Water Control Project (Chinese: 长江葛洲坝水利枢纽工程 pinyin: chángjiāng gězhōubà shuǐlì shūniǔ gōngchéng) on the Yangtze River is located in the western suburbs of Yichang City in central China's Hubei province. The dam sits a few kilometers upstream from downtown Yichang, just downstream of the fall of the Huangbo River into the Yangtze. Construction started on December 30, 1970 and ended on December 10, 1988. The dam has a total installed electrical capacity of 3,115 MW.
After rushing out of Nanjin Pass (南津关, "South Ford Pass"), the Yangtze River slows down and widens from 300 metres (980 ft) to about 2,200 metres (7,200 ft) at the dam site. Two small islands, Gezhouba and Xiba, divided the river into three channels. There the Gezhouba Project was built.
The facility boasts a generating capacity of 3.11 GW along with three ship locks, two power stations that generate 14,100 GWh of electricity annually, the 27 gates of the spillway, and the no flowing Dam on both banks. The dam is 2,595 metres (8,514 ft) long with a maximum height of 47 metres (154 ft). The reservoir has a total volume of 1.58 cubic kilometres (1,280,000 acre·ft).
The navigation lock No.2 on
The Humboldt Bay Nuclear Power Plant is a 63 MWe boiling water reactor, owned by Pacific Gas and Electric Company that operated from August 1963 to July 1976 just south of Eureka, California. Concern about previously undiscovered seismic faults combined with more stringent requirements required after the Three Mile Island accident rendered the small plant unprofitable if restarted. It was shut down permanently in July 1976. It was then placed in SAFSTOR inactive status in 1988.
In 2004 Pacific Gas and Electric Company announced that three nuclear fuel rods were unaccounted for due to conflicting records of their location. The fuel rods were never accounted for, though PG&E investigators believe that they are still onsite in a storage pool. The investigation is believed to have cost one million dollars.
In December 2008, PG&E finished moving the spent nuclear fuel into dry cask storage on site. The next step is the decommissioning of the plant, planned to begin in 2010 along with the two original fossil-fuel-powered steam-turbine generators on site. The plant began being powered by an array of modern, multi-fuel Wärtsilä reciprocating engine-generators in late 2010. The work to
The Karapiro Power Station is a hydroelectric power station on Waikato River, in the North Island of New Zealand. The power station station lies on Lake Karapiro, 30 kilometres (19 mi) upstream from the city of Hamilton. Karapiro is the last of the eight hydroelectric power stations on the Waikato River.
Karapiro is a baseload power station, as it is required to maintain water flow in the lower Waikato River even during low inflows to the catchment and during low electricity demand. Only two turbines are required to keep the river flow at a reasonable level, with the third turbine being available for peak generation and maintenance on one of the other turbines.
Like all of the hydroelectric power stations on the Waikato River, Karapiro is operated by state-owned electricity generator Mighty River Power.
Karapiro was the second power station built of the Waikato hydro scheme. Construction of the dam and power station began in 1940, but material and labour shortage due to World War II meant progress was slow. The station was completed in 1947, four years behind schedule.
The creation of Lake Karapiro behind the dam flooded the Horahora Power Station, the first power station built on
Oldbury nuclear power station is a closed nuclear power station located on the south bank of the River Severn close to the village of Oldbury-on-Severn in South Gloucestershire, England. It was operated by Magnox Limited on behalf of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). Oldbury is one of four stations located close to the mouth of the River Severn and the Bristol Channel, the others being Berkeley, Hinkley Point A and Hinkley Point B.
Opened in 1967, it had two Magnox reactors producing 424 megawatts (MWe) in total – enough electricity on a typical day to serve an urban area twice the size of Bristol. Reactor 1 went critical on 18 September 1967 and first generated electricity on 9 November 1967, Reactor 2 started generating electricity in April 1968.
The construction was undertaken by a consortium known as The Nuclear Power Group ('TNPG'). The reactors were supplied by TNPG and the turbines by AEI and C. A. Parsons & Co. The main civil engineering contractor was Sir Robert McAlpine. Construction on site began in 1961.
Oldbury was the first nuclear power station in the UK to use prestressed concrete pressure vessels, earlier Magnox reactors having used steel pressure
The Iron Gate I Hydroelectric Power Station (Romanian: Porţile de Fier I, Serbian: Ђердап I, Đerdap I) is the largest dam on the Danube river and one of the largest hydro power plants in Europe. It is located on the Iron Gate gorge, between Romania and Serbia.
The Romanian side of the power station produces approximately 5.4 TWh annually, while the Serbian side of the power station produces 5.65 TWh. The discrepancy in power output between the two halves is due to the generating equipment. While Romania's equipment is newer and thus more efficient (thereby generating more power), it is proving more unreliable; resulting in increased downtime for maintenance/repairs, and consequently lower annual power output overall.
The project started in 1964 as a joint-venture between the governments of Romania and Yugoslavia for the construction of a major dam on the Danube River which would serve both countries. At the time of completion in 1972, it was one of the largest hydroelectric power stations in the world with twelve units generating 2,052 MW, divided equally between the two countries at 1,026 MW each.
The small inhabited island of Ada Kaleh was submerged during the construction.
Quad Cities Generating Station is a two-unit nuclear power plant located near Cordova, Illinois, USA on the Mississippi River. The two General Electric boiling water reactors give the plant a total electric capacity of approximately 1,824 MW. It was named for the nearby cities of Moline, Illinois, Rock Island, Illinois, Davenport, Iowa, East Moline, Illinois, and Bettendorf, Iowa — known as the Quad Cities.
The Quad Cities plant is owned and operated by Exelon Corporation. In 2004, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approved a 20-year license extension for both reactors at this plant.
During an extended power uprate test on March 5, 2002 (designed to extend the power efficiency of existing BWR reactors), Quad Cities Unit 2 began to experience vibrations in a steam line. On March 29 the plant was manually shut down due to high vibrations causing leaks in the main turbine control system. Unit 2 was restarted on April 2, but vibration broke a main steam pipe drain line. The line was repaired and the restart resumed, but by June 7 the main steam lines were showing unexplained aberrations. The plant was again taken offline for repairs on July 11, and the problem was traced to
The Roxburgh Dam is the earliest of the large hydroelectric projects in the southern South Island of New Zealand. It lies across the Clutha River / Mata-Au, some 160 kilometres (99 mi) from Dunedin, some 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) to the north of the town of Roxburgh. The settlement of Roxburgh Hydro lies close to the western edge of the dam.
The dam was constructed by a joint venture company between Holland, Hannen & Cubitts of the UK and S A Conrad Zschokke of Switzerland between 1949 and 1953. Because of a lack of performance the initial contract was closed in 1953 and a new contract in which the original two companies were joined by Downer, a New Zealand construction company completed the main construction of the Station in 1957. The power station was commissioned over the period 1956-1962. The generating capacity was doubled in 1961-62. Today the eight-unit power station has a capacity of 320 megawatts operated by Contact Energy.
Lake Roxburgh, the lake formed behind the dam, extends for nearly 30 kilometres (19 mi) towards the town of Alexandra.
The Birecik Dam, one of the 21 dams of the Southeastern Anatolia Project of Turkey, is located on the Euphrates River 60 km (37 mi) downstream of Atatürk Dam and 8 km (5.0 mi) upstream of Birecik town 80 km (50 mi) west of Province of Şanlıurfa in the southeastern region of Turkey. It was purposed for irrigation and energy production. There is a run-of-the-river hydroelectric power plant, established in 2001, at the dam, with a power output of 672MW (six facilities at 112 MW each) can generate an average of 2.5 billion kWh per year. The Birecik dam is a structure constituted of a concrete gravity and clay core sandgravel fill with a height of 62.5 m (205 ft) from the foundation. The total catchment area is 92,700 ha (358 sq mi). The Birecik project will be realized under the status of Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) model.
The Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant is located on the Tennessee River near Decatur and Athens, Alabama, on the north side (right bank) of Wheeler Lake. The nuclear power plant is named after a ferry that operated at the site until the middle of the 20th century. The site has three General Electric boiling water reactor (BWR) nuclear generating units and is owned entirely by the Tennessee Valley Authority. Browns Ferry was TVA's first nuclear power plant; its approval occurred on June 17, 1966 and construction began in September 1966. In 1974, the time of its initial operation, it was the largest nuclear plant in the world. It was the first nuclear plant in the world to generate more than 1 gigawatt of power.
In 2006, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) renewed the licenses for all three reactors, extending them for an additional twenty years.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission defines two emergency planning zones around nuclear power plants: a plume exposure pathway zone with a radius of 10 miles (16 km), concerned primarily with exposure to, and inhalation of, airborne radioactive contamination, and an ingestion pathway zone of about 50 miles (80 km), concerned primarily with
The Inguri Dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Inguri River in Georgia. Currently it is the world's second highest concrete arch dam with a height of 272 metres (892 ft). It is located north of the town Jvari. It is part of the Inguri hydroelectric power station (HES) which is partially located in the partially recognised Abkhazia.
Soviet President Nikita Khrushchev initially proposed a major dam and hydroelectric power scheme on the Bzyb River as his favourite resort was located near the mouth of the river at Pitsunda. However, his experts informed him that a dam built on the Bzyb River would have had catastrophic effects in causing beach erosion at Pitsunda, so in the end the dam was built on the Inguri River instead, where the impact upon the coastline was assessed to be considerably less pronounced.
Construction of the Inguri dam began in 1961. The dam became temporarily operational in 1978, and was completed in 1987. In 1994, the dam was inspected by engineers of Hydro-Québec, who found that the dam was "in a rare state of dilapidation". In 1999, the European Commission granted €9.4 million to Georgia for urgent repairs at the EInguri HES, including replacing the stoplog at the
Kihansi Dam is a hydroelectric dam located on the Kihansi River at the end of the Kihansi Gorge before the convergence with the Ulanga River in Tanzania approximately 450 km southwest of the capital Dar Es Salaam.
The Kihansi Dam is a concrete gravity dam owned by the Tanzania Electric Supply Company Limited. Its construction began in July 1995 and was opened by President Benjamin W. Mkapa on 10 July 2000. It cost $36 million. Its installed capacity is 180 MW, and it helps provide aproximently 13% of the total electrical power in Tanzania.
The Kihansi Dam destroyed an 800m-high waterfall, affected over 20,000 villagers, and was directly responsible for the extinction in the wild of the Kihansi Spray Toad. The dam reduced the amount of silt and water coming down from the waterfall into the gorge by 90 percent. This led to the spray toad's microhabitat being compromised, as it reduced the amount of water spray, which the toads were directly reliant on for oxygen. This also meant that the toad may have been more susceptible to a chytrid fungus, which was believed to have been transported to the area by conservationists' boots. This chytridiomycosis, which in 2003 was confirmed to be
The Walchensee Power Plant (German: Walchenseekraftwerk) is a hydroelectric power station in Bavaria. With an installed output of 124 MW it is one the largest of its kind in Germany. It is south of Kochel, about 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) from the village of Walchensee.
The storage power station uses the head of about 200 metres (660 ft) between the Walchensee (acting as the upper reservoir, at 802 metres/2,631 ft above sea level) and the Kochelsee (599 metres/1,965 ft a.s.l.) to generate electricity. Through six 450-metre (1,480 ft) pipes connecting the two natural lakes, the water flows to the turbines of the hydro-electric plant—four Pelton and four Francis water turbines—and then into the Kochelsee. Because of the resulting variation in water level, neither lake freezes fully in the winter: the ice in each of the bays is thin and should not be walked upon. The natural outflow of the Walchensee at Niedernach—over the Jachen to the River Isar—is blocked by a weir, but the natural inflow to the lake is still insufficient to provide enough water for the operation of the storage power station, so the waters of the Rißbach river are also used.
