A surgeon is a physician who makes incisions in the body of a human to repair, remove, or replace a part of the body.
More about Best Surgeon of All Time:
Best Surgeon of All Time is a public top list created by Listnerd on Listnerd.com on November 27th 2012. Items on the Best Surgeon of All Time top list are added by the Listnerd.com community and ranked using our secret ranking sauce. Best Surgeon of All Time has gotten 1.981 views and has gathered 615 votes from 615 voters. Only owner can add items. Just members can vote.
Best Surgeon of All Time is a top list in the Health & Fitness category on Listnerd.com. Are you a fan of Health & Fitness or Best Surgeon of All Time? Explore more top 100 lists about Health & Fitness on Listnerd.com or participate in ranking the stuff already on the all time Best Surgeon of All Time top list below.
If you're not a member of Listnerd.com, you should consider becoming one. Registration is fast, free and easy. At Listnerd.com, we aim to give you the best of everything - including stuff like the Best Surgeon of All Time list.
Get your friends to vote! Spread this URL or share:
John Travers Wood (November 25, 1878-November 2, 1954) was a politician from the U.S. state of Idaho, serving a single term in the House of Representatives as a Republican.
Wood was born in Wakefield, England and immigrated with his parents to the U.S. in 1889. They settled in Woodridge, North Dakota, and he was naturalized a citizen in 1901. After graduating public schools there, he taught school for six years; he then graduated from Detroit College of Medicine. He moved to Hannah, North Dakota and set up a practice there for one year, before moving to Coeur d'Alene, Idaho.
From 1910 to 1950, he worked as a surgeon for the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad. In addition, he served as mayor of Couer d'Alene during 1911 and 1912, and founded the town's hospital. During World War I, he served as a lieutenant in the medical corps of the U.S. Army.
In the 1950 election, Wood was elected as a Republican to the House. He served only a single term, losing in his bid for reelection to Gracie Pfost. He left the House on January 3, 1953, and died in 1954 in Coeur d'Alene.
Sir Alfred Cooper (28 January 1838 – 3 March 1908) was a fashionable English surgeon and clubman of the late 19th century whose clients included Edward, Prince of Wales. He was born in Bracondale, Norfolk, England, the son of William Cooper, barrister, and his wife Anna, née Marsh.
His speciality in venereal disease gave him an unusual access to and perspective on late Victorian aristocratic morality. He was devoted to his wife Lady Agnes Duff, the youngest daughter of James Duff, 5th Earl Fife by his wife, Lady Agnes Hay, daughter of William Hay, 18th Earl of Erroll and granddaughter of King William IV by his mistress, the actress Mrs. Dorothy Jordan. They had four children together, the youngest being Duff Cooper, the prominent British statesman of the 1930s and 1940s. Knighted in 1902 for his services to medicine, Cooper died in Menton, France, 1908.
Sir Alfred's descendants include the publisher Rupert Hart-Davis; his son, the television presenter Adam Hart-Davis; the writer John Julius Norwich; and the Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, David Cameron, a great-great-grandson.
Tirone Esperidiao David, OC, OOnt, FRCS (born November 20, 1944) is a Canadian cardiac surgeon and professor. He is the Head of the division of Cardiovascular Surgery at the Toronto General Hospital. Dr. Tirone David proposed a technique for a valve sparing treatment for aortic insufficiency, due to dilatation of Valsalva sinuses. Dr. David is known for his remarkable surgical skills in complex operations for both technique and speed and has been involved in developing superior techniques in cardiac valve repair instead of replacement. As of 2006 Dr. David is second only to Dr. Magdi Yacoub for extra complex heart surgeries. In 2007, Dr. David performed a mitral valve repair showing the technique using an annular ring in a live podcast on the internet. He travels to other countries every year to teach and demonstrate surgical techniques in difficult cases.
Born in Ribeirão Claro, Brazil, he graduated from the Universidade Federal do Paraná as a medical doctor in 1968. He trained in cardiovascular and thoracic surgery from 1970 to 1975 at the Cleveland Clinic in Ohio. He then immigrated to Canada where he became a cardiovascular surgeon at The Toronto General Hospital.
In 2004, he
Sir Charles Bell KH FRS FRSE FRCSE MWS (1774–1842) was a Scottish surgeon, anatomist, neurologist and philosophical theologian.
His three older brothers included John Bell (1763–1820), also a noted surgeon and writer; and the advocate George Joseph Bell (1770–1843).
Charles Bell was born in Edinburgh in November 1774, a son of the Rev William Bell, a clergyman of the Episcopal Church of Scotland, who died in 1779 when Bell was a small child. Bell grew up in Edinburgh, attending the High School (1784-8) and Edinburgh University, where he took his medical degree in 1798. He conducted his surgical training as assistant to his elder brother John Bell.
He and his brother had artistic gifts, and together they taught anatomy and illustrated and published two volumes of A System of Dissection Explaining the Anatomy of the Human Body. Bell's career was characterized by the accumulation of quite extraordinary honours and achievements - and by acrimonious disputes unusual even by the standards of medicine during the Regency.
Shortly after his graduation Bell was admitted to the Royal College of Surgeons in Edinburgh, where he operated and taught anatomy. He and his brother published two
Georg Clemens Perthes (17 January 1869 – 3 January 1927) was a German surgeon and X-ray diagnostic pioneer born in Moers, Germany.
In 1891 he received his medical doctorate from the University of Bonn, and later was a surgeon in Bonn and Leipzig where he worked with Friedrich Trendelenburg (1844–1924). In 1910 he succeeded Paul von Bruns (1846–1916) as head of the surgical clinic at Tübingen. In 1900-01 he was a military surgeon at the German colonial seaport of Tsingtao (today known as Qingdao, China).
Perthes' primary area of research involved radiological treatment and therapy. He pioneered the use of radiology for the treatment of warts, skin cancer and breast carcinomas. Today he is best known for a child illness named Perthes' disease, also known as Legg-Calvé-Perthes syndrome, a degenerative disease of the hip joint. Perthes took the first X-rays of a patient with this syndrome in 1898; however, his findings weren't published until several years later. While in Tsingtao, he had the opportunity to perform radiological studies on the feet of Chinese women that had been subjected to the traditional practice of being crushed and bound.
As a surgeon Perthes made several
Sir Prescott Gardner Hewett, 1st Baronet, FRCS (3 July 1812 – 19 June 1891) was a British surgeon, and the son of a Yorkshire country gentleman.
Hewett lived for some years in early life in Paris, and started on a career as an artist, but abandoned it for surgery. He entered Saint George's Hospital, London (where his half-brother, Dr Cornwallis Hewett, was a physician from 1825 to 1833), becoming demonstrator of anatomy and curator of the museum. He was the pupil and intimate friend of Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie, and helped the latter in much of his work.
Eventually he rose to be anatomical lecturer, assistant-surgeon and surgeon to the hospital. In 1876, he was president of the College of Surgeons, and in 1877, he was made serjeant-surgeon extraordinary to Queen Victoria, in 1884 serjeant-surgeon, and in 1883 he was created a baronet. In June 1874 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society
Hewett was a very good lecturer, but shrank from authorship; his lectures on Surgical Affections of the Head were, however, embodied in his treatise on the subject in Holmes's System of Surgery. As a surgeon, he was always extremely conservative, but hesitated at no operation, no matter how
Lieutenant Colonel Sir Ernest Edward "Weary" Dunlop, AC, CMG, OBE (12 July 1907 – 2 July 1993) was an Australian surgeon who was renowned for his leadership while being held prisoner by the Japanese during World War II.
Dunlop was born in Wangaratta, Victoria, the second of two children of his parents James and Alice. He attended Benalla High School for two years of his education. He started an apprenticeship in pharmacy when he finished school, and moved to Melbourne in 1927. There, he studied at the Victorian College of Pharmacy and then the University of Melbourne, where he obtained a scholarship in medicine. Dunlop graduated from the University of Melbourne in 1934 with first class honours in pharmacy and in medicine, and excelled as a sportsman at Melbourne University and Ormond College.The nickname "weary" was a reference to his last name—'tired' like a Dunlop.
While at university Dunlop took up rugby union commencing as a fourth grade player with the Melbourne University Rugby Club in 1931. He made a lightning-fast progression through the grades, to state and then to the national representative level becoming the first Victorian-born player to represent the Wallabies.
William Brydon CB (10 October 1811 – 20 March 1873) was an assistant surgeon in the British East India Company Army during the First Anglo-Afghan War, famous for being the only member of an army of 4,500 men to reach safety in Jalalabad at the end of the long retreat from Kabul.
He was born in London of Scottish descent. He studied medicine at University College London and at the University of Edinburgh.
The British Army began its retreat from Kabul in January 1842, following the killing of the two British representatives there. The nearest British garrison was in Jalalabad, 90 miles (140 km) away, and the army would need to go through mountain passes with the January snow hindering them.
Under the command of Major-General William George Keith Elphinstone, 4,500 military personnel and 12,000 civilian camp followers including wives and children set out for Jalalabad on 6 January 1842, on the understanding that they had been offered safe passage. Afghan tribesmen intercepted them and proceeded to massacre them during the next seven days.
The final stand took place at Gandamak on the morning of 13 January 1842 in the snow. Twenty officers and forty-five British soldiers, mostly of the
William Thornton Mustard, OC, MBE (August 8, 1914 – December 11, 1987) was a Canadian physician and cardiac surgeon. In 1949, he was one of the first to perform open-heart surgery using a mechanical heart pump and biological lung on a dog at the Banting Institute. He developed two operations named for him: the "Mustard operation" in orthopedics used to help hip use in people with polio and the "Mustard cardiovascular procedure" used to help correct heart problems in "blue babies," which has saved thousands of children worldwide.
Born in Clinton, Ontario, the son of Thornton and Pearl (Macdonald) Mustard, Mustard graduated in medicine from the University of Toronto in 1937. He spent the next year on an internship at Toronto General Hospital and the following year on an internship in surgery at the Hospital for Sick Children. He then took a fellowship at the New York Orthopedic Hospital. In 1940, he returned to Toronto and spent six months training in general surgery, chest diseases, and neurosurgery.
In 1941, he enlisted in the Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps where he first served as a First Lieutenant rising to become a Major. During World War II, he pioneered an operation that
James Hinton (baptized 26 November 1822 – died 16 December 1875) was an English surgeon and author. He is the father of mathematician Charles Howard Hinton.
He was born at Reading, Berkshire, the son of John Howard Hinton (1791–1873), Baptist minister and author of the History and Topography of the United States and other works. James was educated at his grandfather's school near Oxford, and at the Nonconformist school at Harpenden, and in 1838, on his father's removal to London, was apprenticed to a woollen-draper in Whitechapel. After working there for about a year he became clerk in an insurance office. His evenings were spent in intense study, and this, combined with a concentration on moral problems, so affected his health that, aged eighteen, he tried to seek refuge from his own thoughts by running away to sea. His intention having been discovered, he was sent, on the advice of his doctor, to St Bartholomew's Hospital to study for the medical profession. After receiving his diploma in 1847, he was for some time assistant surgeon at Newport, Essex, but the same year he went out to Sierra Leone to take medical charge of the free labourers on their voyage thence to Jamaica,
Jonathan Letterman (December 11, 1824 – March 15, 1872) was an American surgeon credited as being the originator of the modern methods for medical organization in armies. Dr. Letterman is known today as the "Father of Battlefield Medicine." His system enabled thousands of wounded men to be recovered and treated during the American Civil War.
Letterman was born in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, the son of a well-known surgeon. He graduated from Jefferson College in 1845 and Jefferson Medical College in 1849. That same year he was given the position of assistant surgeon in the Army Medical Department.
Letterman served in Florida during military campaigns against the Seminole Indians until 1853. He then spent a year in Fort Ripley, Minnesota. He was then ordered to Fort Defiance in New Mexico Territory to aid the campaign against the Apache. He was transferred to Fort Monroe in Virginia. From 1860 to 1861 he was engaged in California against the Utes.