The Isar, which flows as a whitewater river
The Sardar Sarovar Dam is a gravity dam on the Narmada River near Navagam, Gujarat, India. It is the largest dam and part of the Narmada Valley Project, a large hydraulic engineering project involving the construction of a series of large irrigation and hydroelectric multi-purpose dams on the Narmada River. The project took form in 1979 as part of a development scheme to increase irrigation and produce hydroelectricity.
It is the 30th largest dams planned on river Narmada, Sardar Sarovar Dam (SSD) is the largest structure to be built. It has a proposed final height of 163 m (535 ft) from foundation. The project will irrigate more than 18,000 km (6,900 sq mi), most of it in drought prone areas of Kutch and Saurashtra. The dam's main power plant houses six 200 MW Francis pump-turbines to generate electricity and afford a pumped-storage capability. Additionally, a power plant on the intake for the main canal contains five 50 MW Kaplan turbine-generators. The total installed capacity of the power facilities is 1,450 MW. Critics maintain that its negative environmental impacts outweigh its benefits. It has created discord between its government planners and the citizens group Narmada
There are several solar power plants in the Mojave Desert which supply power to the electricity grid. Solar Energy Generating Systems (SEGS) is the name given to nine solar power plants in the Mojave Desert which were built in the 1980s. These plants have a combined capacity of 354 megawatts (MW) making them the largest solar power installation in the world. Nevada Solar One is a solar thermal plant with a 64 MW generating capacity, located near Boulder City, Nevada. The Copper Mountain Solar Facility is a 48 MW photovoltaic power plant in Boulder City, Nevada.
The Blythe Solar Power Project is a 968 MW solar thermal power station under construction in Riverside County, California. The Ivanpah Solar Power Facility is a 370 MW facility under construction which will consist of three separate solar thermal power plants. There are also plans to build other large solar plants in the Mojave Desert.
Insolation (solar radiation) in the Mojave Desert is among the best available in the United States, and some significant population centers are located in the area. These plants can generally be built in a few years because solar plants are built almost entirely with modular, readily available
Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station (TMI) is a civilian nuclear power plant (NPP) located on Three Mile Island in the Susquehanna River, south of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. It has two separate units, known as TMI-1 and TMI-2. The plant is widely known for having been the site of the most significant accident in United States commercial nuclear energy, on March 28, 1979, when TMI-2 suffered a partial meltdown. According to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the accident resulted in no deaths or injuries to plant workers or members of nearby communities. The reactor core of TMI-2 has since been removed from the site, but the site has not been decommissioned.
Three Mile Island is so named because it is located three miles downriver from Middletown, Pennsylvania. The plant was originally built by General Public Utilities Corporation, later renamed GPU Incorporated. The plant was operated by Metropolitan Edison Company (Met-Ed), a subsidiary of the GPU Energy division. During 2001 GPU Inc. merged with FirstEnergy Corporation, through the sale of its outstanding common stock.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission defines two emergency planning zones around nuclear power plants: a
The Brunswick nuclear power plant, named for the county in which it is located, covers 1,200 acres (4.9 km²). The site is adjacent to the town of Southport, North Carolina, and to wetlands and woodlands, and was opened in 1975.
The site contains two General Electric boiling water reactors, which are cooled by water collected from the Cape Fear River and discharged into the Atlantic Ocean.
The majority owner (81.7%) and operator of the Brunswick nuclear plant is the Progress Energy Corporation. The North Carolina Eastern Municipal Power Agency owns the remaining 18.3%.
The Brunswick plants' proximity to the Cape Fear River and the Atlantic Ocean allowed the designers to take in cooling water from the Cape Fear river and discharge it into the Atlantic off the coast of Oak Island. Fish, crustaceans, and other debris are removed from the cooling water via a filtration system. The water then flows through the nuclear plant and discharges into a five mile long canal which passes under the Intra-Coastal Waterway at one point.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission defines two emergency planning zones around nuclear power plants: a plume exposure pathway zone with a radius of 10 miles (16 km),
Hinkley Point B is a nuclear power station near Bridgwater, Somerset, on the Bristol Channel coast of south west England.
The construction of Hinkley Point B, which was undertaken by a consortium known as The Nuclear Power Group (TNPG), started in 1967. The reactors were supplied by TNPG and the turbines by GEC. Hinkley Point B is an Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) which was designed to generate 1250 MW of electricity (MWe).
In March 1971 it was announced that there would be a six month delay in completion due to problems with the insulation of the concrete pressure vessel. In place of the stainless steel mesh and foil insulation that had been used on previous Magnox stations, a fibrous type of insulation supplied by Delaney Gallay, part of the Lindustries Group, had been used for the first time. During pre-operational trials, before the nuclear fuel was loaded, high levels of acoustic vibration in the gas circuit were found to be damaging the insulation tiles, and the retention plates which held the insulation in place had to be redesigned and modified within the reactor.
During further pre-operational testing, severe vibration of the fuel channel gags was detected. The fuel
The Palisades Power Plant is a nuclear power plant located on Lake Michigan, in Van Buren County's Covert Township, Michigan, on a site of 432 acres (2 km²) 5 miles south of South Haven, Michigan, USA. Palisades is owned and operated by Entergy. It was operated by the Nuclear Management Company and owned by CMS Energy Corporation prior to the sale completed on April 11, 2007. It was built at a cost of $149 million.
Its single Combustion Engineering pressurized water reactor weighs 425 tons and has steel walls 8+⁄2 inches (220 mm) thick.
The containment building is 116 feet (35 m) in diameter and 189 feet (58 m) tall, including the dome. Its concrete walls are 3+⁄2 feet (1.1 m) thick with a ⁄4-inch-thick (6.4 mm) steel liner plate. The dome roof is 3 feet (0.91 m) thick. Access is via a personnel lock measuring 3 feet 6 inches (1.07 m) by 7 feet 8 inches (2.34 m).
The Westinghouse Electric Company turbine generator can produce 725,000 kilowatts of electricity. It first generated electricity December 31, 1971.
On July 12, 2006 it was announced that the plant would be sold to Entergy. On April 11, 2007, the plant was sold to Entergy for $380 million.
The plant's original licensee was
The Shearon Harris Nuclear Generating Station is a nuclear power plant with a single Westinghouse designed pressurized-water nuclear reactor operated by Progress Energy. It was named in honor of W. Shearon Harris, former president of Carolina Power & Light (predecessor of Progress Energy). Located in New Hill, North Carolina, in the United States, about 20 miles (30 km) southwest of Raleigh, it generates 900 MWe, has a 523 foot (160 m) natural draft cooling tower, and uses Harris Lake for cooling. The reactor achieved criticality in January 1987 and began providing power commercially on May 2 of that year.
The Shearon Harris site was originally designed for four reactors, but budget issues and weak demand resulted in three of the reactors being cancelled. The final cost was nearly $3.9B, which includes the cost of safety upgrades mandated after the Three Mile Island accident.
On November 16, 2006, the operator applied to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a renewal and extension of the plant's operating license. The NRC granted the renewal on December 17, 2008, extending the license from forty years to sixty.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission defines two emergency planning
The Andasol solar power station is Europe's first commercial parabolic trough solar thermal power plant, located near Guadix in Andalusia, Spain. Its name is a combination of Andalusia and Sol (Sun in Spanish). The Andasol plant uses tanks of molten salt to store solar energy so that it can continue generating electricity even when the sun isn't shining.
Andasol is the first parabolic trough power plant in Europe, and Andasol 1 went online in March 2009. Because of the high altitude (1,100 m) and the semi-arid climate, the site has exceptionally high annual direct insolation of 2,200 kWh/m² per year. Each plant has a gross electricity output of 50 megawatts (MWe), producing around 180 gigawatt-hours (GW·h) per year (21 MW·yr per year). The collectors installed has a surface of 51 hectares (equal to 70 soccer fields); it occupies about 200 ha of land.
Andasol has a thermal storage system which absorbs part of the heat produced in the solar field during the day. This heat is then stored in a molten salt mixture of 60% sodium nitrate and 40% potassium nitrate. A turbine produces electricity using this heat during the evening, or when the sky is overcast. This process almost doubles
Fort Saint Vrain Generating Station is a natural gas powered electricity generating facility located near the town of Platteville in northern Colorado in the United States. It currently has a capacity of just under 1000MW and is owned and operated by Xcel Energy, the successor to the plant's founder, the Public Service Company of Colorado. It went online in this form in 1996.
The facility was built originally as a nuclear power plant. It operated as a nuclear generating power plant from 1977 until 1992.
Fort Saint Vrain Generating Station was built as Colorado's first and only nuclear power plant and operated as such from 1977 until 1989. It was one of two high temperature gas cooled (HTGR) power reactors in the United States. The primary coolant was helium which transferred heat to a water based secondary coolant system to drive steam generators. The reactor fuel was a combination of fissile uranium and fertile thorium microspheres dispersed within a prismatic graphite matrix. The reactor had an electrical power output of 330MW (330 MWe), generated from a thermal power 842 MW (842 MWth).
The Fort St. Vrain gas-cooled nuclear power plant was proposed in March 1965 and the
The Kola Nuclear Power Plant (Russian: Кольская АЭС [ pronunciation (help·info)]), also known as Kolsk NPP or Kolskaya NPP, is a nuclear power plant in Murmansk Oblast in north-western Russia.
The Phase 1 (No. 1 and 2 reactors) at the Kola NPP went online in 1973 and 1974, respectively, and are part of Russia’s first generation of PWR reactors (the VVER 440/230 type). The Phase 2 (No. 3 and 4 reactors) went online in 1981 and 1984 with the improved VVER 440/213 type.
Phase 1 reactors were designed to work for 30 years and were originally slated to be shut down in 2003 and 2004. However the shutdown did not happen. Instead, the operational life spans of the reactors were extended, after a massive safety upgrade effort that included about 200 safety systems upgrade projects and was financed in part by the governments of Norway, Sweden, Finland and USA.
Kola NPP produces about half of Murmansk Oblast's energy. It is of a type similar reactor to Finland's Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant, which conforms to regulatory requirements commonly considered to be the most stringent in the world.
The Kola Nuclear Power Plant has four units:
Several environment movement groups support media campaign
The James A. FitzPatrick (JAF) Nuclear Power Plant is located in the Town of Scriba, near Oswego, New York, on the southeast shore of Lake Ontario. The nuclear power plant has one General Electric boiling water reactor. The 900 acre (3.6 km²) site is also the location of two other units at the Nine Mile Point Nuclear Generating Station.
Fitzpatrick was originally built by Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation - it and half of the Nine Mile Point site were transferred to the Power Authority of the State of New York (PASNY), later called the New York Power Authority (NYPA). The reactor is now owned and operated by Entergy.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission defines two emergency planning zones around nuclear power plants: a plume exposure pathway zone with a radius of 10 miles (16 km), concerned primarily with exposure to, and inhalation of, airborne radioactive contamination, and an ingestion pathway zone of about 50 miles (80 km), concerned primarily with ingestion of food and liquid contaminated by radioactivity.
The 2010 U.S. population within 10 miles (16 km) of FitzPatrick was 35,136, an increase of 17.0 percent in a decade, according to an analysis of U.S. Census data for msnbc.com.