His younger brother, William Henry Letterman, co-founded the Phi Kappa Psi fraternity with Charles Page Thomas Moore in Canonsburg after tending to sick classmates in the Fall of 1850. After graduation from Jefferson College, William followed
William Cheselden (19 October 1688 – 10 April 1752) was an English surgeon and teacher of anatomy and surgery, who was influential in establishing surgery as a scientific medical profession.
Cheselden was born at Somerby, Leicestershire. He studied anatomy in London under William Cowper (1666–1709), and began lecturing anatomy in 1710. That same year, he was admitted to the London Company of Barber-Surgeons, passing the final examination on 29 January 1711.
He was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1712 and the following year saw the publishing of his Anatomy of the Human Body, which achieved great popularity becoming an essential study source for students, lasting through thirteen editions, mainly because it was written in English instead of Latin as was customary.
In 1718 he was appointed an assistant surgeon at St Thomas' Hospital in London, becoming full surgeon in 1720 where his specialisation of the removal of bladder stones resulted in the increase in survival rates. Afterwards, he was appointed surgeon for the stone at Westminster Infirmary and surgeon to Queen Caroline. He also improved eye surgery, developing new techniques, particularly in the removal of
Bernhard Rudolf Konrad von Langenbeck (9 November 1810 – 29 September 1887) was a German surgeon known as the developer of Langenbeck's amputation and founder of Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery.
He was born at Padingbüttel, and received his medical education at Göttingen, where one of his teachers was his uncle Konrad Johann Martin Langenbeck. He took his doctorate in 1835 with a thesis on the structure of the retina. After a visit to France and England, he returned to Göttingen as Privatdozent, and in 1842 became Professor of Surgery and Director of the Friedrichs Hospital at Kiel. Six years later he succeeded Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach (1794–1847) as Director of the Clinical Institute for Surgery and Ophthalmology at the Charité in Berlin, and remained there till 1882, when failing health forced him to retire. He died at Wiesbaden in September 1887.
Langenbeck was a bold and skillful surgeon, but preferred not to operate while other means afforded a prospect of success. He specialised in military surgery and became an authority on the treatment of gunshot wounds. He served as general field-surgeon of the army in the First Schleswig War in 1848 and saw active service in the
George Elliott (c. 1636 – Tangier 1668) was the English surgeon to the Earl of Teviot's Regiment.
Elliott was the illegitimate son of Richard Eliot (c. 1614-1660s), the wayward second son of Sir John Eliot and of Catherine Killigrew (1618–1689). George Eliott's grandson Granville Elliott spent much effort in seeking to prove that Richard had married Catherine Killigrew, but he was never able to do so formally. Indeed, visitations survive showing that Richard died a bachelor and her mother's probate documents showing that Catherine was a spinster, aged 38, on 24 December 1656.
Little is known of Elliott's early years, but about 1660 he married Catherine Maxwell at St Mary Somerset in Thames Street in the City of London. By 4 May 1663, around the time of the baptism of his second daughter in London, he was recognized as 'Doctor' to the Earl of Teviot's Regiment. He reappeared at the Tangier Garrison in Morocco in May 1664 as the 'Chirurgeon to the Earl of Teviot's Regiment at Tangier', where he lived at the Mole, a waterside fortification.
In 1668, Elliott died at Tangier, where he was succeeded as Chirurgeon by his assistant, Robert Spotswood (17 September 1637 – 1680), who also
Timothy James Herbert (born 11 July 1941) is an orthopaedic surgeon specializing in hand surgery. He was born in Sheffield (UK). He is known for his work with the scaphoid bone and related invention, the Herbert screw.
He received his medical training at Bartholomew's Hospital Medical School in London (1959–1964) and his specialty training at St. George's Hospital in London, under Alan Apley. Since 1975 he was with the Hand Surgery Unit at St. Luke's Hospital in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia and became Director of that section. He retired in 1996.
Dr. Joseph 'Joe' Ransohoff, II (July 1, 1915- January 30, 2001) was a member of the Ransohoff family and a pioneer in the field of neurosurgery. In addition to training numerous neurosurgeons, his "ingenuity in adapting advanced technologies" saved many lives and even influenced the television program Ben Casey. Among other innovations, he created the first intensive care unit dedicated to neurosurgery, pioneered the use of medical imaging and catheterization in the diagnosis and treatment of brain tumors, and helped define the fields of pediatric neurosurgery and neuroradiology.
Ransohoff was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, son of Dr. Joseph Louis Ransohoff II, a surgeon who himself was the son of a surgeon. He received his undergraduate degree from Harvard University. While attending Harvard he briefly considered leaving the country in order to participate in the Spanish Civil War, motivated by his lifelong socialist sympathies. One of Ransohoff's favorite boasts was that he was the only student in the history of Harvard to graduate on parole. He later received his medical degree from the University of Chicago in 1941 and went on to become a surgery instructor at the University of
Alton Ochsner (May 4, 1896 - September 24, 1981) was a surgeon and medical researcher who worked at Tulane University and other New Orleans hospitals before he established his own world-renowned The Ochsner Clinic, now known as Ochsner Foundation Hospital. Among its many services are heart transplants.
Reared in Kimball, South Dakota, Ochsner was an unlikely hero of Southern medicine. He was recruited to Tulane from the University of Wisconsin–Madison. In 1927, he succeeded the legendary Rudolph Matas as professor and chairman of the Tulane Department of Surgery. Although Tulane did not have its own hospital at the time, Ochsner succeeded in organizing one of America's premier surgical teaching programs at New Orleans Charity Hospital, an institution that provided invaluable clinical opportunities to Ochsner and his students. Ochsner's refusal to hire a friend of Louisiana governor Huey Long formed part of the background for Long's establishing another medical school, now the LSU Health Sciences Center, across the street from the Tulane University School of Medicine.
As a medical student at Washington University in St. Louis, young Ochsner was summoned to observe lung cancer
Richard Eppes (May 2, 1824 – February 17, 1896) was a prominent planter in Prince George County, Virginia and a surgeon in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. Eppes is notable for his having kept extensive journals about his plantation and life; the journals for 1849 and 1851-1896 are held by the Virginia Historical Society and have been invaluable to historians of the antebellum South.
His Appomattox Manor was used as a base by Union general Ulysses S. Grant during his siege of Petersburg, Virginia.
Eppes was born in City Point, Virginia. He had earned his medical degree at the University of Pennsylvania and inherited his ancestral home, Appomattox Manor at City Point, by the age of twenty.
After graduating from college and coming into his inheritance, he married a woman from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. They started a family.
At the time of the Civil War, Eppes owned nearly 130 slaves and 2,300 acres (9.3 km²) at City Point and Eppes Island just offshore. He had given up his medical practice to manage his three plantations, devoted to wheat and other grains, and associated slaves. Eppes favored preservation of the Union, provided that Southern rights in
Charles Rivers Ellet (June 1, 1843 – October 29, 1863) was a medical student who became a colonel in the Union Army during the American Civil War. He was most noted for his command of the ram Queen of the West during the Vicksburg Campaign in 1863.
Ellet was born on June 1, 1843 in Philadelphia, the son of the noted civil engineer Charles Ellet, Jr. He was studying medicine at Georgetown University when the Civil War began. He served as an Army Assistant Surgeon during 1861-62.
In the spring of 1862, when his father established the U.S. Ram Fleet, an Army unit of river steamers converted to rams, Charles Rivers Ellet transferred to that organization. Promoted to the rank of colonel later in the year, he commanded the ram Queen of the West during her daring independent operations below Vicksburg in February 1863.
While operating on the Red River and after capturing some rebel riverboats, Ellet moved the Queen upstream to investigate reports of steamships at Gordon's Landing near Marksville, Louisiana. She came under heavy fire by the shore batteries of Fort DeRussy and was run aground onto the right bank by her pilot instead of backing down river as ordered. She was directly under
George Humphrey Tichenor (April 12, 1837 – January 14, 1923) was a Kentucky-born physician who introduced antiseptic surgery while in the service of the Confederate States of America. Thereafter, in private practice in Canton (Madison County), Mississippi, he developed the formula that became "Dr. Tichenor's Antiseptic."
Tichenor was born in Ohio County in western Kentucky to Rolla Tichenor and the former Elizabeth Hymphrey. He was educated in private schools.
Initially, Tichenor was a businessman in Franklin (Williamson County), Tennessee when the American Civil War began. After the American Civil War had begun, in 1861, he entered military service with the 22nd Tennessee Cavalry Regiment.
In 1863, he became an enrolling Confederate officer, and thereafter an assistant surgeon, during which time he is believed to have been the first in the Confederacy to have used antiseptic surgery. Tichenor experimented with the use of alcohol as an antiseptic on wounds. He was badly wounded in the leg in 1863, and amputation was recommended. He insisted on treating his wounds with an alcohol-based solution of his own devising. His wound healed, and he regained the use of his leg.
Realdo Colombo (c. 1516, Cremona – 1559, Rome) was an Italian professor of anatomy and a surgeon at the University of Padua between 1544 and 1559.
Matteo Realdo Colombo or Renaldus Columbus, was born in Cremona, Lombardy to an apothecary named Antonio Colombo. Although little is known about his early life, it is known he took his undergraduate education in Milan and he appears to have pursued his father's profession for a short while afterwards. He left the apothecarys' life and apprenticed to the surgeon Giovanni Antonio Lonigo, under whom he studied for 7 years. In 1538 he enrolled in the University of Padua where he was noted to be an exceptional student of anatomy. While still a student, he was awarded a Chair of Sophistics at the university. In 1542 he returned briefly to Venice to assist his mentor, Lonigo.
In 1543, he returned to Padua to take over the position of Andreas Vesalius, who had travelled to Switzerland to oversee the printing of his book De Humani Corporis Fabrica. Colombo remained in Padua in this capacity for two years before traveling to Pisa at the behest of Cosimo I de Medici. While in Pisa, he worked extensively with Michelangelo. He intended to collaborate
Sal Calabro is a cosmetic surgeon whose practice is located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, and who is famous for performing breast implants and other cosmetic surgery for people, mostly women, who have appeared on The Howard Stern Show.
If the woman receives Stern's blessing, she usually is sent to Calabro for the surgery. Calabro has appeared many times on the show, either in person or by telephone, to discuss the work he did on a successful candidate. He has a large photo gallery on his website devoted to patients he received by referral from Stern.
According to his web site, Calabro was born and raised in Philadelphia and graduated with a pre-med degree from La Salle University. He enrolled in the University of Florence, Italy, to study the history of art. While in Italy he entered the University of Bologna, where he studied medicine. He returned to the U.S. after receiving his M.D. degree and interned at Philadelphia General Hospital, part of the University of Pennsylvania. He decided to pursue cosmetic surgery during his residency at Temple University Hospital.
After completion his residency, Calabro did a fellowship in Oculoplastic surgery in New York City and
Thomas Joseph Pettigrew (1791–1865), sometimes known as "Mummy" Pettigrew, was a surgeon and antiquarian who became an expert on Ancient Egyptian mummies. He became well known in London social circles for his private parties in which he unrolled and autopsied mummies for the entertainment of his guests.
Born in London in 1791, Thomas Pettigrew took medical studies, first as assistant to his father, who was a naval surgeon, and later as an apprentice at the Borough Hospitals. He had a distinguished medical career, becoming surgeon to the Duke of Kent and the Duke of Sussex. Pettigrew played an active role in intellectual Georgian and Victorian society, corresponding regularly with many well known surgeons, physicians, scientists, writers and artists, such as John Coakley Lettsom, Astley Cooper, Michael Faraday, George Cruikshank and Charles Dickens.
From the 1830s on, Pettigrew increasingly focused on private practice and his antiquarian interests. He developed an interest in Egyptian mummies, and in 1834 published History of Egyptian Mummies, which has been described as "the historic cornerstone of the study in English" (Peck 1998). During this time he became well known in London
William Chester Minor, also known as W. C. Minor (June 1834 – March 26, 1920) was an American army surgeon who, later, was one of the largest contributors of quotations to the Oxford English Dictionary. He was held in a lunatic asylum at the time.
Minor was born on the island of Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), the son of Congregationalist Church missionaries from New England. He had numerous half-siblings, among them Thomas T. Minor, mayor of Seattle, Washington, in the late 1880s. At 14 he was sent to the United States, and finished his medical education in 1863 at Yale.
He was accepted by the Union Army as a surgeon and served at the Battle of the Wilderness in May 1864, which was notable for the terrible casualties suffered. Minor was also given the task of punishing a Northern soldier by branding him on the face with a D for "deserter". This man was an Irish immigrant, and his nationality later played a role in Minor's dementia delusions.
After the end of the American Civil War, Minor saw duty in New York City. He was strongly attracted to the fleshpots of the city and devoted much of his off-duty time to going with prostitutes. By 1867, his behavior had come to the attention of the
Alfred Blalock (April 5, 1899 – September 15, 1964) was a 20th-century American surgeon most noted for his research on the medical condition of shock and for the development of the Blalock-Taussig Shunt, a surgical procedure he developed together with surgical technician Vivien Thomas and pediatric cardiologist Helen Taussig to relieve the cyanosis from Tetralogy of Fallot—known commonly as the blue baby syndrome. That operation ushered in the modern era of cardiac surgery.
Born in Culloden, Georgia, Blalock entered Georgia Military Academy, a preparatory school for the University of Georgia, at the age of 14. Blalock attended Georgia as an undergraduate and was a member of the Delta Chapter of the Sigma Chi fraternity. After graduating with an A.B. in 1918 at the age of 19, Blalock entered Johns Hopkins Medical School, where he roomed with and began a lifetime friendship with Tinsley Harrison. Blalock earned his medical degree at Johns Hopkins in 1922. Hoping to gain appointment to a surgical residency at Johns Hopkins due to his admiration of William S. Halsted, Blalock remained in Baltimore for the next three years, completing an internship in urology, one year of an assistant
Sir Harold Delf Gillies (17 June 1882 – 10 September 1960) was a New Zealand-born, and later London-based, otolaryngologist who is widely considered the father of plastic surgery.
Gillies was born in Dunedin, New Zealand. He studied medicine at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge University, where despite a stiff elbow (sustained sliding down the banisters at home as a child) he was a rowing blue.
Gillies married Kathleen Margaret Jackson on 9 November 1911, in London. They had four children. His youngest son Michael Thomas Gillies followed his father into medicine.
In addition to his career as a surgeon, he was also a champion golfer and inveterate practical joker. For many years his home was at 71 Frognal, in the heart of London's Hampstead village. A blue plaque on the front of that house now commemorates his life and work.
Following the outbreak of World War I he joined the Royal Army Medical Corps. Initially posted to Wimereux, near Boulogne, he acted as medical minder to a French-American dentist, Valadier, who was not allowed to operate unsupervised but was attempting to develop jaw repair work. Gillies, eager after seeing Valadier experimenting with nascent skin graft
Richard von Volkmann (17 August 1830 - 28 November 1889), was a prominent German surgeon and author of poetry and fiction.
He was born in Leipzig on 17 August 1830, the son of physiologist A.W. Volkmann. Richard entered medical school in Berlin and graduated in 1854. In 1867 he was appointed Professor of Surgery and Director of the Surgical Clinic at Halle where he remained until retirement. He was one of the most prominent surgeons of his day. He died in Jena.
He edited (1870-89) Beiträge zur Chirurgie, and contributed to Franz von Pitha and Theodor Billroth's Handbuch der Chirurgie a section on diseases of the locomotory organs (1865-72). He wrote Bemerkungen über einige vom Krebs zu trennende Geschwülste (1858).
Under the pseudonym Richard Leander, he wrote:
Sushruta was a surgeon and teacher of Ayurveda who flourished in the Indian city of Kashi by the 6th century BC. The medical treatise Sushruta Samhita—compiled in Vedic Sanskrit—is attributed to him. The Sushruta Samhita contains multiple detailed references to diseases and medical procedures. He is considered to be the Father of Surgery.
Sushruta served as a surgeon in Kashi, where he practiced medicine and identified the treatment and origin of several diseases. The earliest literature of India is dated to before 1400 BC and Brahmic family of scripts appeared by the 3rd century BC. Greater diversity is visible in literary works during the 1st millennium BCE, which is when the medical treatise Sushruta Samhita makes its appearance. Sushruta's work was compiled by 6th century BCE. Sushruta is familiar with the religious text Atharva-veda and his work finds mention in the Brāhmaṇas literature, specifically Shatapatha Brahmana.
Dwivedi & Dwivedi (2007)— on the work of the surgeon Sushruta—write:
The main vehicle of the transmission of knowledge during that period was by oral method. The language used was Sanskrit — the vedic language of that period (2000-500 BC). The most authentic
Gaspare Tagliacozzi (1546 – 7 November 1599) was an Italian surgeon.
Tagliacozzi was born in Bologna. He studied at the University of Bologna under Gerolamo Cardano and others, and, at the age of twenty-four, earned his degree in philosophy and medicine. First he was appointed professor of surgery and later was appointed professor of anatomy. He became notorious in his field and is considered the father of Plastic Surgery. He continued the work of the sicilian Surgeon Gustavo Branca and his son Antonio (who lived in Catania in the 15th century), developing the so called "Italian method" of plastic surgery which was radically different from the "Indian method" described in other texts, being much more practical. Tagliacozzi died at Bologna in 1599.
His principal work is entitled De Curtorum Chirurgia per Insitionem (1597).
Most people now agree that Sushurata, the Indian doctor who lived in 800 BC is the original father of plastic surgery. Sushruta Samhita, originally in Sanskrit, was translated into Arabic in the 8th century and then traveled further to Italy.
Dr. Jonathan Ogden (died 1803) surgeon and chief justice of Newfoundland, Canada.
Born Nova Scotia, Ogden was sent to St. John's in 1784 as assistant surgeon for the Royal Navy. In 1794, he was appointed magistrate for St. John's and then in 1798 as magistrate of all of Newfoundland and deputy naval officer under Richard Hatt Noble. In 1802, Ogden was appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, a position he had resigned the following year.
Jean-Michel Dubernerd (born Lyon, 17 May 1941) is a medical doctor specializing in transplant surgery, as well as a former Deputy in the French National Assembly.
Dr. Dubernerd is most famous for performing the first successful hand transplant on Clint Hallam on 23 September 1998, the first successful double hand transplant shortly thereafter (but not announced until 14 January 2004), and assisting Prof. Bernard Devauchelle perform the first partial face transplant on Isabelle Dinoire on 27 November 2005.
William Houstoun (occasionally spelt Houston) (1695?–1733) was a Scottish surgeon and botanist who collected plants in the West Indies, Mexico and South America.
Houstoun was born in Houston, Renfrewshire. He began a degree course in medicine at St Andrew's University but interrupted his studies to visit the West Indies, returning circa 1727. On 6 October 1727, he entered the University of Leyden to continue his studies under Boerhaave, graduating M.D. in 1729. It was during his time at Leyden that Houstoun became interested in the medicinal properties of plants. After returning to England that year, he soon sailed for the Caribbean and the Americas employed as a ship's surgeon for the South Sea Company. He collected plants in Jamaica, Cuba, Venezuela, and Vera Cruz, despatching seeds and plants to Philip Miller head gardener at the Chelsea Physic Garden in London. Notable among these plants was Dorstenia contrayerva, a reputed cure for snake-bite, and Buddleja americana, the latter named by Linnaeus, at Houstoun's request, for the English cleric and botanist Adam Buddle, although Buddle could have known nothing of the plant as he had died in 1715. Houstoun published accounts of
Sir William ("Willie") Arbuthnot-Lane, 1st Baronet, Legion of Honour (Fort George, Invernesshire 4 July 1856 – 16 January 1943) was a Scottish surgeon. His father, Benjamin Lane, was an Irishman who was posted as military surgeon to Inverness, Scotland, where William was born.
Associated for most of his career with Guy's Hospital, Lane is known for three surgical procedures: the treatment of cleft palate, the application of internal splints to fractures using the strict aseptic 'Lane technique' and the treatment of chronic intestinal stasis. During the 1914–18 war, he organised and opened Queen Mary's Hospital, Sidcup, a pioneering institution in plastic surgery. This controversial surgeon asked to have his name removed from the Medical Register, in order to promote the New Health Society (the first organised body to deal with social medicine), to avoid being disciplined by the General Medical Council. He had founded the New Health Society in 1925 to publicise his views on healthy diet and life.
Arbuthnot-Lane trained and later worked at Guy's Hospital in London. Lane is best known for his attempts at improving alignment of fractures by using internal fixation. He started off using
George Suckley (1830–1869) was an American physician and naturalist notable as an explorer of the Washington and Oregon territories in the 1850s, and describer of several new fish species.
He was born in New York City, and studied at the College of Physicians and Surgeons (today Columbia University), receiving an M.D. in 1851, and subsequently serving as surgeon at New York Hospital.
In 1853 he joined the Pacific Railroad Survey led by Isaac Stevens, and in 1856 resigned from the United States Army to pursue natural history fulltime, publishing several works on the life of the Pacific Northwest.
Upon the outbreak of the American Civil War, Suckley rejoined the Army, and worked as a surgeon throughout the war. He died in New York City a few years after the war.
Two fish species, Squalus suckleyi Girard 1855, and Catostomus sucklii Girard 1856, are named after George Suckley.
John Grosvenor (1742 – 30 June 1823) was an English surgeon, born at Oxford, the son of Stephen Grosvenor, sub-treasurer of Christ Church. He received medical education in Worcester and the London hospitals, and later became anatomical surgeon on Dr. Lee's foundation at Christ Church. Grosvenor was long the most noted practical surgeon in Oxford, especially for his treatment of stiff and diseased joints by friction. He was admitted to the privileges of the university on February 24, 1768. In 1795, on the death of William Jackson, the university printer, he became chief proprietor and editor of the 'Oxford Journal'.
Samuel Wylie Crawford (November 8, 1829 – November 3, 1892) was a United States Army surgeon and a Union general in the American Civil War.
Crawford was born in Franklin County, Pennsylvania. He graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1846 and the University of Pennsylvania medical school in 1850. He joined the U.S. Army as an assistant surgeon in 1851 and served in that capacity for ten years.
Crawford was the surgeon on duty at Fort Sumter, South Carolina, during the Confederate bombardment in 1861, which represented the start of the Civil War. Despite his purely medical background, he was in command of several of the artillery pieces returning fire from the fort.
A month after Fort Sumter, Crawford decided on a fundamental career change and accepted a commission as a major in the 13th U.S. Infantry. He served as Assistant Inspector General of the Department of the Ohio starting in September 1861. He was promoted to brigadier general of volunteers on April 25, 1862, and led a brigade in the Department of the Shenandoah, participating in the Valley Campaign against Stonewall Jackson, but the brigade saw no actual combat. Its first taste of battle was during the Northern
Allen Oldfather Whipple (September 2, 1881–April 6, 1963) was an American surgeon who is known for the pancreatic cancer operation which bears his name (the Whipple procedure) as well as Whipple's triad.
Whipple was born to missionary parents William Levi Whipple and Mary Louise Whipple (née Allen), in Urmia, West Azerbaijan, Iran. He attended Princeton University and received his M.D. from the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1908, and was licensed to practice medicine in the state of New York on February 4, 1910 (NY License #10151). He became professor of surgery at Columbia University where he served from 1921 to 1946. He began work on the procedure for resection of the pancreas (pancreaticoduodenectomy) in 1935 and his original technique has since been modified greatly. In 1940, he shortened the procedure into a one-stage process.
During his lifetime, Whipple performed 37 pancreaticoduodenectomies.
He also is known for developing the diagnostic triad for insulinoma known as Whipple's triad. He supervised the surgical residency of Virginia Apgar, later advising her to pursue her medical career in the field of anaesthesiology because he knew that surgery
Gavriil Abramovich Ilizarov (Russian: Гавриил Абрамович Илизаров; 15 June 1921 – 24 July 1992) was a Soviet physician, known for inventing the Ilizarov apparatus for lengthening limb bones and for his eponymous surgery. He was a Hero of Socialist Labor (1981), a laureate of the Lenin Prize (1979), and a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1991).