The Kewaunee Power Station occupies a 900-acre (3.6 km) site in Carlton, Wisconsin, 27 miles (43 km) southeast of Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA. Kewaunee was the fourth nuclear power plant built in Wisconsin, and the 44th built in the United States.
The plant's original operator was Wisconsin Public Service and it was owned by Wisconsin Public Service (59%) and Alliant Energy (41%). From 2000 to July 2005 the plant was operated by Nuclear Management Company, of Hudson, Wisconsin. The plant is currently owned and operated by Dominion Resources, of Richmond, Virginia. In 2008, Dominion applied to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for an extension of its operating license for an additional twenty years. The license was extended until 2033.
On April 27, 2006, there was a small water leak at the plant, though no radioactive material was released.
This plant has one Westinghouse pressurized water reactor. The plant has two 345 kV lines interconnecting it to the grid with one going to We Energies North Appleton Substation located 15 miles (24 km) north of Appleton, Wisconsin and the other one interconnecting with the Point Beach Nuclear Generating Station located just a short distance
The Koman Hydroelectric Power Station is a large hydroelectric power station, for which a dam on the Drin River was built. The dam is near the settlement of Koman, northern Albania. It is the second of three dams on the Drin River; the Fierza Hydroelectric Power Station upstream, and the Vau i Dejës Hydroelectric Power Station downstream.
Completed in 1986, the power station consists of four turbines of French origin with a nominal capacity of 150 MW each, totalling the installed capacity to 600 MW.
Poulaphouca Reservoir, officially Pollaphuca (from Irish: Poll a' Phúca, meaning "the Púca's hole"), is an active reservoir (for both water supply and electricity generation) and area of wild bird conservation in west County Wicklow, Ireland. It is also known locally as "Blessington Lakes".
It was created between 1937 and 1947, with flooding beginning in at 10 am on 3 March 1940 by damming the River Liffey at Poulaphouca as part of the Electricity Supply Board project to build a second hydroelectric station in Ireland, Ardnacrusha on the River Shannon being the first.
The reservoir is one of two major sources of Dublin's water supply, the other major supply being Vartry Reservoir in east Wicklow.
Between 1938 and 1940, 76 houses were demolished, and the bridges at Humphreystown, Baltyboys and Burgage blown up, in anticipation of the flooding of the valley for the Poulaphouca hydroelectric powerstation.
The reservoir is sometimes known as "lakes" due to its shape, which arises because it lies in not one but two river valleys - that of the Liffey and, primarily, that of the King's River. The King's River joined the Liffey at Baltiboys, at which point it was the larger flow, and when
The Sayano–Shushenskaya Dam (Russian: Сая́но-Шу́шенская гидроэлектроста́нция, Sayano-Shushenskaya Gidroelektrostantsiya) is located on the Yenisei River, near Sayanogorsk in Khakassia, Russia. It is the largest power plant in Russia and the sixth-largest hydroelectric plant in the world, by average power generation. The full legal name of the power plant, OJSC [Open Joint-Stock Society] P. S. Neporozhny Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP [hydro power plant], refers to the Soviet-time Minister of Energy and Electrification Pyotr Neporozhny. The head of the power plant is Valery Kyari.
The plant is operated by RusHydro. As of 2009, it was the largest power plant in Russia and the world's sixth-largest hydroelectric plant by average power generation. It provides more than a quarter of RusHydro's generation capacity. The plant operated ten type РО-230/833-0-677 hydro turbines manufactured at the Leningradsky Metallichesky Zavod, each with a capacity of 640 MW at 194-metre (636 ft) head. The total installed capacity of the plant is 6,400 MW; its average annual production is 23.5 TWh, which peaked in 2006 at 26.8 TWh.
The station's constructions include the dam, a power plant building located near
The Tummel hydro-electric power scheme for the generation of hydro-electric power is located in the Grampian Mountains, between Loch Ericht, Loch Rannoch and Loch Tummel, in Perth and Kinross, Scotland.
Department of Trade and Industry statistics – PDF file
Hope Creek Nuclear Generating Station is a thermal nuclear power plant located in Lower Alloways Creek Township, New Jersey, in the Mid-Atlantic United States, on the same site as the two-unit Salem Nuclear Power Plant. The plant is owned and operated by PSEG Nuclear LLC. It has one unit (one reactor), a boiling water reactor (BWR) manufactured by GE. The complex was designed for two units, but the second unit was cancelled in 1981. The Hope Creek reactor uses the same "Mark I" containment style found in the Fukushima Daiichi NPP and a number of other reactors worldwide, although other aspects of the plant design differ. It has a generating capacity of 1,268 MWe. The plant came online on July 25, 1986, licensed to operate until 2026. In 2009, PSEG applied for a 20-year license renewal, which it received in 2011.
Hope Creek is one of four licensed nuclear power reactors in New Jersey. The others are the two units at the adjacent Salem plant, and the one unit at Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. As of January 1, 2005, New Jersey ranked 10th among the 31 states with nuclear capacity for total MWe generated. In 2003, nuclear electricity generated over one half of the electricity
Batman Dam is one of the 22 dams of the Southeastern Anatolia Project of Turkey, built on the Batman River in southeastern of Turkey. There is a hydroelectric power plant, established in 1998, at the dam, with a power output of 198 MW.
Magat Dam is a large rock-fill dam on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. The dam is located on Magat River, a major tributary of Cagayan River. Construction of the dam started in 1975 and completed in 1982. Magat Dam is one of the largest dams in the Philippines and has two primary purposes: as a source of irrigation water and as a provider of hydroelectric power.
The construction and appurtenant structures was authorized by P.D. 693 signed on May 7, 1975 by the late President Ferdinand E. Marcos. The Magat Dam was constructed in 1978 and inaugurated by the Late Pres. Ferdinand E. Marcos on October 27, 1982 and started operations in 1983.
Implementation of this multipurpose project was based on the preliminary study conducted in 1973 by the National Irrigation Administration (NIA) with the assistance of the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).
Subsequent detailed and extensive dam site investigation and engineering studies further confirmed the feasibility of what is now known as NIA's most daring infrastructure project and one of Asia's biggest dams today.
It was Southeast Asia's first large
Kemijoki (Swedish: Kemi älv, Northern Sami: Giemajohka), with its 550 km (340 mi) length, is the longest river in Finland. It runs through Kemijärvi and Rovaniemi before reaching the Gulf of Bothnia at Kemi.
At Rovaniemi the Ounasjoki river merges with Kemijoki.
The first hydroelectric plant on Kemijoki was constructed in 1946 at Isohaara. A total of 15 power plants have been constructed so far. The plants are owned by Kemijoki Oy and Pohjolan Voima Oy. In 2003 the plants produced a total of 4.3 TWh, which was about 34.5% of Finland's total hydroelectric production.
Media related to Kemijoki at Wikimedia Commons
The Kurobe Dam (黒部ダム) or Kuroyon Dam (黒四ダム), is a variable-radius arch dam on the Kurobe River in Toyama Prefecture on the island of Honshū, Japan. It supports the 335 MW Kurobe No. 4 Hydropower Plant and is owned by Kansai Electric Power Company. At 186 metres (610 ft) high, it is the tallest dam in Japan. It was constructed between 1956 and 1963 at a cost of ¥51.3 billion yen. The project was a difficult engineering feat for the rapidly growing post–World War II Japan, and claimed the lives of 171 people.
In 1951, the Kansai Electric Power Company was formed to provide electric power for the Kansai region of Japan. Shortly after their formation, the area suffered from drought which caused power rationing. The drought along with the rapid growth of post–World War II Japan pushed the company to increase their generating capacity. After a series of geological and hydrological studies of the Kurobe River and Gorge, it was announced in late 1955 that the Kurobe Dam would be constructed.
In July 1956, construction on the dam began. Problems quickly arose while transporting material to the construction site as only one small railway existed through the narrow gorge. Kansai decided to
The Mihama Nuclear Power Plant (美浜発電所, Mihama hatsudensho, Mihama NPP) is operated by The Kansai Electric Power Company, Inc. and is in the town of Mihama, Fukui Prefecture, about 320 km west of Tokyo. It is on a site that is 520,000 m of which 60% is green space.
The Mihama NPP has been notable beyond most nuclear plants due to the severity of accidents that have happened there, the 2004 steam explosion in particular.
Unit 2 steam generator had one tube fully break. This triggered a SCRAM with full activation of the Emergency Core Cooling System. Eventually, a small amount of radiation was released to the outside.
Unit 2 steam generators had two holes open simultaneously. There was no radioactive release to the environment.
On 9 August 2004, an accident occurred in a building housing turbines for the Mihama 3 reactor. Hot water and steam leaking from a broken pipe killed four workers and resulted in seven others being injured. The accident had been called Japan's worst nuclear power accident before the crisis at Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant.
The Mihama 3 is an 826 megawatts electric, 3-loop Westinghouse type pressurized-water reactor (PWR) which has been in service since 1976.
Obninsk Nuclear Power Station, (Russian: Обнинская АЭС, Obninskaja AES [ pronunciation (help·info)]), was built in the "Science City" of Obninsk, about 110 km southwest of Moscow. It was the first civilian nuclear power station in the world. The plant is also known as APS-1 Obninsk (Atomic Power Station 1 Obninsk).
The single reactor unit at the plant, AM-1 ("Атом Мирный", Russian for Atom Mirny, or "peaceful atom"), had a total electrical capacity of 6 MW and a net capacity of around 5 MWe. Thermal output was 30 MW. It was a prototype design using a graphite moderator and water coolant. This reactor was a forerunner of the RBMK reactors.
Construction started on January 1, 1951, startup was on June 1, 1954, and the first grid connection was made on June 26, 1954. For around 4 years, till opening of Siberian Nuclear Power Station, Obninsk remained the only nuclear power reactor in the Soviet Union; the power plant remained active until April 29, 2002 when it was finally shut down.
The Perry Nuclear Power Plant is located on a 1,100-acre (450 ha) site on Lake Erie, 40 miles (65 km) northeast of Cleveland in North Perry, Ohio, USA. The nuclear power plant is owned by First Energy Nuclear Operating Corporation.
Perry was the 100th power reactor licensed in the United States.
The reactor is a General Electric BWR-6 boiling water reactor design, with a Mark III containment design. The original core power level of 3,579 megawatts thermal was increased to 3,758 megawatts thermal in 2000, making Perry one of the largest BWRs in the United States.
Built at a cost of $6 billion, Perry-1 is one of the most expensive power plants ever constructed.
Perry was originally designed as a two-unit installation, but construction on Unit 2 was suspended in 1985 and formally cancelled in 1994. At the time of cancellation, all of the major buildings and structures for the second unit were completed, including the 500-foot-tall (150 m) cooling tower. It is possible that a second unit could be constructed on the site, but current economical and regulatory conditions are not conducive to doing so (in addition to back taxes that would be due to the "abandon in place" designations on
The Salto Grande Dam is a large hydroelectric dam on the Uruguay River, located between Concordia, Argentina, and Salto, Uruguay; thus is shared between the two countries.
The construction of the dam began in 1974 and was completed in 1979. Power is generated by fourteen Kaplan turbines, totalling the installed capacity to 1,890 MW. The dam passes approximately 64,000 m (2,300,000 cu ft) of water per second, compared to the current average flow of the Uruguay River at 4,622 m (163,224 cu ft). The reservoir has a total area of 783 km (302 sq mi), while its maximum dimensions are 140 × 9 km (87 × 5.6 mi).