Ilizarov was born in the town of Belovezh, Polesie Voivodeship, Poland, to a Jewish family from the Dagestan region of the Russian Empire. Soon after his birth, the family moved to Qusar (Azerbaijan), where he grew up. He graduated from Derbent Medical Rabfac (an educational establishment set up to prepare workers and peasants for higher education) then from Crimea Medical School. In 1944 he was sent to a rural hospital in Kurgan Oblast in Siberia. In 1955 he became the head of Surgery Department of a hospital and a surgeon with the air ambulance.
His residency was carried out in orthopedic surgery, during which he developed an "external fixator system". In 1961 he created the Kurgan Center of the Restorational Surgery and Orthopedy. He was the head of this center until 1991. It was said that the Center became the largest orthopedic
Baron Guillaume Dupuytren (5 October 1777 – 8 February 1835) was a French anatomist and military surgeon. Although he gained much esteem for treating Napoleon Bonaparte's hemorrhoids, he is best known today for Dupuytren's contracture which is named after him and which he described in 1831.
Guillaume Dupuytren was born in the town of Pierre-Buffière in the present-day department of Haute-Vienne.
He studied medicine in Paris at the newly established École de Médecine and was appointed, by competition, prosector when only eighteen years of age. His early studies were directed chiefly to anatomical pathology. In 1803 he was appointed assistant surgeon at the Hôtel-Dieu and in 1811 he became professor of operative surgery in succession to Raphael Bienvenu Sabatier. In 1816 he was appointed to the chair of clinical surgery and became head surgeon at the Hôtel-Dieu. He held this post until his death.
He visited the Hôtel-Dieu morning and evening, performing at each time several operations, lectured to vast throngs of students, gave advice to his outpatients, and fulfilled the duties consequent upon one of the largest practices of modern times. By his indefatigable activity he amassed a
Jean Civiale (1792–1867) was a French surgeon and urologist, who, in 1832, invented a surgical instrument (the lithotrite) and performed transurethral lithotripsy, the first known minimally invasive surgery, to crush stones inside the bladder without having to open the abdomen (lithotomy). To remove a calculus, Civiale inserted his instrument through the urethra and bored holes in the stone. Afterwards, he crushed it with the same instrument and aspired the resulting fragments or let them flow normally with urine.
Civiale founded the first urology service in the world, at the Necker Hospital in Paris.
Civiale has been also recently recognized as a pioneer of evidence-based medicine. In 1835, the Académie des Sciences in Paris commissioned a report on the statistical research that had been conducted by him on a wider scale throughout Europe, with the aim of proving that bladder lithotripsy was superior to lithotomy. Civiale used for the first time the method of comparing the relative mortality rates between both groups of patients, and found that the new lithotripsy method had had 7 deaths in 307 operations (2.2%), while the old lithotomy method had 1,024 deaths in 5,443 operations
Michael Ellis DeBakey (September 7, 1908 - July 11, 2008) was a world-renowned Lebanese-American cardiac surgeon, innovator, scientist, medical educator, and international medical statesman. DeBakey was the chancellor emeritus of Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas and director of The Methodist DeBakey Heart & Vascular Center and senior attending surgeon of The Methodist Hospital in Houston.
Michael Ellis DeBakey was born as Michel Dabaghi in Lake Charles, Louisiana to Lebanese immigrants Shaker and Raheeja Dabaghi (later Anglicized to DeBakey).
DeBakey received his BS degree from Tulane University in New Orleans. In 1932, he received an M.D. degree from Tulane University School of Medicine. He remained in New Orleans to complete his internship and residency in surgery at Charity Hospital. DeBakey completed his surgical fellowships at the University of Strasbourg, France, under Professor René Leriche, and at the University of Heidelberg, Germany, under Professor Martin Kirschner. Returning to Tulane Medical School, he served on the surgical faculty from 1937 to 1948. From 1942 to 1946, he was on military leave as a member of the Surgical Consultants' Division in the
Edoardo Bassini (April 14, 1844 – July 19, 1924) was an Italian surgeon born in Pavia.
In 1866 he received his medical degree from the University of Pavia, and afterwards joined the Italian Unification movement as an infantry soldier under Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807–1882). In 1867 he was seriously wounded and taken prisoner. After his release and recovery, he traveled throughout Europe, furthering his medical studies. He learned surgical procedures in Vienna under Theodor Billroth (1829–1894), in Berlin under Bernhard von Langenbeck (1810–1887), and in Munich with Johann Nepomuk von Nussbaum (1829–1890). He also visited London, where he met with Thomas Spencer Wells (1818–1897) and Joseph Lister (1827–1912).
Afterwards, he was in charge of the surgical department at the hospital La Spezia, and in 1878 became a lecturer in surgery at Parma. In 1882 he became head of surgical pathology at the University of Padua, and later succeeded Tito Vanzetti (1809–1888) as the chair of clinical surgery.
Bassini is remembered for his operative techniques regarding inguinal hernia repair. In 1884 Bassini introduced a surgical procedure that allowed for reconstruction of the inguinal canal and
Sir John Eric Erichsen, 1st Baronet (19 July 1818 - 23 September 1896) was a British surgeon, born in Copenhagen, was the son of Eric Erichsen, a member of a well-known Danish banking family.
He studied medicine at University College, London, and at Paris, devoting himself in the early years of his career to physiology, and lecturing on general anatomy and physiology at University College Hospital. In 1844 he was secretary to the physiological section of the British Association, and in 1845 he was awarded the Fothergillian gold medal of the Royal Humane Society for his essay on asphyxia. In 1848 he was appointed assistant surgeon at University College hospital, and in 1850 became full surgeon and professor of surgery, his lectures and clinical teaching being much admired; and in 1875 he joined the consulting staff. In June 1876 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.
His Science and Art of Surgery (1853) went through many editions. He rose to be president of the Royal College of Surgeons in 1880. From 1879 to 1881 he was president of the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society. He was created a baronet in 1895, having been for some years surgeon-extraordinary to Queen
William Balmain (2 February 1762 – 17 November 1803) was a British naval surgeon who sailed as an assistant surgeon with the First Fleet to establish the first European settlement in Australia, and later became its principal surgeon.
Balmain was born at Balhepburn in the Parish of Rhynd, Perthshire, Scotland, to Alexander Balmain (b. 1714), tenant farmer, and his second wife, Jane Henderson. Little is known of his early life but in 1779 he was enrolled as a medical student at Edinburgh University. Next year he entered the Royal Navy to train as a Surgeon's Mate.
From November 1784 he served on Nautilus during a survey of the Das Voltas region of South West Africa (Namibia) which the British government was considering as a possible destination for the convicts then overcrowding British prisons and hulks.
On 21 October 1786 Balmain applied to join the group of officers to establish the new colony in New South Wales and was appointed third assistant surgeon to the principal surgeon, John White. Eleven ships, including six transports, carried 772 convicts, officers, marines, crews, and some wives and children, travelled more than 10,000 miles (16,000 km) to reach the unknown shore.
Charles Taylor Pepper, M.D. (2 December 1830 – 28 May 1903) was the original inspiration for the Dr Pepper brand, according to the Dr Pepper/Seven Up company. Born in Montgomery County, Virginia, he earned his medical degree from the University of Virginia in 1855.
Pepper served as a surgeon during the Civil War, after which he settled down in Rural Retreat, Virginia, where he would meet Wade Morrison, who would later name a soda after Pepper. Although the actual reason behind the name of the soda is attributed to Morrison naming it after Pepper, the actual origin is unknown. Others claim Wade Morrison originally named the soda brand after Dr. Pepper whose daughter he wished to marry; notwithstanding, Morrison married someone else later.
Johannes Friedrich August von Esmarch (January 9, 1823 – February 23, 1908) was a German surgeon. He developed the Esmarch bandage and founded the Deutscher Samariter-Verein, the predecessor of the Deutscher Samariter-Bund.
Esmarch was born in Tönning, Schleswig-Holstein. He studied at Kiel and Göttingen, and in 1846 became Bernhard Rudolf Konrad von Langenbeck's assistant at the Kiel surgical hospital. He served in the Schleswig-Holstein War of 1848 as junior surgeon, and this directed his attention to the subject of military surgery. He was taken prisoner, but afterwards exchanged, and was then appointed as surgeon to a field hospital. During the truce of 1849 he qualified as Privatdocent at Kiel, but on the fresh outbreak of war he returned to the troops and was promoted to the rank of senior surgeon.
In 1854 Esmarch became director of the surgical clinic at Kiel, and in 1857 head of the general hospital and professor at the University of Kiel. During the Schleswig-Holstein War of 1864, Esmarch rendered good service to the field hospitals of Flensburg, Sundewitt and Kiel. In 1866 he was called to Berlin as member of the hospital commission, and also to take the superintendence
Leopold Saverio Vaccaro was a noted surgeon and scientist who was decorated for assisting with the reconstruction of Italy in the aftermath of World War I.
Born February 2, 1893 (or 1886-7), in Rionero in Vulture, Italy; Vaccaro immigrated to the United States from his native country as a child, in 1902. He took his medical training at the Medico-Chirurgical College of Philadelphia, graduating in 1916. In the first years of his career, he worked as a staff surgeon at munitions plants run by E.I. DuPont de Numours Co., served in the Delaware National Guard, and made trips to Chile to do medical research.
In 1921 he was made Chevalier of the Crown of Italy for his efforts raising one quarter million dollars for rehabilitation of that country after World War I. His medical career was taking off at the same time, as he joined the staff of Pennsylvania Hospital and was appointed to the medical faculty of the University of Pennsylvania. He published on a range of topics, both medical and historical. He had an academic interest in Leonardo da Vinci.
Further decorations earned by Vaccaro include the title Commander of the Crown of Italy and an honorary medical degree from the University of
Walter Edward Dandy (April 6, 1886 – April 19, 1946) was an American neurosurgeon and scientist. He is considered one of the founding fathers of neurosurgery, along with Victor Horsley (1857-1916) and Harvey Cushing (1869-1939). Dandy is credited with numerous neurosurgical discoveries and innovations, including the description of the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain, surgical treatment of hydrocephalus, the invention of air ventriculography and pneumoencephalography, the description of brain endoscopy, the establishment of the first intensive care unit (Fox 1984, p. 82), and the first clipping of an intracranial aneurysm, which marked the birth of cerebrovascular neurosurgery. During his 40-year medical career, Dandy published five books and more than 160 peer-reviewed articles while conducting a full-time, ground-breaking neurosurgical practice in which he performed during his peak years about 1000 operations per year (Sherman et al. 2006). He was recognized at the time as a remarkably fast and particularly dextrous surgeon. Dandy was associated with the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and the Johns Hopkins Hospital his entire medical career. The
Dr. Sir William Beatty MD FRS (April 1773–25 March 1842) was an Irish surgeon who served in the Royal Navy. Born in Derry, Ireland, he joined as a surgeon's mate in 1791 at the age of 18. He is best known as the Ship's Surgeon on the HMS Victory during the Battle of Trafalgar, at which he witnessed the death of Admiral Horatio Nelson, and for authoring an account of that battle - The Death of Lord Nelson.
He was the eldest son of James Beatty, an officer in the Irish Revenue Service, and Ann Smyth. No records survive of his education, though he attended a local school, most likely Foyle Academy, before beginning his medical studies. He may have been apprenticed to his uncle George Smyth, a half-pay naval surgeon in nearby Buncrana, before studying at either the University of Glasgow or at the "The United Hospitals of the Borough" - the joint medical school of Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals in London. What is known is that on 5 May 1791, the 18 year old Beatty was examined before the London Company of Surgeons, and found qualified for employment by the Navy.
Beatty was promptly appointed Second surgeon's mate aboard the 64-gun third-rate ship Dictator, but was soon reassigned,
Christiaan Neethling Barnard (8 November 1922 – 2 September 2001) was a South African cardiac surgeon who performed the world's first successful human-to-human heart transplant.