Baglihar Dam (Hindi: बगलिहार बाँध Baglihār Bāndh), also known as Baglihar Hydroelectric Power Project, is a run-of-the-river power project on the Chenab River in the southern Doda district of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. This project was conceived in 1992, approved in 1996 and construction began in 1999. The project is estimated to cost USD $1 billion. The first phase of the Baglihar Dam was completed in 2004. With the second phase completed on 10 October 2008, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh of India dedicated the 450-MW Baglihar hydroelectric power project to the nation.
After construction began in 1999, Pakistan claimed that design parameters of Baglihar project violated the Indus Water Treaty (full text) of 1960. The treaty provided India with exclusive control over three eastern rivers, Near Beacon tunnel while granting Pakistan exclusive control to three western rivers, including Chenab River. However it contained provisions for India to establish river-run power projects with limited reservoir capacity and flow control needed for feasible power generation. Availing this provision India established several run-of-the-river projects, with Pakistan objecting to these.
Glomfjord power plant is a 6*20 MW hydroelectric power plant in Glomfjord in the municipality of Meløy in Nordland county, Norway. It gets its water from Nedre Navervatn lake which is located about 465 meters above the sea level, but there are plans to start taking water also from Fykanvatn lake.
The plant is currently owned by Statkraft.
The power plant was built in 1918 and was designed by architect Olaf Nordhagen. In 1942, during the Second World War an Anglo-Norwegian raid, Operation Musketoon attacked against then German-held power plant.
The Rana Pratap Sagar Dam is a gravity masonry dam of 53.8 metres (177 ft) height built on the Chambal River at Rawatbhata in Rajasthan in India. It is part of integrated scheme of a cascade development of the river involving four projects starting with the Gandhi Sagar Dam in the upstream reach (48 kilometres (30 mi) upstream) in Madhya Pradesh and the Jawahar Sagar Dam on the downstream (28 kilometres (17 mi) downstream) with a terminal structure of the Kota Barrage (28 kilometres (17 mi) further downstream) in Rajasthan for irrigation.
The direct benefit from the dam is hydropower generation of 172 MW (with four units of 43 MW capacity each) at the dam toe powerhouse adjoining the spillway, with releases received from the Gandhi Sagar Dam and the additional storage created at the dam by the intercepted catchment area. The estimated generation potential of 473.0 GWh of generation has been exceeded in most years since its commissioning. The power station was officially declared open on 9 February 1970 by Indira Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India. The dam and power plant are named after the warrior Maharaja Rana Pratap of Rajasthan.
The dam is located on the Chambal River
The Sélingué Dam is a single purpose hydroelectric dam located in the Sikasso Region, on the Sankarani River, one of the affluents of the Niger River. It is an important center of energy production in Mali surpassed only by the Manantali Dam on the Bafing River.
Its construction, at the cost of 140 million US dollars, was financed by several backers.
With a power output of 44 megawatts, the dam has an energy output of 200 million kilowatt-hours per year. The dam provides Bamako, Kati, Koulikoro, Ségou, Fana, Dioïla, Yanfolila and Kalana with electricity. It was brought into service in 1980, and renovated between 1996 and 2001.
Its retaining basin forms the 409 km artificial Lake Sélingué, which allows agriculture on the irrigated perimeters, managed by the Office of Rural Development of Sélingué, as well as fishing. The fish available in Bamako mainly come from Lake Sélingué.
The Three Gorges Dam is a hydroelectric dam that spans the Yangtze River by the town of Sandouping, located in Yiling District, Yichang, Hubei province, China. The Three Gorges Dam is the world's largest power station in terms of installed capacity (22,500 MW) but is second to Itaipu Dam with regard to the generation of electricity annually.
Except for a ship lift, the dam project was completed and fully functional as of July 4, 2012, when the last of the main turbines in the underground plant began production. Each main turbine has a capacity of 700 MW. The dam body was completed in 2006. Coupling the dam's 32 main turbines with two smaller generators (50 MW each) to power the plant itself, the total electric generating capacity of the dam is 22,500 MW.
As well as producing electricity, the dam is intended to increase the Yangtze River's shipping capacity and reduce the potential for floods downstream by providing flood storage space. The Chinese government regards the project as a historic engineering, social and economic success, with the design of state-of-the-art large turbines, and a move toward limiting greenhouse gas emissions. However, the dam flooded archaeological and
Velebit Pumped Storage Power Plant (Croatian: Reverzibilna hidroelektrana Velebit) is a pumped-storage power plant in Croatia that has two turbines with a nominal capacity of 138 MW each, having a total capacity of 276 MW.
The Windorah Solar Farm is Ergon Energy's first solar farm trial near the town of Windorah in Queensland. The plant uses five concentrated solar dishes or reflectors which were manuafactured and installed by Solar Systems. This is expected to save up to 100,000 litres of diesel fuel per year. The integration of solar farm and diesel power is a first for Ergon Energy.
The dishes contain 112 square mirrors each measuring 1.1 m across. The five solar reflectors sit atop 13 m masts and can rotate 360°. The array will produce about 180 kilowatts of electricity for up to 10 months of the year. The total cost of the project was A$4.5 million with $1 million being provided by the federal government.
The solar farm was opened in December 2008, and on sunny days will supply the total daytime electricity requirements for the town of Windorah, with a population of 100. When the solar power runs low the existing diesel power station provides electricity. Not all of the dishes are used all the time. Some dishes are parked depending on the town's energy requirements.
Wolf Creek Generating Station, a nuclear power plant located near Burlington, Kansas, occupies 9,818 acres (40 km²) of the total 11,800 acres (48 km²) controlled by the owner. Wolf Creek, dammed to create Coffey County Lake (formerly Wolf Creek Lake), provides not only the name, but water for the condensers.
This plant has one Westinghouse pressurized water reactor which came on line on June 4, 1985. The reactor was rated at 1,170 MW(e). A new turbine generator rotor was installed in 2011 that increased electrical output to approximately 1250 MW (e). The reactor output remained unchanged at 3565 MW (th)
On October 4, 2006, the operator applied to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a renewal and extension of the plant's operating license. The NRC granted the renewal on November 20, 2008, extending the license from forty years to sixty.
The Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, a Delaware corporation, operates the power plant. The ownership is divided between Kansas Gas & Electric Co. (47%) (now known as Westar Energy), Kansas City Power and Light Company (47%), and Kansas Electric Power Cooperative, Inc. (6%).
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission defines two emergency
The Srisailam Dam is a dam constructed across the Krishna River at Srisailam in the Kurnool district in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India and is the 2nd largest capacity hydroelectric project in the country.
The dam was constructed in a deep gorge in the Nallamala Hills, 300 m (980 ft) above sea level. It is 512 m (1,680 ft) long, 145 m (476 ft) high and has 12 radial crest gates. It has a reservoir of 800 km (310 sq mi). The left bank power station houses 6 × 150 MW reversible Francis-pump turbines (for pumped-storage) and the right bank contains 7 × 110 MW Francis-turbine generators.
The Srisailam project began in 1960, initially as a power project, across the Krishna, near Srisailam in Andhra Pradesh. After several delays, the main dam was finally completed twenty years later in 1981. In the meantime the project was converted into a multipurpose facility with a generating capacity of 770 MW by its second stage which was expected to be completed in 1987. The dam is to provide water for an estimated 2,000 km (770 sq mi) with its catchment area of 206,040 km (79,552 sq mi) and water spread of 1,595 km (616 sq mi). Under the right branch canal 790 km (310 sq mi) in Kurnool and
Berkeley nuclear power station is a disused Magnox power station situated on the bank of the River Severn in Gloucestershire, England.
The construction of the power station, which was undertaken by a consortium of AEI and John Thompson began in 1956. It had two Magnox reactors producing 276 megawatts (MW) in total – enough electricity on a typical day to serve an urban area the size of Bristol. The reactors were supplied by The Nuclear Power Group (TNPG) and the turbines by AEI.
Reactor 2 was shut down in October 1988, followed by Reactor 1 in March 1989. Berkeley was the first commercial nuclear power station in the United Kingdom to be decommissioned following its closure in 1989. So far the nuclear decommissioning process has involved the removal of all fuel from the site in 1992, and the demolition of structures such as the turbine hall in 1995 and cooling ponds in 2001. The next step of decommissioning will be the care and maintenance stage of the nuclear reactor structures, scheduled to commence in 2026, until radioactive decay means that they can be demolished and the site completely cleared between 2070 and 2080.
In March 2012 five of the 310-tonne boilers were removed from
The Karakaya Dam is one of the 21 dams of the Southeastern Anatolia Project of Turkey, built on the Euphrates River and completed in 1987. The hydroelectric dam generates power with six units of 300 MW, totalling the installed capacity to 1,800 MW.
The Euphrates River is an important water source for both Syria and Iraq, thus both countries expressed concerns about the Karakaya Dam construction project. A treaty guaranteed a minimum water flow of 500 m (18,000 cu ft) through the dam.
The Maruyama Dam (丸山ダム, Maruyama Damu) is a dam on the border of Mitake and Yaotsu in Gifu Prefecture, Japan. It was built on the upper reaches of the Kiso River system. It is a gravity dam that is 98.2 m (322 ft) tall. It was built after World War II as part of a large, nationwide dam building project.
Sosui Gorge (蘇水峡 Sosui-kyō) was formed by the completion of the dam. Along with Ena Gorge further upstream, the area is part of the Hida-Kisogawa Quasi-National Park.
The Drop Hydro Power Station is a hydroelectric power station on the Mulwala Canal, near Berrigan, New South Wales, Australia. It has one turbine, with a generating capacity of 2.5 MW of electricity.
The power station was completed in November 2002, and is Australia's first hydroelectric power station built on an irrigation canal.
The Ffestiniog Power Station is a 360 MW pumped-storage hydroelectricity scheme near Ffestiniog, in Gwynedd, north-west Wales, United Kingdom. The power station at the lower reservoir has four water turbines, which can generate 360 megawatts of electricity within 60 seconds of the need arising. The station, commissioned in 1963, was the first major pumped storage system in the UK. The upper reservoir is Llyn Stwlan which discharges 27 m/s (953 cu ft/s) of water to the turbine generators at the power station on the bank of Tan-y-Grisiau reservoir.
The plant is operated by First Hydro, a UK company owned by a joint venture of International Power and Mitsui & Co., and has an average efficiency of 72-73% - i.e. it uses 39% more electricity (when pumping the water back up to the Llyn Stwlan) than it actually produces.
River Bend Nuclear Generating Station is a nuclear power station on a 3,300-acre (13 km) site near St. Francisville, Louisiana, approximately 30 miles (50 km) north of Baton Rouge. The plant has a General Electric 978 MW boiling water reactor, which began operation on June 16, 1986.
River Bend is operated by Entergy Nuclear and owned by Entergy Gulf States, Inc.
Unlike the Waterford Nuclear Generating Station downriver in Hahnville, River Bend continued operation throughout Hurricane Katrina in 2005. The plant was shut down during Hurricane Gustav in 2008.
Unit 2 was proposed in 1973, but canceled in 1984.
On September 25, 2008, Entergy filed a Combined Construction and Operating License (COL) application with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a new nuclear reactor at River Bend, of the 1,550 MWe Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) type. The reactor's cost is an estimated $6.2 billion. The NRC's review of the 13,000-page application will take at least 36 months.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission defines two emergency planning zones around nuclear power plants: a plume exposure pathway zone with a radius of 10 miles (16 km), concerned primarily with exposure
The Tsuruga Nuclear Power Plant (敦賀発電所, Tsuruga hatsudensho, Tsuruga NPP) is a nuclear power plant located in the town of Tsuruga, Fukui Prefecture. It is operated by the Japan Atomic Power Company. The total site area amounts to 5.12 km (1,265 acres) with 4.80 km, or 94% of it, being green area that the company is working to preserve.