Barnard grew up in Beaufort West, Cape Province, Union of South Africa. His father, Adam Barnard, was a minister in the Dutch Reformed Church. One of his four brothers, Abraham, died of a heart problem at the age of five. Barnard matriculated from the Beaufort West High School in 1940, and went to study medicine at the University of Cape Town Medical School, where he obtained his MB ChB in 1945.
Barnard did his internship and residency at the Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, after which he worked as a general practitioner in Ceres, a rural town in the Cape Province. In 1951, he returned to Cape Town where he worked at the City Hospital as a Senior Resident Medical Officer, and in the Department of Medicine at the Groote Schuur Hospital as a registrar. He completed his Masters degree, receiving Master of Medicine in 1953 from the University of Cape Town. In the same year he obtained a doctorate in medicine (MD) from the same university for a dissertation entitled "The treatment of tuberculous
Clarke Abel (c. 1789 – 24 November 1826) was a British surgeon and naturalist.
He accompanied Lord Amherst on his mission to China in 1816-17 as the embassy's chief medical officer and naturalist, on the recommendation of Sir Joseph Banks. The mission was Britain's second unsuccessful attempt to establish diplomatic relations with China and involved travelling to the capital Pekin (Beijing) and the famous botanical gardens of Fa Tee near Canton. While in China, Abel collected specimens and seeds of the plant that carries his name, Abelia chinensis, described by Banks' botanical secretary Robert Brown, "with friendly partiality". However a shipwreck and an attack by pirates on the way back to his home in Britain caused him to lose all of his specimens. Abel's Narrative of a Journey in the Interior of China, 1818, gives a detailed account of the collection's misfortunes.
Daniel Maynard Burgess (December 21, 1828–1911) was a surgeon and explorer born in Otsego County, New York. He traveled extensively worldwide, particularly in Central and South America.
Burgess also served as a surgeon in the Civil War under General McClellan. He was present at the destruction of the first battleship Maine in Havana, Cuba.
Burgess died within minutes of giving final instructions on the publication of his memoir, in which he reminisces about numerous acquaintances of note including Presidents Grant, Arthur and Cleveland; Generals Winfield Scott, Philip Sheridan, and Robert E. Lee; Daniel Webster, Mark Hanna, Roscoe Conkling, William Tweed, Charles Dana, F. Hopkinson Smith, and King Edward VII of the United Kingdom.
Dr. Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden (September 7, 1829 – December 22, 1887) was an American geologist noted for his pioneering surveying expeditions of the Rocky Mountains in the late 19th century. He was also a physician who served with the Union Army during the Civil War.
Ferdinand Hayden was born in Westfield, Massachusetts. As a young boy he was fascinated with all nature and wildlife, the likes of which led him into the field of medicine. He worked in Cleveland under J. P. Kirtland and thereafter in Albany, NY, where he worked under James Hall, of the Geological Survey of New York.
He graduated from Oberlin College in 1850 and from the Albany Medical College in 1853, where he attracted the notice of Professor James Hall, state geologist of New York, through whose influence he was induced to join in an exploration of Nebraska Territory, with Fielding B. Meek to study geology and collect fossils.
Hall sent him on his first geological venture in the summer of 1853. Being of independent mind Hayden ended his commission with Hall, and with the encouragement of S. F. Baird, and a partial sponsorship from the Smithsonian Institution, he spent the remainder of the 1850s on various
James Craik (1730 – 6 February 1814) was Physician General (precursor of the Surgeon General) of the United States Army, as well as George Washington's personal physician and close friend.
Born in Kirkcudbright, Scotland, Craik was the illegitimate son of Robert Craik, a member of Parliament. He studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh, then joined the British Army after graduation and served as an army surgeon in the West Indies until 1751. Craik then opened up a private medical practice in Norfolk, Virginia, and shortly thereafter relocated to Winchester, Virginia.
On 7 March 1754, Craik resumed his military career, accepting a commission as a surgeon in Colonel Joshua Fry's Virginia Provincial Regiment. While with this force, he became good friends with George Washington, at that time a lieutenant colonel in the regiment. Craik saw a great deal of action in various battles of the French and Indian War. He fought at the Battle of the Great Meadows and participated in the surrender of Fort Necessity, then accompanied General Edward Braddock on Braddock's unsuccessful attempt to recapture the region in 1755, treating Braddock's ultimately fatal wounds. Craik then served
LaFayette Guild (1826 – July 4, 1870) was a surgeon in the antebellum United States Army, a noted pioneer in the study of yellow fever, and then a leading medical administrator in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. He served directly under General Robert E. Lee as the Medical Director for the Army of Northern Virginia for all its major campaigns, including the Gettysburg Campaign and the Overland Campaign.
A native of Tuscaloosa, Alabama, Guild briefly moved to Texas but returned to Alabama for college. He graduated from the University of Alabama in 1845 and then from Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia in 1848. He was appointed as Assistant Surgeon in the U.S. Army on March 2, 1849. He served in various assignments, then became the medical director of the army post on Governor's Island in New York Harbor.
Guild studied the impact of the quarantine station, and found that isolating ill soldiers and United States Navy sailors did not prevent the spread of certain diseases such as yellow fever. In his opinion, the disease was not merely contagious, but infectious and portable. His observations were used to combat and limit an outbreak of yellow fever in
Patrick Trevor-Roper (7 June 1916 - 22 April 2004), British eye surgeon and pioneer gay rights activist, was one of the first people in the United Kingdom to "come out" as openly gay, and played a leading role in the campaign to repeal the UK's anti-gay laws. He was born in Northumberland, the son of a doctor, and the brother of historian Hugh Trevor-Roper. He was educated at Charterhouse, Cambridge University and the Westminster Medical School. During World War II he served in the Royal New Zealand Army Medical Corps in the Mediterranean. After the war he became a specialist in ophthalmic surgery, and divided his working life between work in public hospitals and a lucrative private practice in London.
In 1955 Trevor-Roper agreed to appear as a witness before the Wolfenden Committee, which had been appointed by the British government to investigate (among other things) whether male homosexuality should remain a crime. He was one of only three men who could be found to appear as openly-gay witnesses before the Committee. The others were the journalist Peter Wildeblood (who had been convicted of a homosexual offence) and Carl Winter, director of the Fitzwilliam Museum.
Roberto Miguel Rey Júnior, M.D (Portuguese pronunciation: [ʁoˈbɛɾtu miˈgɛw ˈʁej ˈʒunjoɾ], born October 1, 1961), best known as Robert Rey, is a Brazilian plastic surgeon featured on the E! reality series Dr. 90210. He is in private practice in Beverly Hills and specializes in cosmetic surgery.
Roberto Miguel Rey Júnior was born in São Paulo, Brazil to Avelina Reisdörfer and engineer Roberto Miguel Rey, an American-born naturalized Brazilian. The family lived in São Paulo until 1974, when Mormon missionaries brought Rey, then 12 years old, and his brother and two sisters to the United States. Rey and his siblings moved to Utah, where they were adopted by a religious community. They later moved to Arizona. At sixteen he met with his mother again and they went to live in Prescott, Arizona where he attended Prescott High School. She worked as a janitor to help with Robert’s schooling bills.
Explaining his and his mother's estrangement from his father, Dr. Rey has explained that his father was an abusive alcoholic and womanizer, saying, "Meu pai era um monstro, e minha mãe não tinha voz. Estava contentíssimo de sair daquilo." (My father was a monster, and my mother did not have a voice.
Christian Albert Theodor Billroth (26 April 1829 at Bergen auf Rügen in the Kingdom of Prussia – 6 February 1894) was a Prussian-born Austrian surgeon and amateur musician.
As a surgeon, he is generally regarded as the founding father of modern abdominal surgery. As a musician, he was a close friend and confidante of Johannes Brahms, a leading patron of the Viennese musical scene, and one of the first to attempt a scientific analysis of musicality.
Billroth went to school in Greifswald, and afterwards enrolled himself at the University of Greifswald to study medicine. He then followed his professor, Wilhelm Baum, to the University of Göttingen, and completed his medical doctorate at the University of Berlin. Along with Rudolph Wagner (1805–1864) and Georg Meissner (1829–1905), Billroth went to Trieste to study the torpedo fish.
Billroth worked as a doctor from 1853–1860 at the Charité in Berlin. In Berlin he was also apprenticed to Carl Langenbuch. From 1860–1867 he was Professor at the University of Zurich and director of the surgical hospital and clinic in Zurich. While in Zurich, Billroth published his classic textbook Die allgemeine chirurgische Pathologie und Therapie (General
Albert Gallatin Egbert (April 13, 1828 – March 28, 1896) was a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania.
Albert G. Egbert was born near Sandy Lake, Pennsylvania. He attended the public schools and Grand River Institute in Austinburg, Ohio. He was graduated from the medical department of the Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1856 and commenced the practice of medicine in Clintonville, Pennsylvania. He moved to Cherrytree, Pennsylvania, and practiced his profession until 1861, when he retired in order to devote his entire time to the production of oil and to agricultural pursuits. During the American Civil War, he served as a volunteer surgeon.
Egbert was elected as a Democrat to the Forty-fourth Congress. He served as chairman of the United States House Committee on Mileage during this Congress. He declined to be a candidate for renomination in 1876. He resumed his former business pursuits, and died in Franklin, Pennsylvania. Interment in Franklin Cemetery.
Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie, 1st Baronet (9 June 1783 – 21 October 1862) was an English physiologist and surgeon who pioneered research into bone and joint disease.
Brodie was born in Winterslow, Wiltshire. He received his early education from his father; then choosing medicine as his profession he went to London in 1801 and attended the lectures of John Abernethy and attended Charterhouse School. Two years later he became a pupil of Sir Everard Home at St George's Hospital, and in 1808 was appointed assistant surgeon at that institution, on the staff of which he served for over thirty years. In 1810 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society, to which in the next four or five years he contributed several papers describing original investigations in physiology. In 1834, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
At this period he also rapidly obtained a large and lucrative practice and from time to time wrote on surgical questions, contributing numerous papers to the Medical and Chirurgical Society and to the medical journals. His most important work is widely acknowledged to be the 1818 treatise Pathological and Surgical Observations on the
Bruce Reitz is a Board Certified Cardiothoracic Surgeon. Reitz is one of the foremost cardiac surgeons in the world and, during his term as chairman of the Department of Cardiothoracic surgery, he played a major role in keeping Stanford at the forefront of education, research and patient care in cardiac surgery. He obtained an undergraduate degree at Stanford University (B.S. 1966) a medical degree at Yale Medical School (M.D. 1970) and completed an internship at Johns Hopkins Hospital (1971) and residencies and fellowships at Stanford University Hospital (1972 and 78) the National Institutes of Health (1974). He joined the surgical faculty at Stanford University (1978) then became Chief of cardiac surgery at Johns Hopkins University (1982–92) and Chairman of the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery at Stanford (1992–2005). In 1981, Reitz and his team performed the first successful heart-lung transplant, which also was the first time a lung had ever been transplanted. In 1995 he conducted another pioneering operation: he performed the first Heartport procedure, using a device that allows minimally invasive coronary bypass and valve operations. Reitz also played a major role in the
Mungo Park (11 September 1771 – 1806) was a Scottish explorer of the African continent. He was credited as being the first Westerner to encounter the Niger River.
Mungo Park was born in Selkirkshire, Scotland at Foulshiels on the Yarrow Water, near Selkirk, on a tenant farm which his father rented from the Duke of Buccleuch. He was the seventh in a family of thirteen. Although tenant farmers, the Parks were relatively well-off –- they were able to pay for Park to have a good education, and Park's father died leaving property valued at £3,000 (UK£ 160,000 in 2012). The Parks were Dissenters, and Park was brought up in the Calvinist tradition.
Park was educated at home before attending Selkirk grammar school, then, at the age of fourteen, he was apprenticed to a surgeon named Thomas Anderson in Selkirk. During his apprenticeship, he made friends with Anderson's son Alexander and became acquainted with his daughter Allison, who would later become his wife.