The Tsuruga site is a dual site with the decommissioned prototype Fugen Nuclear Power Plant.
The construction of two new nuclear reactors is currently planned. However, there have been many delays due to the need for seismic upgrades, even before the March, 2011 earthquake. As of September 2012, construction has not begun on the two new plants, although a tunnel has been completed linking the tip of the peninsula with the exiting No 1 and No 2 sites.
The Tsuruga #1 reactor is oldest commercial reactor in Japan. It was shut down for a safety inspection on 26 January 2011 and has yet to be restarted.
On 8 November 2011 a group of 40 citizens of Otsu prefecture Kyodo started a law suit at the Otsu District Court against Japan Atomic Power Company. They asked for a provisional court order to delay the restart of the two reactors at the Tsuruga Nuclear
Benmore Dam is the largest dam within the Waitaki power scheme, located in the Canterbury Region of New Zealand's South Island. There are eight other power stations in the valley.
The dam is the largest earth-filled water-retaining structure in New Zealand. Its core is low permeability clay material, supported by two massive shoulders of river gravel. Lake Benmore has a volume of 12.5 million cubic metres, about 1.5 times as much water as Wellington Harbour. The dam's spillway can cope with 3,400 cubic metres of water per second, about 10 times the mean river flow. With a generating capacity of 540 MW, Benmore Power Station is the second largest hydro station in New Zealand.
The $62 million construction of the dam and hydroelectric station began in 1958. It was commissioned in 1965, and officially opened by Prime Minister Sir Keith Holyoake on 15 May that year. It was built for the New Zealand Electricity Department; since 1999 it has been owned and operated by Meridian Energy.
From 2008 to 2010 the six turbines are being refurbished at a cost of $67 million. This will enable a 5% reduction in water use for the same generation capacity, increasing annual generation by 70 GWh. New
The Chaira Pumped Storage Hydro Power Plant (Chaira PSHPP) was built in Rila mountains, about 100 km southeast of capital city, Sofia. Chaira has generating capacity of 864 MW and a pumping capacity of 788 MW, and is thus the largest pumped-storage plant in southeast Europe. The power plant is equipped with four reversible Francis pump-turbines, each rated at 216 MW in the generating mode, and 197 MW in pumping mode. Units 1 and 2 have been in operation since 1995, and that time Chaira was still first in the world as regards the highest head for a single-stage pump turbine (690 m generating and 701 pumping). Units 3 and 4 came online in 1999. The pump-turbines and motor - generators were supplied by Toshiba, and three of them were manufactured under Japanese supervision in Bulgaria. The upper compensating basin for Chaira is the Belmeken reservoir that is connected to the Chaira pumped storage hydro power plant by two headrace tunnels with a diameter of 4.20 m and two penstocks with diameter 4.40 m, reducing to 4.20 m.
The Cherokee Nuclear Power Plant is an uncompleted energy project 10 miles (16 km) outside of Gaffney, South Carolina, United States. In the early 1970s, Duke Power started construction on a three-reactor nuclear power plant at the site. However, the project stalled due to economic problems by the early 1980s, leading to the project's eventual abandonment. In 1987, the power plant was the site of an underwater film studio built by Hollywood director James Cameron, for the film The Abyss.
On December 13th of 2007, Duke Energy filed an application with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to construct a new $5-6 billion two-unit nuclear power plant at William States Lee III Nuclear Generating Station near the Cherokee Nuclear Power Plant site. In November of 2008 the estimated cost to complete the project was raised to $11 billion.
Duke originally planned three reactors on the property. One reactor was partially completed when work was halted in 1982 and they scrapped plans for the other two. Duke halted construction at the site in 1983 after spending $633 million (or about $1.2 billion U.S. adjusted for inflation, as of April 11, 2007). An uncertain economy, stringent federal
Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant (Russian: Ленинградская атомная электростанция; Ленинградская АЭС ( pronunciation (help·info))) is a nuclear power plant located in the town of Sosnovy Bor in Russia's Leningrad Oblast, on the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland, some 70 kilometres (43 mi) to the west of the city centre of Saint Petersburg. It consists of four nuclear reactors of RBMK-1000 type. These reactors are similar to reactors No. 1 and 2 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Two units of VVER-1200 type are under construction at Power Plant II to replace the current RBMK reactors when they reach the end of their service life.
On 25 October 2008, Saint Petersburg Atomenergoproekt began concreting the foundation plate of the reactor building of Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant II Unit 1. Cost of the project is estimated at almost 70 billion Russian ruble (RUR). A construction license was issued on 22 July 2009.
Finland's national public-broadcasting company claims that Russia plans to shut down the oldest reactor on site due to swelling and cracking of the graphite moderator.
The plant has agreed to report on all incidents that threaten the safety of the environment to neighboring
Marble Hill Nuclear Power Station is an unfinished nuclear power plant in Saluda Township, Jefferson County, near Hanover, Indiana, USA. In 1984, the Public Service Company of Indiana announced it was abandoning the half-finished nuclear power plant, on which $2.5 billion had already been spent.
Construction at Marble Hill began in 1977 and ended in 1984, when the Public Service Company of Indiana (PSI)(now Duke Energy) abandoned the half-finished nuclear power plant. With $2.5 billion spent and, as the most expensive nuclear construction project ever abandoned, Marble Hill was a devastating setback for the troubled nuclear power industry, which saw more than 100 plant cancellations following the Three Mile Island accident near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, in March 1979. On March 18, 2005 demolition of the unfinished Madison, Indiana, facility began.
Long before 1984, Marble Hill had been a controversial enterprise. During 1978 and 1979, regional Ohio Valley environmental advocacy group The Paddlewheel Alliance staged two non-violent "occupations" of the PSI property. As ongoing local support dwindled, Marble Hill's fate rested with Indiana's State government and PSI sought state
The Armenian Nuclear Power Plant (Armenian: Հայկական ատոմային էլեկտրակայան), also known as Oktemberyan or Medzamor Nuclear Power Plant, was built during the 1970s, about thirty kilometres west of the Armenian capital of Yerevan in the town of Metsamor. The plant was constructed with two VVER-440 Model V230 nuclear reactors. The Metsamor plant is one of just a few remaining nuclear power reactors that were built without primary containment structures. Metsamor lies on some of Earth's most earthquake-prone terrain.
The power plant produces about 40% of Armenia's electricity. It was closed due to the 1988 earthquake in Armenia. However, economic and transportation blockades by Azerbaijan and its ally Turkey, which created energy shortages in Armenia, caused the Armenian government to decide to reopen the plant in 1993. The Unit 2 reactor was brought back into operation on October 26, 1995. The plant has been operated by Russian company Inter RAO UES since 2003, as part of a five year term to help pay off Armenia's debts. The resources of the working Armenian nuclear power plant will be exhausted by 2016.
The authorities in Yerevan formally agreed in 2007 to close the Metsamor plant
The Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant is an electricity-generating facility located in Red Wing, Minnesota along the Mississippi River, adjacent to the Prairie Island Indian Community reservation. The nuclear power plant, which began operating in 1973, has two nuclear reactors (pressurized water reactors) manufactured by Westinghouse that produce a total 1,076 megawatts of power. Units 1 and 2 are licensed to operate through 2033 and 2034, respectively.
The plant is owned by Northern States Power Company (NSP), a subsidiary of Xcel Energy, and is operated by Xcel Energy.
It is one of two active nuclear facilities in Minnesota and has proven to be the most controversial due to the storage of nuclear waste in large steel casks on-site, an area which is a floodplain of the Mississippi.
In April 2008, Xcel requested that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) renew the licenses of both reactors, extending them for an additional twenty years. The license renewals were approved in June 2011.
The company has also requested the use of a similar storage system at its Monticello plant, which is currently licensed through 2030.
In May 2006 repair workers at the plant were exposed
Solar Energy Generating Systems (SEGS), at 354 MW, is the largest solar energy generating facility in the world. It consists of nine solar power plants in California's Mojave Desert, where insolation is among the best available in the United States. SEGS I–II (44 MW) are located at Daggett (34°51′45″N 116°49′45″W / 34.8625°N 116.82917°W / 34.8625; -116.82917), SEGS III–VII (150 MW) are installed at Kramer Junction, and SEGS VIII–IX (160 MW) are placed at Harper Lake (35°02′N 117°21′W / 35.033°N 117.35°W / 35.033; -117.35). NextEra Energy Resources operates and partially owns the plants located at Kramer Junction and Harper Lake.
The plants have a 354 MW installed capacity, making it the largest installation of solar plants of any kind in the world. The average gross solar output for all nine plants at SEGS is around 75 MWe — a capacity factor of 21%. In addition, the turbines can be utilized at night by burning natural gas.
NextEra claims that the solar plants power 232,500 homes (during the day, at peak power) and displace 3,800 tons of pollution per year that would have been produced if the electricity had been provided by fossil fuels, such as oil.
The facilities have a
Trawsfynydd (Welsh pronunciation: [trausˈvənɨ̞ð]; Welsh for "across [the] mountain") is a village in Gwynedd, Wales, adjacent to the A470 north of Dolgellau near Blaenau Ffestiniog.
The total parish area is 12,830 hectares with a population of just under 1000 – the area is therefore sparsely populated with each hectare inhabited by an average 0.07 persons. The village is typical of several Welsh villages. There is one grocer shop, one public house, a newsagent, garage, petrol service station, hardware shop and a branch of a large agricultural merchants.
During the Second World War, the War Office used a site near Trawsfynydd for training exercises. Its continued use for training exercises following the war was the subject of protest by Plaid Cymru, which also challenged the UK government's continued military conscription in peace time. Other locations in Wales used for training exercises included Preseli Hills and Tregaron.
Trawsfynydd used to be served by a section of the Great Western Railway branch line which ran from Bala to Blaenau Ffestiniog. To the north of the station the army built its own station to serve the large camp nearby (camp detail). Today Trawsfynydd railway
The Arimine Dam (有峰ダム, Arimine Damu) is located in Toyama, Toyama Prefecture, Japan built upon the Wada River. The two bends in the middle of the dam is the most defining feature. The Arine Lake is an artificial lake that was created by construction of the dam.
The tributaries of the Jōganji River were found to be very attractive for hydroelectric power in the early 20th century due to their high flow and mountainous geography. This caught the attention of the electric utility of the time, the Etchu Electric Power Company, and for the purpose of electricity built a dam on the Wada River. At around the same time the Toyama Prefecture was considering a dam for purposes of flood control and irrigation. Construction of a prefecture managed dam began before World War II but the start of the war halted construction. Later, the Hokuriku Electric Power Company inherited the unfinished dam due to restructuring of the power companies. The plans changed to make the primary purpose of the dam electricity production and was finished in the 50s. It now contributes to electric power as well as irrigation and flood control.
Braidwood Generating Station is located in Will County in northeastern Illinois, USA. The nuclear power plant serves Chicago and northern Illinois with electricity. The plant was originally built by Commonwealth Edison company, and subsequently transferred to Com Ed's parent company, Exelon Corporation.
This station has two Westinghouse pressurized water reactors. Unit #1 came online in July 1987. Unit #2 came online in May 1988. The units are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to operate until 2026 and 2027.
The recent power uprates at Braidwood make it the largest nuclear plant in the state, generating a net total of 2,242 megawatts. However the three largest Illinois nuclear power plants are nearly equal in generating capability as LaSalle County Nuclear Generating Station is only 2 MW less in capacity than Braidwood and Byron Nuclear Generating Station is only 4 MW less than LaSalle.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission defines two emergency planning zones around nuclear power plants: a plume exposure pathway zone with a radius of 10 miles (16 km), concerned primarily with exposure to, and inhalation of, airborne radioactive contamination, and an ingestion pathway zone
The Clyde Dam, New Zealand's third largest hydroelectric dam, is built on the Clutha River near the town of Clyde. It is owned and operated by Contact Energy.
There was considerable controversy when the dam was planned because it would flood many houses and orchards upstream at Cromwell, as well as the scenic Cromwell Gorge, which was a highlight of the then young but growing New Zealand tourism industry. Construction also required replacement of a stretch of highway and the closure of the Otago Central Railway beyond Clyde, though materials for the dam would provide significant traffic for the rest of the line which was experiencing a drop in freight tonnage. To mitigate these problems, the Kirk Labour government decided a low dam should be built at Clyde. This decision was overturned by the following National government, who preferred a high dam.
There was also debate about whether the dam was needed. National's support for a controversial aluminium smelter at Aramoana, another of Prime Minister Sir Robert Muldoon's Think Big projects of the late 1970s and early 1980s, was one justification propounded for the dam. An initial grant of water rights for the dam was overturned by the
The Monowai Power Station, fed by the Monowai River from Lake Monowai in Southland, New Zealand, was one of the earliest hydroelectric power stations in the country. Originally commissioned in 1926, it was recently overhauled and now contains modern turbines and plant, though the original buildings are still in use. It is owned by Pioneer Generation, who currently have a resource consent valid for 30 more years of operation. Before its recent refurbishment, the station produced 6.3 megawatt (MW) and 35-40 gigawatt hours (GWh) of electricity per year. Generating capacity has now increased to 7.6 MW.
The first considerations for a Monowai hydro power plant were raised as early as 1914, when the Council of the Southland League investigated the natural resources in the area. The potential energy of the 46.93 m fall from Lake Monowai into the Waiau River was seen as ideal. From the 1920s onward, more and more local areas in Southland began to be connected to the electricity grid, eventually leading to a start on work for a Monowai power station in 1921, led by H P Thomas as the Chief Engineer.
The construction was funded by a £750,000 loan at 6% interest, with much of the equipment for
Nine Mile Point Nuclear Station is a two-unit nuclear power plant located in the Town of Scriba, approximately five miles northeast of Oswego, New York, on the shore of Lake Ontario. The 900 acre (3.6 km²) site is also occupied by the Fitzpatrick Nuclear Generating Station.
Nine Mile Point is operated by CENG, a joint venture between Exelon and Électricité de France. CENG is also the sole owner of Unit 1, and owns 82% of Unit 2 (Long Island Power Authority owns the remaining 18%).
Both units are General Electric boiling water reactors. Unit 1, a BWR-2, went online in 1969 and has a rated capacity of 609 MW. It is one of the two oldest nuclear reactors still in service in the United States; New Jersey's Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station is the other. Unit 2, a BWR-5, has been in operation since 1988 and has a rated capacity of 1,148 MW. Construction of both units, along with neighboring Fitzpatrick, was commissioned by Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation. Fitzpatrick was sold immediately upon completion, while Niagara Mohawk retained its share of the Nine Mile Point units until 2001, when it sold them to Constellation.
On October 31, 2006, Constellation announced that the NRC had
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission Region II is one of the regions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia, oversees the south-eastern United States.
Region II consists of 19 nuclear power plants.
The Pubugou Dam (simplified Chinese: 瀑布沟大坝; traditional Chinese: 瀑布溝大壩; pinyin: Pùbùgōu Dàbà) is a concrete face rock-fill embankment dam on the Dadu River, a tributary of the Yangtze River in Sichuan Province (located in southwestern China). The main purpose of the dam is hydroelectric power generation and its total generating capacity is 3,300 MW.
Construction started on March 30, 2004, the first generator was put into operation in December 2009 and the rest by March 2010. In 2004, the construction site was overrun by tens of thousands of protesters, though the only eventual result was the delay of construction by one year. The protests were about evictions stemming from planned flooding.
The Bakun Dam is an embankment dam located in Sarawak, Malaysia on the Balui River, a tributary or source of the Rajang River and some sixty kilometers west of Belaga. As part of the project, the second tallest concrete-faced rockfill dam in the world would be built. It is planned to generate 2,400 megawatts (MW) of electricity once completed.
The purpose for the dam was to meet growing demand for electricity. However, most of this demand said to lie in Peninsular Malaysia and not East Malaysia, where the dam is located. Even in Peninsular Malaysia, however, there is an over-supply of electricity, with Tenaga Nasional Berhad being locked into unfavourable purchasing agreements with Independent Power Producers. The original idea was to have 30% of the generated capacity consumed in East Malaysia and the rest sent to Peninsular Malaysia. This plan envisioned 730 km of overhead HVDC transmission lines in East Malaysia, 670 km of undersea HVDC cable and 300 km of HVDC transmission line in Peninsular Malaysia.
Future plans for the dam include connecting it to an envisioned Trans-Borneo Power Grid Interconnection, which would be a grid to supply power to Sarawak, Sabah, Brunei, and
The Bellefonte Nuclear Generating Station (shortly BLN) is a partially completed nuclear power plant located in Hollywood, Alabama. A total of four reactors have been proposed over a period of 40 years, and billions of dollars have been spent, but no electricity has yet been produced. The site has sat idle for more than 20 years and some spare parts have been taken from the two incomplete units. In 2011, the Tennessee Valley Authority board of directors approved a plan to restart construction of the Bellefonte Unit 1 reactor. But the ultimate cost and timing for Bellefonte 1 will depend on work at another reactor TVA is completing - Watts Bar 2 in Tennessee. In February 2012, TVA said the Watts Bar 2 project was running over budget and behind schedule.
The Bellefonte Nuclear Generating Station site is owned by the Tennessee Valley Authority and is located in Hollywood, Alabama. The two partially built 1,256 megawatt (MWe) pressurized water reactors on the site were made by Babcock and Wilcox and are called a 205 design due to the number of fuel assemblies in the core. These units are of the same design as WNP-1 which is also unfinished, and as the Mülheim-Kärlich A reactor in
The Caruachi Dam is a concrete gravity dam on the Caroní River in Bolivar state, Venezuela. The dam supports a hydroelectric power facility with a 2,160 MW capacity. The facility is located about 59 kilometers downstream from the Guri Dam belonging to the "Central Hidroeléctrica Simón Bolívar" and about 35 kilometres from where the Caroni and Orinoco Rivers meet at Ciudad Guayana.
The first of the 180 MW Kaplan turbine-generators General Electric supplied for the project began commercial operation in April 2003; the 12th and final unit entered service on February 28, 2006, and entered into formal/fully commercial operation on 31 March 2006, when the project was officially inaugurated.
The total installed capacity is 2,160 MW and the power plant will produce about 12 TW·h annually.
This project form jointly with the Central Hidroeléctrica Simón Bolívar in Guri, Antonio José de Sucre in Macagua and Manuel Piar in Tocoma (under construction), the development of Lower Caroní River hydroelectric resources and one of the world's largest hydro projects now in construction, that, when completed, EDELCA (Electrificación del Caroní CA) claims will save Venezuela the equivalent of 750,000
Cwm Dyli is the location of a hydro-electric power station on the southern flank of the Snowdon range in North Wales. The station was built in 1905 by the Porthmadog, Beddgelert and South Snowdon Railway company, backed by North Wales Power and Traction Co Ltd to supply electricity to its own electric railway and connected slate quarries and mines. The railway was planned to run through the same valley as the power station and be fed with an electrical feeder, but ran short of funds and the attempt was abandoned.
Electricity produced here was also used to power the Long Wave Wireless Telegraph transmitting station built by Marconi in 1912 near Waunfawr.
Supplying power directly to the National Grid, it is Britain's oldest power station, and is believed to be one of the oldest Grid-connected hydro-electric stations in the world. It was first commissioned in 1906 and has been in fairly continuous operation since then, although it was closed for upgrading in 1990. A single turbine now produces up to 9.8 megawatts.
Known locally as the "Chapel in the valley", on account of its exterior design, it employed 13 men. Today, however, it is controlled remotely from Dolgarrog in the Conwy
Australia has an estimated 1031.1 MW of installed photovoltaic (PV) power (August 2011), contributing an estimated 2.3% of total electricity production (as of August 2011). Growth in the amount of installed PV capacity in Australia has been dramatic with a 10-fold increase between 2009 and 2011. Feed-in tariffs and mandatory renewable energy targets designed to assist renewable energy commercialisation in Australia have largely been responsible for the rapid increase. The first commercial-scale PV power plant opened October 2012 at Greenough River Solar Farm with a capacity of 10 MW.
The combination of Australia's dry climate and latitude give it a high potential for solar energy production. Most of the Australian continent receives in excess of 4 kWh per square metre per day of insolation during winter months, with a region in the north exceeding 6 kWh/day. Australia's insolation greatly exceeds the average values in Europe, Russia, and most of North America. Comparable levels are found in desert areas of northern and southern Africa,south western United States and adjacent area of Mexico, and regions on the Pacific coast of South America. However, the areas of Australia with
Aratiatia Power Station is a hydroelectric power station on the Waikato River, in the North Island of New Zealand. It is the first hydroelectric power station on the Waikato River, and is located 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) downstream of Lake Taupo.
Aratiatia is a largely run-of-the-river station, as it generates electricity from water running between Lake Taupo and Ohakuri Power Station. It does, however, have a 55-hectare (140-acre) lake behind the station for temporary storage.
The station is situated next to the Aratiatia Rapids. The rapids act as a spillway past the station, and water is released three times daily (four in the summer months) through the rapids.
Aratiatia is operated by state-owned electricity generator Mighty River Power.
Bruce Nuclear Generating Station is a Canadian nuclear power station located on the eastern shore of Lake Huron, in the communities of Inverhuron and Tiverton, Ontario. It occupies 932 ha (2300 acres) of land. The facility derives its name from Bruce County in which it is located, in the former Bruce Township. It is the second largest nuclear generating station in the world by net electrical power rating.
Formerly known as the Bruce Nuclear Power Development (BNPD), the facility was constructed in stages between 1970 and 1987 by the provincial Crown corporation, Ontario Hydro. In April 1999 Ontario Hydro was split into 5 component Crown corporations with Ontario Power Generation (OPG) taking over all electrical generating stations. In June 2000, OPG entered into a long term lease agreement with private sector consortium Bruce Power to take over operation of the Bruce station. In May 2001, Bruce Power began operations. The lease is for 18 years (until 2019) with an option to extend a further 25 years (to 2044).
The Bruce station is the largest nuclear facility in North America, and second largest in the world (after Kashiwazaki-Kariwa in Japan), comprising 8 CANDU nuclear reactors
Diablo Canyon Power Plant is an electricity-generating nuclear power plant at Avila Beach in San Luis Obispo County, California. The plant has two Westinghouse-designed 4-loop pressurized-water nuclear reactors operated by Pacific Gas & Electric. The facility is located on about 750 acres (300 ha) in Avila Beach, California. Together, the twin 1,100 MWe reactors produce about 18,000 GW·h of electricity annually, supplying the electrical needs of more than 2.2 million people, sent along the Path 15 500-kV lines that connect to this plant. It was built directly over a geological fault line, and is located near a second fault.