In October 1788, Park started at the University of Edinburgh, attending for four sessions studying medicine and botany. Notably, during his time at university, he spent a year in the natural history course of Professor John Walker.
Sir Andrew Smith KCB (3 December 1797 – 11 August 1872) was a Scottish surgeon, explorer, ethnologist and zoologist. He is considered the father of zoology in South Africa having described many species across a wide range of groups in his major work, Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa.
Smith was born in Hawick, Roxburghshire. He obtained a good education by diligence and hard work and qualified in medicine at Edinburgh University obtaining an M.D. degree in 1819, having joined the Army Medical Services in 1816.
In 1820 he was ordered to the Cape Colony and was sent to Grahamstown to supervise the medical care of European soldiers and soldiers of the Cape Corps. He was appointed the Albany district surgeon in 1822 and started the first free dispensary for indigent patients in South Africa. He led a scientific expedition into the interior and was able to indulge in his interests of natural history and anthropology. On several occasions he was sent by governors on confidential missions to visit Bantu tribes beyond the frontier, such as his trip to Kaffraria in 1824 when he made copious notes on the customs of the Xhosa tribes. In 1825 the Governor of the Cape Colony, Lord
Barry Edward O'Meara (1786–1836) was an Irish surgeon and founding member of the Reform Club, who accompanied Napoleon to St. Helena and became his physician, having been surgeon on board the Bellerophon when the emperor surrendered himself. He is remembered as the author of Napoleon in Exile, or A Voice From St. Helena (1822) a book which charged Sir Hudson Lowe with mistreating the former emperor and created no small sensation on its appearance. Less known are his secret letters he sent clandestinely from St. Helena to a clerk at the Admiralty in London. These letters shed a unique light on Napoleon's state of mind as a captive and the causes of his complaints against Sir Hudson Lowe and the British government.
O'Meara was also the physician to have performed the very first medical operation on Napoleon: by extracting a wisdom tooth in Fall 1817.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wood, James, ed. (1907). "". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne.
Dr Devi Prasad Shetty is an Indian philanthropist and a cardiac surgeon.
Born in a family of Kinnigoli,in the erstwhile South Canara district, Karnataka. After completing his graduate degree in Medicine and post-graduate work in General Surgery from Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, he trained in cardiac surgery at Guys Hospital in the United Kingdom. He returned to India in 1989 and initially worked at B.M. Birla Hospital in Kolkata. After some time, he moved to Bangalore and started the Manipal Heart Foundation at Manipal Hospital, Bangalore. He has many patients and admirers in South Asia and other parts of the world.
In Calcutta he was the doctor for Mother Theresa.
In 2001, Shetty founded Narayana Hrudayalaya (NH), a multi-specialty hospital in Bommasandra on the outskirts of Bangalore City (Karnataka State) in South India. Apart from cardiac surgery, NH also has cardiology, neurosurgery, pediatric surgery, haematology and transplant services, and nephrology. A state-of-the-art trauma hospital Sparsh and an ophthalmology hospital Narayana Nethralaya are the beginnings of the Narayana Health City. The health city will also house a center for neurosciences, a children's
Gopal Baratham (9 September 1935 - 23 April 2002) was a Singaporean author and neurosurgeon. He was known for his frank style and his ability to write about topics that were often considered controversial in the conservative city-state.
Born to a physician and a nurse, Baratham decided to follow his parents and entered the medical profession. However, his youth was marked by the experience of the Japanese occupation. In 1954 he registered at the Medical College of the University of Malaya, Singapore, and, after studying at the Royal London Hospital in 1965, he entered the Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Edinburgh in 1969. He finished his studies by 1972, when he was already 36 years old, to become a surgeon at the Thomson Road General Hospital in Singapore. He headed the Neurosurgery Department at the Tan Tock Seng Hospital between 1984 and 1987, and went into private practice after relinquishing his post as department head. He retired full-time from medical practice in 1999.
Baratham died of pneumonia on the 23 of April, 2002. He was 66. Baratham had been in hospital for about a month for pneumonia and heart problems. He had had open-heart surgery in 1989.
Anthony Federico DePalma (October 12, 1904 – April 6, 2005) was an orthopedic surgeon, humanitarian, and teacher at Thomas Jefferson University, as well as the founder of the orthopedic department at University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey.
Anthony F. DePalma was born in Philadelphia in 1904, the son of immigrants from Alberona province of Foggia, Italy. He attended the University of Maryland for his premedical education, then Jefferson Medical College, from which he graduated in 1929. He then served a two-year internship (common at the time) at Philadelphia General Hospital. Jobs were scarce owing to the Depression, and he felt fortunate to obtain in 1931 a position as assistant surgeon at the Coaldale State Hospital, in Coaldale, Pennsylvania, a mining town. However, he became attracted to orthopaedics and looked for a preceptorship (postgraduate training in specialties was not well developed at this time before the establishments of Boards). In the fall of 1932, he was appointed as a preceptor at the New Jersey Orthopaedic Hospital, an extension of the New York Orthopaedic Hospital. In 1939 he acquired Board certification (the first board examination was offered in
Daniel Garrison Brinton (May 13, 1837 – July 31, 1899) was an American archaeologist and ethnologist.
Brinton was born in Thornbury Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania. After graduating from Yale University in 1858, Brinton studied at Jefferson Medical College for two years and spent the next travelling in Europe. He continued his studies at Paris and Heidelberg. From 1862 to 1865, during the American Civil War, he was a surgeon in the Union army, acting during 1864-1865 as surgeon-in-charge of the U.S. Army general hospital at Quincy, Illinois. Brinton was sun-stroked at Missionary Ridge (Third Battle of Chattanooga) and was never again able to travel in very hot weathers. This handicap affected his career as an ethnologist.
After the war, Brinton practiced medicine in West Chester, Pennsylvania for several years; was the editor of a weekly periodical, the Medical and Surgical Reporter, in Philadelphia from 1874 to 1887; became professor of ethnology and archaeology in the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia in 1884; and was professor of American linguistics and archaeology in the University of Pennsylvania from 1886 until his death.
He was a member of numerous learned
Henry Gray (1827 - 13 June 1861) was an English anatomist and surgeon most notable for publishing the book Gray's Anatomy. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) at the age of 25.
He was born in Belgravia, London, in 1827 and lived most of his life in London.
In 1845, Gray entered as a student at St. George’s Hospital, London (then situated in Belgravia, now in Tooting), and he is described by those who knew him as a most painstaking and methodical worker, and one who learnt his anatomy by the slow but invaluable method of making dissections for himself.
While still a student, in 1848 he secured the triennial prize of Royal College of Surgeons for an essay entitled “The Origin, Connexions and Distribution of nerves to the human eye and its appendages, illustrated by comparative dissections of the eye in other vertebrate animals”.
In 1852, at the early age of twenty five, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, and in the following year he obtained the Astley Cooper prize of three hundred guineas for a dissertation “On the structure and Use of Spleen”.
In 1858 Gray published the first edition of Anatomy, which covered 750 pages and contained 363 figures. He had
John Hunter FRS (13 February 1728 – 16 October 1793) was a Scottish surgeon regarded as one of the most distinguished scientists and surgeons of his day. He was an early advocate of careful observation and scientific method in medicine. The Hunterian Society of London was named in his honour. He was the husband of Anne Hunter, a teacher, and friend of, and collaborator with, Edward Jenner, the inventor of the smallpox vaccine.
Hunter was born at Long Calderwood, now part of East Kilbride, Lanarkshire, Scotland the youngest of ten children. The date of his birth is uncertain. Robert Chamber's "Book of Days" (1868) gives an alternative birth date of 14 July, and Hunter is recorded as always celebrating his birthday on the 14th rather than the 13 July shown in the parish register of the town of his birth. Family papers cite his birthday as being variously on the 7th and the 9th February. Three of Hunter's siblings (one of which had also been named John) had died of illness before John Hunter was born. An elder brother was William Hunter, the anatomist. As a youth, John showed little talent, and helped his brother-in-law as a cabinet-maker.
In 1771 he married Anne Home, daughter of
Robert Joseph White (January 21, 1926 – September 16, 2010) was an American surgeon, best known for his head transplants on living monkeys.
White was raised in Duluth, Minnesota, by his mother and an aunt named Jofie Fosted. His father was killed in combat while serving in the Pacific theater during World War II.
White began his undergraduate studies at the University of St. Thomas before entering the University of Minnesota Medical School in 1949; he later transferred to Harvard Medical School in 1951, where he earned his medical degree cum laude in 1953.
Throughout his career, White performed over 10,000 surgical operations and authored more than 900 publications on clinical neurosurgery, medical ethics, and health care. He received honorary doctorates from John Carroll University (Doctor of Science, 1979), Cleveland State University (Doctor of Science, 1980), Walsh University (Doctor of Humane Letters, 1996), and University of St. Thomas (Doctor of Sciences, 1998).
White had ten children with his wife, Patricia Murray, a nurse whom he met at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital while completing his surgical internship and residency. A devout Roman Catholic, White was a member of the
Tyre York (4 May 1836–28 January 1916) was a U.S. Congressman from North Carolina between 1883 and 1885.
York, born in Rockford, North Carolina, attended common schools and then the Charleston, South Carolina Medical College. He practiced medicine and farming in Traphill, North Carolina beginning in 1859.
During the American Civil War, York was a surgeon with the Wilkes County Home Guards. In 1865, he was elected to a term in the North Carolina House of Representatives; he served again in 1866 and 1879, in addition to terms in the North Carolina Senate in 1876 and 1881.
In the election of 1882, opponents of the 1881 Prohibition referendum formed a unity ticket with the Republican Party, called the "Liberal Anti-Prohibition" ticket (LAP). York was elected on the LAP ticket to the 48th United States Congress; he served one term and was considered an "Independent Democrat." York did not run again for the U.S. House in 1884, choosing instead to campaign unsuccessfully for Governor of North Carolina, running on a fusion ticket of Liberals and Republicans. When the returns were canvassed, 215 votes in Robeson County were recorded for a local citizen named "Tyler York" rather than for
Sir Archibald McIndoe CBE FRCS (4 May 1900 — 11 April 1960) was a pioneering New Zealand plastic surgeon who worked for the Royal Air Force during World War II. He greatly improved the treatment and rehabilitation of badly burned aircrew.
Archibald McIndoe was born 4 May 1900 in Dunedin, New Zealand, into a family of four. His father was John McIndoe, a printer and his mother was the artist Mabel McIndoe née Hill. McIndoe studied at Otago Boys' High School and later medicine at the University of Otago. After his graduation he became a house surgeon at Waikato Hospital. On 31 July 1924 he married Adonia Aitken; they later had two daughters.
In 1924 McIndoe was awarded a fellowship at the Mayo Clinic in the United States to study pathological anatomy. He worked in the clinic as First Assistant in Pathological Anatomy 1925-1927 and published several papers on chronic liver disease. Impressed with his skill, Lord Moynihan suggested a career in England, and in 1930 McIndoe moved to London.
When McIndoe could not find work, his cousin Sir Harold Gillies, a plastic surgeon, invited him to join the private practice he ran with Rainsford Mowlem and offered him a job at St Bartholomew's
John Wesley Posey (1801–1884) was a significant figure in the Underground Railroad in Indiana, America. Posey was one of the organizers of the Anti-Slavery League of Indiana.
A significant source of information on the Underground Railroad in Indiana is William Cockrum's 1915 work, History of the Underground Railroad, as It Was Conducted by the Anti-Slavery League. According to Cockrum, Posey owned a coal mine that served as a way station for as many as 1000 escaped slaves. (This is one of the rare instances in which the underground railroad was actually subterranean.)
Posey also helped to organize the activities of the Anti-Slavery League. According to Cockrum, the League operated a spy network in Kentucky. Agents of the League masquerading as traveling peddlers would make contact with slaves and help the slaves escape.
Posey was a medical doctor. He volunteered as a surgeon for the Union army during the American Civil War, and served at the Battle of Shiloh. He was also politically active, and was elected as a Whig to be Treasurer of Pike County, Indiana, serving from 1844-1848.