The plant is located in Nuclear Regulatory Commission Region IV. In November 2009, PG&E applied to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for 20-year license renewals for both reactors.
Unit One is a 1,122 MWe pressurized water reactor supplied by Westinghouse. It went online on May 7, 1985 and is licensed to operate through November 2, 2024. In 2006, Unit One generated 9,944,983 MW·h of electricity, at a nominal capacity factor of 101.2 percent.
Unit Two is a 1,118 MWe pressurized water reactor supplied by Westinghouse. It went online on March 3, 1986 and is
Dicle Dam is one of the 21 dams of the Southeastern Anatolia Project of Turkey. These facilities are located within the provincial territory of Diyarbakır, at a distance of 50 kilometres to Diyarbakır city centre. More specifically, the Dam and the Hydoelectric power plant are located at a distance of 800 metres from the point of junction of the streams of Maden Stream and Dibni to form the Tigris, and 22 kilometres downstream of the Kralkızı Dam. Construction works were started in 1986 and the dam was completed in 1997. The dam has an installed hydroelectric capacity of 110 MW and is designed to ultimately irrigate 128,080 hectares. In 2001 a water transmission line and a water treatment plant were commissioned that provide about 85% of the drinking water for the city of Diyarbakir in 2010.
Dungeness nuclear power station may refer to either one of a pair of nuclear power stations, only one of which is still operational, located on the Dungeness headland in the south east of Kent, England.
Dungeness A is a legacy Magnox power station, that was connected to the National Grid in 1965 and has reached the end of its life. It possessed two nuclear reactors producing 219 MW of electricity each, with a total capacity of 438 MW. The construction was undertaken by a consortium known as the Nuclear Power Group ('TNPG'). The reactors were supplied by TNPG and the turbines by C. A. Parsons & Co.
On 31 December 2006 the A station ceased power generation. It is anticipated that defuelling will be completed by 2009, the turbine hall demolished in 2010 to be replaced by an intermediate level waste store in 2014. The waste store and reactor building will then be placed on a care and maintenance basis until 2103, with final site clearance and closure by 2111. Decommissioning is estimated to cost £1.2 billion. An alternative proposal has been made to accelerate cleanup for completion by 2030.
Dungeness B is an advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) power station consisting of two 615 MW
Gentilly Nuclear Generating Station (or Centrale nucléaire de Gentilly in French) is a Canadian nuclear power station located near Bécancour, Quebec. The facility derives its name from the Gentilly suburb of the city of Bécancour, in which it is located. It is around 100 km north east of Montreal.
The Gentilly site contains the only nuclear power reactors in Quebec (there is also a SLOWPOKE reactor at the École Polytechnique) and comprises two nuclear reactors (one CANDU-BWR prototype, now shut down, and one CANDU) located on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River. The facility was constructed in stages between 1966–1983 by the Crown corporation, Hydro-Québec. Gentilly-1 is closed and in the decommissioning process, while Gentilly-2 is currently in operation. Gentilly-3 was halted during construction.
The Gentilly plants were originally part of a plan for 30-35 nuclear reactors in the province of Quebec.
On October 3, 2012, Hydro-Québec CEO, Thierry Vandal announced his intention not to proceed with the refurbishment of the Gentilly-2 facility and its closure at the end of 2012 for economic reasons. At that time, a decommissioning process will proceed over a period of 50 years
The Robert Emmett Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, commonly known as Ginna (pron. gun-NAY), is a nuclear power plant located on the southern shore of Lake Ontario, in the town of Ontario, Wayne County, New York, approximately 20 miles (32 km) east of Rochester, New York. It is a single unit Westinghouse 2-Loop pressurized water reactor, similar to those at Point Beach, Kewaunee, and Prairie Island. Ginna is one of the oldest nuclear power reactors still in operation in the United States, having gone into commercial operation in 1970.
The plant was named after Robert Emmett Ginna, a former chief executive of Rochester Gas & Electric, who was one of the nation’s earliest advocates of using nuclear energy to generate electricity.
Ginna is owned and operated by CENG, who purchased it from Rochester Gas and Electric in 2004.
The Ginna plant was the site of a nuclear accident when, on January 25, 1982, a small amount of radioactive steam leaked into the air after a steam-generator tube ruptured. The leak which lasted 93 minutes led to the declaration of a site emergency. The rupture was caused by a small pie-pan-shaped object left in the steam generator during an outage. This was not the first
The Kalinin Nuclear Power Station (Russian: Калининская АЭС [ pronunciation (help·info)]) is located about 200 kilometres (120 mi) north west of Moscow, in Tver Oblast near the town of Udomlya. Owner and operator of the plant is the state enterprise Rosenergoatom. Kalinin Nuclear Power Station supplies the majority of electricity in the Tver region and additionally serves Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Vladimir. In 2005 the nuclear power station fed 17.3 TWh (62,000 TJ) into the grid. The station's four 150 metres (490 ft) tall cooling towers are local landmarks. They were manufactured in 96 concrete sections each.
By March 2009 the containment structure of the new Kalinin Unit 4 reactor was nearly complete. The reactor achieved its first criticality on 8 November 2011.
The Kalinin Nuclear Power Plant has four units:
The Karun-3 dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Karun river in the province of Khuzestan, Iran. It was built to help meet Iran's energy demands as well as to provide flood control. The Karun has the highest discharge of Iran's rivers.
The purpose of the dam is for power generation and flood control. The Karun III power generators are connected to the national power network as the peak power generation. With this power plant being operated, with the capacity of 2,280 MW, and an average annual electric power generation of 4,137 GWh, a major portion of the electric power shortage in the country will be met.
The dam is a concrete double arch type, 205 m (673 ft) high from the foundation and 185 m (607 ft) high from the river bed. Its foundation width is 29.5 m (97 ft).
The arch dam design is an ideal one for a dam built in a narrow, rocky gorge to hold back water in a reservoir. Because of the arch shape, the force of the backed up water presses downward against the dam and has the effect of strengthening the dam foundation.
The Keban Dam (Turkish: Keban Barajı) is a hydroelectric dam on the Euphrates, located in the Elazığ Province of Turkey. The dam was the first and uppermost of several large-scale dams to be built on the Euphrates by Turkey. Although the Keban Dam was not originally constructed as a part of the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP), it is now a fully integrated component of the project, which aims to stimulate economic development in Southeastern Turkey. Construction of the dam commenced in 1966 and was completed in 1974. Keban Dam Lake (Turkish: Keban Baraj Gölü), the reservoir created by Keban Dam, has a surface area of 675 square kilometres (261 sq mi) and is reputedly the fourth-largest lake in Turkey after Lake Van, Lake Tuz, and the reservoir created by the Atatürk Dam.
Construction of the Keban Dam was first proposed in 1936 by the newly established Electric Affairs Survey Administration, but not started before 1966. Construction was carried out by the French-Italian consortium SCI-Impreglio and completed in 1974. Estimates of the total construction cost vary between US$85 million and US$300 million. At that time, archaeological rescue missions had also been carried out at
Krishna Raja Sagara, also popularly known as KRS, is the name of both a lake and the dam that creates it. It is located close to the settlement of Krishnarajasagara. The dam is across Kaveri River, in Mandya District near Mysore in Karnataka state, India. There is an ornamental garden attached to the dam, called Brindavan Gardens.
The dam was built across river Kaveri, the life giving river for the Mysore and Mandya districts, in 1924. Apart from being the main source of water for irrigation in the most fertile Mysore and Mandya, the reservoir is the main source of drinking water for all of Mysore city and almost the whole of Bangalore city, the capital of the state of Karnataka. The water released from this dam is further used as an important source of water in the state of Tamil Nadu, which has its own Mettur dam in the Salem district. Sir. Mokshagundam Visvesvarayya served as the chief engineer during the construction of this dam. The dam is named for the then ruler of the Mysore Kingdom, Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV.
The Brindavan Gardens is a show garden that has a botanical park, with fountains, as well as boat rides beneath the dam. Diwans of Mysore planned and built the gardens
The Linganamakki dam(Kannada: ಲಿಂಗನಮಕ್ಕಿ ಅಣೆಕಟ್ಟು) was constructed by the Karnataka State Government in 1964. Located in the Sagara taluk, the dam has a length of 2.4 km, stretching across the Sharavathi river. It is located about 6 km from Jog Falls.
The dam was designed to impound 4368 million cubic meter of water in an area of around 300 km², submerging 50.62 km² of wetland and 7 km² of dry land, with the remaining being forest land and wasteland.
The dam's height is 1,819 feet (554 m) above sea level. It receives water mainly from rainfall and also from the Chakra and Savahaklu reservoirs, which are linked to Linganamakki through a canal. The water from the Linganamakki dam flows to Talakalale Balancing Reservoir through a trapezoidal canal with a discharge capacity of 175.56 m³/s. The length of this channel is about 4318.40 m with a submersion of 7.77 km². It has a catchment area of about 46.60 km².
Behind the dam is a large reservoir. The discharge from the dam can be quite heavy. When the dam's sluice gates are closed upstream from Jog Falls, it is possible to walk down into the fall's ravine.
The power house has a power generation capacity of 55 MW, from two generating
Llyn Celyn is a large reservoir constructed between 1960 and 1965 in the valley of the River Tryweryn in Gwynedd, North Wales. It measures roughly 2½ miles long by a mile wide, and has a maximum depth of 140 ft (43 m). It has the capacity to hold 71,200 megalitres of water.
It was originally to be named Llyn Tryweryn Mawr, but in September 1964 Liverpool Corporation agreed to the name change following a letter by the Tryweryn Defence Committee.
Construction of the reservoir involved flooding the village of Capel Celyn and adjacent farmland, a deeply controversial move. Much of the opposition was brought about because the village was a strong-hold of Welsh culture and the Welsh language, whilst the reservoir was being built to supply Liverpool and parts of the Wirral with water, rather than Wales. The legislation enabling the development was also passed despite the opposition of 35 out of 36 Welsh Members of Parliament, with the 36th not voting. This led to an increase in support for the Welsh nationalist party, Plaid Cymru, in the late 1950s and gave fresh impetus to Welsh devolution.
Although many doubted the need of having an official opening, this took place on 21 October 1965.
The Manantali Dam is a multi-purpose dam on the Bafing river in the Senegal River basin, 90 km to the south-east of Bafoulabé, in Mali's Kayes Region.
Early planning for the dam began in 1972 when the Organization for the Development of the Senegal River (Organisation pour la mise en valeur du fleuve Sénégal, or OMVS) was set up by Mali, Mauritania and Senegal to develop the agricultural and hydropower potential of the basin. The World Bank declined to fund the dam in 1979, considering it an unreasonable investment. However, financing was secured mainly from Europe and construction on the dam began in 1982. It was completed in 1988, but without the hydropower plant. In 1989 the Mauritania–Senegal Border War stopped all work on the project. A Swiss journalist who visited Manantali in 1988 described the project as a "luxury car without a motor". In 1993 Carl–Dieter Spranger, then Germany's minister for development assistance, called Manantali an "act of economic and environmental nonsense". When the conflict subsided in 1991 the OMVS sought a new loan package for the hydropower plant, which was finally put together in 1997. The dam began to produce electricity for Senegal, Mali and
The Minamiaiki Dam is a rock-fill embankment dam on the Minamiaiki River in Minamiaiki, Nagano Prefecture, Japan. Together with the Ueno Dam, it provides water for the Kannagawa Hydropower Plant owned by the Tokyo Electric Power Company. The Minamiaiki dam is the higher of the two dams. When completed, the station will have the largest power output of any pump-storage power plant in the world at around 2.82 GW. Since 2005 Unit 1 with installed capacity of 470 kW is in commercial operation. Commercial operation of Unit 2 is planned in 2012, commercial operation of all six units as late as 2020.
The North Anna Nuclear Generating Station is a nuclear power plant on a 1,075-acre (4.35 km) site in Louisa County, Virginia, in the Mid-Atlantic United States. The site is operated by Dominion Generation company and is jointly owned by the Dominion Virginia Power corporation (88.4%) and by the Old Dominion Electric Cooperative (11.6%).
The plant has two Westinghouse pressurized water reactors which went on-line in 1978 and 1980 respectively. Together the reactors generate 1.79 gigawatts of power, which is distributed mainly to the greater Richmond area and to Northern Virginia. In March 2003, the NRC approved 20 year license extensions for both Units 1 & 2.
An artificial lake, Lake Anna, was constructed on the North Anna River to provide a reservoir of water coolant for use with the nuclear plant. Exhaustive studies have shown that the lake's abundant aquatic life are not harmed by the plant's operation.
Dominion currently owns nuclear power plants in Virginia (North Anna, Surry), Connecticut (Millstone), and Wisconsin (Kewaunee). North Anna is similar in design and appearance to Surry Power Station.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission defines two emergency planning zones around
Novovoronezh Nuclear Power Plant II (NvNPPII) (Russian Нововоронежская АЭС II [ pronunciation (help·info)]) is a Russian nuclear power plant currently under construction and expected to come online in 2012. It is being built on the same site as the present Novovoronezh Nuclear Power Plant.
In 2006,, the Russian government legislated a nuclear expansion plan for 2007–2015. The plan aims to put two new nuclear reactors into operation each year from 2012. This decision provided impetus for the construction of NNPPII, which had been originally been mooted in 1999. On 20 June 2007 preparations began at the construction site. Construction starting ceremony was held on 12 July 2009.
The power station will comprise two to four VVER-1200/392M reactors of the AES-2006 type. These reactors are the first of their kind. In 2012 Unit 1 will be added to the grid, with the second unit to be added a year later. Cost of the project is between 110 and 130 billion Rubles. The city of Novovoronezh is to provide housing for incoming NvNPP II construction workers. In early 2008 the first two apartment blocks were complete and ready to use.
Construction of the nuclear power plant is important because the
The Nurek Dam (Tajik: Нерӯгоҳи обии Норак, Nerūgohi obii Norak, Tajiki for Nurek Hydro-electric Station) is an earth fill embankment dam on the Vakhsh River in the central Asian nation of Tajikistan. Construction of the dam began in 1961 and was completed in 1980, when Tajikistan was still a republic within the Soviet Union. At 300 m (984 ft) it is currently the tallest dam in the world. The Rogun Dam, also along the Vakhsh also in Tajikistan, may exceed it if completed.
The Nurek Dam was constructed by the Soviet Union between the years of 1961 and 1980. It is uniquely constructed, with a central core of cement forming an impermeable barrier within a 300 m (980 ft)-high rock and earth fill construction. The volume of the mound is 54 million m³. The dam includes nine hydroelectric generating units, the first commissioned in 1972 and the last in 1979.
The dam is located in a deep gorge along the Vakhsh River in western Tajikistan, about 75 km (47 mi) east of the nation's capital of Dushanbe. A town near the dam, also called Nurek, houses engineers and other workers employed at the dam's power plant.
A total of nine hydroelectric Francis turbines are installed in the Nurek Dam.
The Poihipi Power Station is a geothermal power station owned and operated by Contact Energy. It is located on Poihipi Road near Taupo in New Zealand.
The plant produces around 350 GWh pa, utilising geothermal steam from the Wairakei field, and is operated as part of the Wairakei geothermal system.
The Salem Nuclear Power Plant is a two unit pressurized water reactor nuclear power station located in Lower Alloways Creek Township, New Jersey, in the United States. It is owned by PSEG Nuclear LLC and Exelon Generation LLC.
Salem Nuclear Power Plant includes two of the four licensed nuclear power reactors in New Jersey. The others are the one unit at Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, and the one unit at Hope Creek Nuclear Generating Station. As of January 1, 2005, New Jersey ranked 10th among the 31 states with nuclear capacity for total MWe generated. In 2003, nuclear electricity generated over one half of the electricity in the State.
Salem shares Artificial Island in the Delaware Bay with the Hope Creek Nuclear Generating Station.
The reactors, both PWRs, were built by Westinghouse, and began commercial operation in 1977 (Unit 1) and 1981 (Unit 2). The two-unit plant has a capacity of 2,275 MWe. Unit 1 is licensed to operate until August 13, 2036 and Unit 2 is licensed to operate until April 18, 2040. In 2009, PSEG applied for 20-year license renewals for both units, which were approved by the NRC in 2011.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission defines two emergency
The Shippingport Atomic Power Station was the world’s first full-scale atomic electric power plant devoted exclusively to peacetime uses. It was located near the present-day Beaver Valley Nuclear Generating Station on the Ohio River in Beaver County, Pennsylvania, USA, about 25 miles (40 km) from Pittsburgh.
The reactor reached criticality on December 2, 1957, and remained in operation until October 1982. The first electrical power was produced on December 18, 1957 as engineers synchronized the plant with the distribution grid of Duquesne Light Company.
Shippingport was created and operated under the auspices of Admiral Hyman G. Rickover, whose authority included a substantial role within the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). Its design team was headed by Alvin Radkowsky.
Its final core was an experimental, light water moderated, thermal breeder reactor and is notable for its ability to transmute (inexpensive) Thorium 232 to Uranium 233 (the latter being the fissile material that fueled the reaction within the reactor core). The reactor was capable of an output of 60 MWe. The reactor was designed with two uses in mind: for powering military ships, and serving as a prototype for
The Shiroyama Dam (城山ダム, Shiroyama damu) is a multi-purpose dam on the main stream Sagami River in Sagamihara, Kanagawa Prefecture on the island of Honshū, Japan.
The potential of the Sagami River valley for hydroelectric power development began to be developed in the 1930s, with the growth of industry and electrical consumption in the Yokohama-Kanagawa industrial belt. Work on the Sagami Dam, the first dam on the main stream of the Sagami River began in 1938; however, lack of funding and the advent of World War II delayed completion until after the end of the war. Work on the Shiroyama Dam, in the former town of Tsukui, Tsukui District commenced in 1960 and was completed in 1965 by the Kumagai Gumi construction company.
The Shiroyama Dam is a hollow-core concrete gravity dam. It was designed to provide flood control, and industrial and drinking water to the cities of Yokohama, Kawasaki, Yokosuka and the Shōnan area. It also serves as a Pumped-storage hydroelectricity facility in conjunction with the Honzawa Dam further upstream. The associated Shiroyama Hydroelectric Power Plant has a rated capacity of 250,000 kW of power, and the Tsukui Hydroelectric Power Plant has an additional
Torness nuclear power station was the last of the United Kingdom's second generation nuclear power plants to be commissioned. Construction of this facility began in 1980 for the then South of Scotland Electricity Board (SSEB) and it was commissioned in 1988. Torness nuclear power station is located approximately 30 miles east of the city of Edinburgh at Torness Point near Dunbar in East Lothian, Scotland. It is a local landmark, highly visible from the main A1 road and East Coast Main Line railway.
After extensive discussions with the local planning authority and more than twenty other interested organisations, the SSEB sought approval of the Secretary of State for Scotland in 1973 for Torness as a site for a nuclear power station. A public exhibition was held at Dunbar in February 1974 to explain the Board’s proposals, and in June 1974, a public inquiry was held.
There was widespread public opposition to the building of a nuclear plant at Torness. Diverse campaigning groups came together to highlight the environmental and human cost of nuclear power stations. In May 1978 4000 people marched from Dunbar to occupy the Torness site. Many of them signed a declaration to “take all
Volkhov hydroelectric plant (Russian: Волховская ГЭС), named after V.I. Lenin, is a hydroelectric station on the Volkhov River located in the town of Volkhov, Leningrad Oblast, in northwestern Russia. It is the oldest and longest serving hydroelectric plant in Soviet Union and Russia. It is a part of the Ladoga cascade.
Construction work started in 1918. On September 16, 1921 it was included into a GOELRO plan. The plant was finished in 1927 with a capacity of 6,000 kilowatts.
In 1993—1996 3 hydroturbines were replaced by a new 12 MW units, other units are planned to be replaced in 2007—2010. After these replacements, the plant is estimated to achieve total power of 98 MW.
The Wairakei Power Station is a geothermal power station near the Wairakei Geothermal Field in New Zealand. Wairakei lies in the Taupo Volcanic Zone.
The power station was built in 1958, the first of its type (wet steam) in the world, and it is currently owned and operated by Contact Energy. A binary cycle power plant was constructed in 2005 to use lower-temperature steam that had already gone through the main plant. This increased the total capacity of the power station to 181MW. The Wairakei power station is due to be phased out from 2013, replaced by the Te Mihi geothermal power station. The Poihipi Power Station was built in 1996 at a nearby site in the same field.
The use of steam from the field has had a number of visible effects on the local environment. Visible geothermal activity has increased (due to changes in the water table / water pressure allowing more steam to be created underground, upsurging at places like Craters of the Moon), while there has also been some land subsidence and reduction in steam volumes from the field after some decades of use. Recent total electrical production has been sustained or increased with the investment in additional power stations such
The Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit 3, also known as Waterford 3, is a nuclear power plant located on a 3,000-acre (12-km²) plot in Killona, Louisiana, in St. Charles Parish.
This plant has one Combustion Engineering two-loop pressurized water reactor. The plant produces 1,218 megawatts of electricity since the site's last refuel in October 2009. It has a dry ambient pressure containment building.
On August 28, 2005, Waterford shut down due to Hurricane Katrina approaching and declared an unusual event (the least-serious of a four-level emergency classification scale). Shortly after Katrina, Waterford restarted and now is in normal operation.
Entergy is planning to replace the unit's two steam generators as well as the reactor vessel closure head and control element drive mechanisms during a refueling outage in 2012. The project is estimated to cost $511 million. The steam generators are being replaced due to normal wear and tear on the equipment. Waterford 3 is one of the last units in its class to replace its steam generators. Entergy petitioned the Louisiana Public Service Commission on June 27, 2008, for approval of the project. The project is expected to go from
The Yongbyon Nuclear Scientific Research Center is North Korea's major nuclear facility, operating its first nuclear reactors. It is located in the county of Nyŏngbyŏn in North Pyong'an Province, about 90 km north of Pyongyang. The center produced the fissile material for North Korea's nuclear weapon tests in 2006 and 2009, and since 2009 is developing indigenous light water reactor nuclear power station technology.
The major installations include all aspects of a Magnox nuclear reactor fuel cycle, based on the use of natural uranium fuel:
Magnox spent fuel is not designed for long-term storage as both the casing and uranium metal core react with water, it is designed to be reprocessed within a few years of removal from a reactor. As a carbon dioxide cooled, graphite moderated Magnox reactor does not require difficult-to-produce enriched uranium fuel or heavy water moderator it is an attractive choice for a wholly indigenous nuclear reactor development.
The Magnox facilities were disabled in 2007 in accord with the six-party talks agreement, but following the breakdown of that agreement were partially re-enabled in 2009 to reprocess existing stocks of spent fuel.
The center also