Posey married Sarah Blackburn in 1838. He was the father of Francis B. Posey.
Kenneth Kamler, M.D., is an orthopedic microsurgeon trained at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center who practices surgery of the hand in New York, and extreme medicine in some of the most remote regions on Earth. He has treated bear bite in the Arctic and frostbite in the Antarctic. He has set fractures in the Andes and cared for out-of-breath scuba divers in the Galapagos. He has performed surgery in the mud of the Amazon rainforest and in a NASA undersea analogue space capsule. He has flown in zero gravity aboard NASA’s DC-9 "Vomit Comet", testing robots for eventual use in emergency surgery on the International Space Station or on Mars.
He has been on six expeditions to Mount Everest as expedition doctor and climber; four were with the National Geographic Society deploying laser telescopes and global positioning satellite receivers to measure the exact height of Everest as well as the tectonic motion of the Asian continental plate. On two other expeditions to Everest, he served as Chief High Altitude Physician for NASA-sponsored research on human physiological responses to extreme altitude, and monitored remote body sensors worn by climbers to provide real-time medical data as
Dr. Marc J. Philippon, is recognized worldwide for his work as an orthopaedic surgeon specializing in sports medicine/hip disorders, and particularly for his pioneering work in the advancement of hip arthroscopy. He is a Managing Partner at The Steadman Clinic in Vail, Colorado, and is the Director of Hip Research at The Steadman Philippon Research Institute, a global leader in orthopaedic research. Dr. Philippon joined The Steadman Clinic in 2005 after serving various successful tenures at hospitals in Pennsylvania and Florida.
Dr. Philippon earned his medical degree with an academic scholarship from McMaster University Medical School in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada in 1990, and completed an orthopaedic surgery residency at the University of Miami, Jackson Memorial Hospital in 1995. He joined the Steadman Clinic in 2005.
He served as Chief of Orthopaedic Surgery at Holy Cross Hospital in Fort Lauderdale, Florida and later was the Director of Sports Related Hip Disorders at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, where he was also Director of the UPMC Golf Medicine Program.
Dr. Philippon is internationally known for performing joint preservation techniques utilizing arthroscopic hip surgery to treat painful joint injuries. He performs operates on high-level athletes who constantly use powerful hip rotation, as well as amateur athletes and others with. PGA golfers, as well as professional baseball, football and hockey players who partake in these specific sports are prone to acute and chronic injuries of the hip joint. Dr. Philippon is a consultant to the NHL, NFL, NBA, and MLB professional teams. His innovative treatments for PGA golfers and professional athlete patients have been widely covered by the media.
Dr. Philippon’s research has been published in numerous peer-reviewed scientific journals. His study, “The Relationship Between Offset Angle Alpha and Hip Chondral Injury in Femoroacetabular Impingement” was one of the top ten articles most cited by the Arthroscopy Journal between 2008 and 2011. He also contributed to a 2010 International Olympic Committee (IOC) consensus paper on the use of platelet-rich plasma in sports medicine by reviewing evidence to evaluate the use of PRP for treating a number of injuries and conditions. Dr. Philippon has published numerous other scientific articles in sports medicine and orthopaedic journals and is a well-known presenter at global sports medicine and orthopaedic meetings.
Dr. Philippon has performed surgery in 15 countries and currently serves on numerous executive boards, including the USSA, NHLPA, Royal Spanish Tennis Federation, The Steadman Philippon Research Institute, and ISHA. He is an active member with the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine and the Arthroscopy Association of North America. He is also a Fellow with the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons and a Master Instructor with the Arthroscopy Association of North America, Masters Experience Hip Course, and a Member of the Herodicus Society.
Harvey Williams Cushing (April 8, 1869 – October 7, 1939), was an American neurosurgeon and a pioneer of brain surgery, and the first to describe Cushing's syndrome. He is often called the "father of modern neurosurgery."
Cushing was born in Cleveland, Ohio, the son of Bessie Williams and Kirke Cushing, a physician whose family came to Hingham, Massachusetts, as Puritans in the 17th century. Harvey Cushing was the youngest of ten children. He graduated with an A.B. degree in 1891 from Yale University, where he was a member of Scroll and Key and Delta Kappa Epsilon (Phi chapter). He studied medicine at Harvard Medical School and earned his medical degree in 1895. Cushing completed his internship at Massachusetts General Hospital and then did a residency in surgery under the guidance of a famous surgeon, William Stewart Halsted, at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, in Baltimore.
After doing exceptional cerebral surgery abroad under Kocher at Bern and Sherrington at Liverpool, he began private practice in Baltimore. Here, at the age of 32, he was made associate professor of surgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital, and at the hospital was placed in full charge of cases of surgery of the central
Jacques Lisfranc de St. Martin (April 2, 1790 – May 13, 1847) was a pioneering French surgeon and gynecologist. He pioneered a number of operations including removal of the rectum, lithotomy in women, and amputation of the cervix uteri.
The Lisfranc joint and the Lisfranc fracture are named after him.
Jacques Lisfranc is buried in the Cimetière du Montparnasse in Paris.
Tempest Anderson (December 7, 1846 – August 26, 1913) was an ophthalmic surgeon at York County Hospital in the United Kingdom. He was also an expert amateur photographer and vulcanologist. He was a member of the Royal Society Commission which was appointed to investigate the aftermath of the eruptions of Soufriere volcano, St Vincent and Mont Pelee, Martinique, West Indies which both erupted in May, 1902. Some of his photographs of these eruptions were subsequently published in his book, Volcanic Studies
He was born in York, and died on board ship on the Red Sea while returning from visiting the volcanoes of Indonesia and the Philippines. He was buried in Suez, Egypt.
In 1904 Anderson received an honorary degree of D.Sc. from the University of Leeds. He was President of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society, and in 1912 he presented the society with a 300-seat lecture theatre (the Tempest Anderson Hall) attached to the Yorkshire Museum in York Museum Gardens. This was one of the world's first concrete buildings.
In 1910 Tempest Anderson was living at 17 Stonegate in the centre of York and decided to buy some land from the Holgate garden society, 1 1/2m west of the city walls. He was
Vincenz Czerny (19 November 1842 – 3 October 1916) was an Austrian-German surgeon whose main contributions were in the fields of oncological and gynecological surgery.
Czerny was born in Trutnov, Bohemia, Austro-Hungarian Empire. He initially studied at Karl-Ferdinand University in Prague, and later transferred to the University of Vienna, where he was a student of Ernst Wilhelm von Brücke (1819–1892). In 1866 he graduated summa cum laude. Afterwards, he remained in Vienna as an assistant to Johann Ritter von Oppolzer (1808–1871) and Theodor Billroth (1829–1894). In 1871 he became a clinical director at the University of Freiburg.
In 1877 Czerny was appointed professor at Heidelberg, where he succeeded surgeon Gustav Simon (1824–1876). In 1906 he founded the Institut für Experimentelle Krebsforschung (Institute for Experimental Cancer Research), which was a forerunner to today's German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) in Heidelberg. Here he also established a hospital for 47 cancer patients, known as the Samariterhaus (Samaritan House). Czerny developed operational techniques in cancer surgery, and is also remembered for his treatment of patients with inoperable cancer. In 1887 Czerny
Bernard Jean Bettelheim (1811, Pressburg - February 9, 1870) was a Christian missionary to Okinawa, the first Protestant missionary to be active there.
Bettelheim was born into a noted Jewish family in Pressburg, Slovakia, in 1811. He studied, from a very early age, towards the goal of becoming a rabbi. It is said that by the age of ten he could read and write in French, German, and Hebrew, though if his biographies are to be believed, he left home at 12 to become a teacher and continued his studies at five different schools. Bettelheim earned a degree in medicine from a school in Padua, Italy in 1836, and is said to have gone on to file no fewer than 47 "scientific dissertations" within the following three years. He traveled much in these years, practicing medicine in a number of Italian cities, aboard an Egyptian naval vessel, and in a Turkish town called Magnesia, where, in 1840, he began studying Christianity. He converted to Christianity, and was baptized a short time later, in Smyrna.
During his time in Turkey, he held theological debates with local rabbis and published pamphlets on the matter in French; after facing salary disputes in Constantinople and resigning his post,
Sir Henry Thompson, 1st Baronet FRCS (6 August 1820 – 18 April 1904) was a British surgeon and polymath.
He was born at Framlingham, Suffolk. His father wished him to enter business, but circumstances ultimately enabled him to follow his own desire of becoming a physician, and in 1848 he entered the Medical School of University College London. He obtained his degree at London University in 1851 with the highest honours in anatomy and surgery.
In 1853 he was appointed assistant surgeon at University College Hospital, becoming full surgeon in 1863, professor of clinical surgery in 1866, and consulting surgeon in 1874. In 1884 he became professor of surgery and pathology in the Royal College of Surgeons. Specializing in the surgery of the genito-urinary tract, and in particular in that of the bladder, he went to Paris to study under Jean Civiale, who in the first quarter of the 19th century proved that it is possible to crush a stone within the human bladder and invented the first surgical instrument for this minimally invasive surgery. After his return he soon acquired a reputation.
In 1863, when the King of Belgium was suffering from kidney stones, Thompson was called to Brussels to
Dr. Charles Augustus Leale M.D. (March 26, 1842 – June 13, 1932) was a surgeon in the Union Army during the American Civil War. He was the first doctor arrive at the presidential box at Ford's Theatre on April 14, 1865 after John Wilkes Booth fatally shot President Abraham Lincoln in the back of the head with a Philadelphia Deringer pistol.
At the time, Leale was a 23-year-old surgeon in charge of the Wounded Commissioned Officers' Ward at the United States Army General Hospital in Armory Square, Washington, DC. Just six weeks earlier, he'd graduated in medicine from Bellevue Hospital Medical College in New York. He married a daughter of Yonkers, New York industrialist John Copcutt (1805–1895) at the historic John Copcutt Mansion.
A few days before Lincoln's assassination, Leale took a brief break from his exhausting job and took a walk down Pennsylvania Avenue for some fresh air. He noticed a crowd of people heading towards the White House. He discovered Lincoln giving his last public address to the public and was intrigued by the president's facial features. Soon after, Leale learned that Lincoln was going to Ford's Theatre to see the play Our American Cousin. "After completing
John Glasgow Kerr (1824 – 1901) was a Presbyterian medical missionary to China with the American Presbyterian Mission.
Born in Duncansville, Ohio, Kerr graduated from Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia. He went to China as a medical missionary and arrived at Guangzhou in 1854. He soon took over the Ophthalmic Hospital in Canton run by Peter Parker, the Guangzhou Boji Hospital (The Canton Hospital). He was there for 47 years and treated almost 1 million patients. He performed 480,000 surgical operations including 1300 urinary calculus. In 1870 he trained 260 Chinese medicals. Sun Yatsen was later a student at the hospital. Kerr pioneered mental health care in China. In 1898 he opened the Canton Refuge for the Insane, the first mental hospital in China, where he served until his death. In 1887 he was the first president of the Medical Missionary Association of China. He translated 34 volumes of Materia Medica into Chinese and authored other medical books.
One of his students in 1886 was Sun Yat-sen, who later became the first president of the Republic of China. Robert Elliott Speer, in the "Monthly Missionary Survey", wrote of him,
In 1890 he was a founding member of the
Karl H. Pribram (born February 25, 1919 in Vienna, German Austria) is a professor at Georgetown University, in the United States, and an emeritus professor of psychology and psychiatry at Stanford University and Radford University. Board-certified as a neurosurgeon, Pribram did pioneering work on the definition of the limbic system, the relationship of the frontal cortex to the limbic system, the sensory-specific "association" cortex of the parietal and temporal lobes, and the classical motor cortex of the human brain. To the general public, Pribram is best known for his development of the holonomic brain model of cognitive function and his contribution to ongoing neurological research into memory, emotion, motivation and consciousness. He is married to American best selling author Katherine Neville.
Pribram's holonomic model of brain processing states that, in addition to the circuitry accomplished by the large fiber tracts in the brain, processing also occurs in webs of fine fiber branches (for instance, dendrites) that form webs. This type of processing is properly described by Gabor quanta of information (what is "Gabor"? not explained anywhere) , wavelets that are used in
Mehmet Cengiz Oz (Turkish: Öz, pronounced [mehˈmet dʒenˈɟiz øz], born June 11, 1960), also known as Dr. Oz, is an American/Turkish (dual citizenship) cardiothoracic surgeon, author, and television personality.
Oz first appeared on the The Oprah Winfrey Show in 2004 and later on Larry King Live and other TV programs. In 2009, Winfrey's Harpo Productions and Sony Pictures launched The Dr. Oz Show, a daily television program focusing on medical issues and personal health.
Oz was born in Cleveland, Ohio, to Suna and Mustafa Öz, who had emigrated from Konya Province, Turkey. Mustafa Öz was born in Bozkır, a small town in central Turkey. Mustafa Öz earned scholarships that allowed him to emigrate to the United States as a medical resident in 1955. Suna Öz (née Atabay), who comes from a wealthy İstanbul family, is the daughter of a pharmacist with Shapsug descent on her mother's side.
Oz was educated at Tower Hill School in Wilmington, Delaware. In 1982 he received his undergraduate degree from Harvard University. In 1986 he obtained a joint MD and MBA degree from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and The Wharton School. He was awarded the Captain’s Athletic Award for
Sir Phillip Sydney Jones (15 April 1836 – 18 September 1918) was an Australian medical practitioner and University of Sydney vice-chancellor 1904–1906.
Jones was born in Sydney, the second son of David Jones, a Welsh immigrant who founded the department store David Jones Limited in 1838, and his second wife Jane Hall, née Mander. Jones was educated at private schools under William Timothy Cape, T. S. Dodds (in Surry Hills) and Henry Cary (in Darling Point), and then went to London in 1853 to study medicine at University College. During his course he took the medals for anatomy and medicine, graduated M.B. in 1859, M.D. in 1860, and became a fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons in 1861. Jones was awarded the Fellowes gold medal given to the most proficient student in clinical knowledge. He married Hannah Howard Charter in 1863.
Jones was house surgeon and physician and a resident medical officer at University College hospital for a period, and then went to Paris, where he continued his studies in medicine and surgery for some months. Jones returned to Sydney in 1861, and was an honorary surgeon at the Sydney infirmary, afterwards the Sydney hospital, for 14 years, and also
Robert Bruce Salter, CC OOnt FRSC FRHSC (December 15, 1924 – May 10, 2010) was a Canadian surgeon and a pioneer in the field of pediatric orthopaedic surgery.
Born in Stratford, Ontario, he graduated in medicine from the University of Toronto in 1947, worked for two years at the Grenfell Medical Mission in Newfoundland, and spent one year as the McLaughlin Fellow in Oxford, England. Salter then returned to join the medical staff at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto in 1955. He was later was appointed Surgeon-in-Chief.
Salter developed a procedure to correct congenital dislocation of the hip, pioneered Continuous Passive Motion for the treatment of joint injuries, and co- developed a classification of growth plate injuries in children, commonly known as the Salter-Harris fractures classification system. He also developed the Salter Operation to treat congenital dislocation of hip. His textbook of orthopaedic surgery, Disorders and Injuries of the Musculoskeletal System is used throughout the world.
He was made an Officer of the Order of Canada in 1977 and was promoted to Companion in 1997. In 1988, he was awarded the Order of Ontario. In 1995 he was inducted into the
Arne Torkildsen (1899 - 1968) was a Norwegian neurosurgeon. He described the surgical technique of ventriculocisternostomy (lateral ventricle to cisterna magna,; a predecessor of today's endoscopic third ventriculostomy), which is also called "Torkildsen's operation".
Benjamin Franklin Bache (February 7, 1801–November 1, 1881) was a surgeon in the United States Navy before and during the Civil War. He was a great-grandson of the Revolutionary War statesman and author, Benjamin Franklin.
Bache was born in Monticello, Virginia, graduating from Princeton University in 1819, and from the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania in 1823.
He entered the Navy as an assistant surgeon in 1824, and in 1828 was promoted to the rank of surgeon. From 1838 to 1841 he served as fleet surgeon of the Mediterranean Squadron. simultaneously serving as professor of natural science at Kenyon College, Ohio.
Bache was in charge of the Philadelphia Naval Asylum from 1845 to 1847. He then served as fleet surgeon of the Brazil Squadron from 1848 to 1860, and at the Naval Hospital in New York from 1850 to 1854, serving as director of the medical laboratory of the Brooklyn Navy Yard from 1855 to 1872. During the Civil War, the laboratory provided medical supplies to the Union army. Bache retired on February 1, 1868, and in 1871 was appointed medical director with rank of Commodore.
Commodore Bache died at his home on 283 Henry Street, New York, after a short
Henry Hugh Clutton (12 July 1850 – 9 November 1909) was an English surgeon who described painless symmetrical hydrarthrosis (an accumulation of water in the cavity of a joint), especially of the knee joints: seen in hereditary syphilis. The ailment is called "Clutton's joints." He is commemorated by the Clutton Medal and Prize, awarded for excellence in Clinical Surgery at St Thomas's Hospital, Kings College School of Medicine and Dentistry.
He was born in Saffron Walden, Essex, the son of Ralph Clutton, and educated at Marlborough College and Clare College, Cambridge.
Clutton died at 2 Portland Place, London, and is buried there in Brompton Cemetery.
Homer Virgil Milton Miller (April 29, 1814 – May 31, 1896) was a United States Senator from Georgia.
Born in Pendleton, South Carolina, he moved with his parents to Rabun County, Georgia in 1820. He attended the common schools and graduated from the Medical College of South Carolina in 1835. He continued medical studies in Paris and commenced practice in Cassville, Georgia, in 1838. Miller was an unsuccessful Whig candidate for election to the Twenty-ninth United States Congress in 1844.
During the Civil War, he served in the Confederate Army as a surgeon and as a medical director, surgeon of posts, and inspector of hospitals in Georgia. He resumed the practice of medicine in Rome, Georgia, and was a member of the State Reconstruction convention in 1867. He was a member of the faculty of the Atlanta Medical College, and upon the readmission of Georgia to Congressional representation, he was elected as a Democrat to the U.S. Senate on July 28, 1868, qualified on February 24, 1871, and served until March 3, 1871. Subsequently, he was trustee of the University of Georgia in Athens, and died in Atlanta in May 1896. Interment was in Myrtle Hill Cemetery, Rome, Georgia.
John W. Holter (April 1, 1916 – December 22, 2003) was a toolmaker working for the Yale and Town Lock Company Stamford Connecticut. His son Charles Case "Casey" Holter was born on November 7, 1955 with a severe form of spina bifida. Shortly after birth he contracted meningitis, which caused his head to expand rapidly. His parents were told that he had developed "water on the brain" or hydrocephalus.
As luck would have it Holter's son was being looked after in Philadelphia, where the surgeons Nulsen and Spitz had already demonstrated that a ventricle-to-atrium diversion system could work. What they needed was an inexpensive and practical valve that could control the direction of the flow and maintain normal cranial pressure.
A chance discovery showed Holter, after a failed attempt in which a young boy died, that he could use a silicone one-way valve (pressure sealing). After a medically suitable grade of Silastic (silicone and rubber) was found, the device was patented, and John Holter set up a company, Holter-Hausner International, to manufacture the cerebral shunts.
Although he was unable to save his son Casey, his design, the Spitz-Holter valve (also called the Spitz-Holter
John Maynard Woodworth (1837 – 1879) was an American physician and member of the Woodworth political family. He served as the first Supervising-Surgeon General under U.S. president Ulysses S. Grant, then changed to Surgeon General of the United States Marine Hospital Service from 1871 to 1879.
Woodworth was born at Big Flats, Chemung County, New York. His family soon moved to Illinois, where Woodworth attended school in Warrenville. He studied pharmacy at the University of Chicago and worked as a pharmacist for a time.
Woodworth was one of the organizers of the Chicago Academy of Science and in 1858 became curator of its museum. In this capacity, he made several trips west of the Mississippi River to collect natural history specimens. He was appointed naturalist by the University of Chicago in 1859 and asked to establish a museum of natural history. Woodworth also spent time working at the Smithsonian Institution over the next few years. He then decided to embark on medical studies, and graduated from the Chicago Medical College in 1862.
Almost immediately upon graduating from medical school, Woodworth was appointed Assistant Surgeon in the Union Army. He was soon promoted to
Lawson Tait, born Robert Lawson Tait (May 1, 1845 – June 13, 1899) in Edinburgh, Scotland, became a pioneer in pelvic and abdominal surgery and developed new techniques and procedures. He emphasized asepsis and reduced surgical mortality significantly. He is well known for introducing salpingectomy in 1883 as the treatment for ectopic pregnancy, a procedure that has saved countless lives since then. Tait and J. Marion Sims are considered the fathers of gynecology.
Tait's first success came with his demonstration that ovariotomy could be done safely. While Ephraim McDowell had successfully performed the first ovariotomy in Kentucky in 1809, mortality for this operation was over 90%. In his first paper in 1872, Tait reported only 1 death out of nine cases, a major breakthrough. His techniques of use of intraabdominal ligatures for the ovarian pedicle in favor of an extraperitoneal clamp, abdominal closure, and meticulous surgical cleanliness were novel and important for abdominal surgery. With further recognition, he was instrumental in the opening of the Birmingham Hospital for Women where he worked for 20 years.
During this time, his work included:
In 1881, it was suggested to him
Ludwik Rydygier (21 August 1850 – 25 June 1920) was a Polish surgeon.
Born in Dusocin near Graudenz (Grudziądz), at the time part of the Province of Prussia after partitioning of Poland. Since childhood he accented his Polish roots.
Between 1859 and 1861 he was learning in gymnasium in Chojnice, then also in gymnasium in Chełmno, which he graduated in 1869. In years 1869-1878 he studied medical sciences at the University of Greifswald.
After studies he was running a private clinic in Chełmno. There he wrote many of his papers in the field of surgery.
In 1887 he was appointed to work at the surgery faculty at Jagiellonian University in Kraków. In 1897 he was asked to lead the new surgery faculty and clinic at Lwów (Lviv) University, to which he agreed.
He was at his time one of the most distinguished Polish and worldwide known surgeons. In 1880, as the first in Poland and second in the world he succeeded in surgical removal of the pylorus in a patient suffering from stomach cancer. He was also the first to document this procedure. In 1881, as the first in the world, he carried out a peptic ulcer resection. In 1884 he introduced a new method of surgical peptic ulcer treatment using
Walter Karl Koch (3 May 1880 in Dortmund, Germany - 1962 ) was a German surgeon best known for the discovery of Koch's triangle, a triangular shaped area in the right atrium of the heart, and of Tawara's node, the atrioventricular node which is the beginning of the auricular-ventricular bundle.
Educated in Freiburg im Breisgau and at the Kaiser Wilhelm Academy in Berlin, he obtained his doctorate in 1907 at Freiburg. As a military physician, he served at the Heidelberg pathological institute and the 2nd medical clinic in Berlin. Here he habilitated in general pathology and pathological anatomy in 1921. After being named a professor in 1922, he worked as head of department at Berlin's Westend hospital. Koch became known for his work on the motor centres of the human heart, and coined the term "sinus node".
Sir William MacCormac, 1st Baronet KCB KCVO (17 January 1836 – 4 December 1901), was a British surgeon.
He was born at Belfast, the son of Dr Henry MacCormac.
He studied medicine and surgery at Belfast, Dublin and Paris, and graduated in arts, medicine and surgery at the Queen's University, Belfast, in which he afterwards became an examiner in surgery.
He began practice in Belfast, where he became surgeon to the General Hospital, but left it for London on his marriage in 1861 to Miss Katherine M. Charters. In the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 he was surgeon-in-chief to the Anglo-American Ambulance, and was present at Sedan and he also went through the Turco-Servian War of 1876. He became in this way an authority on gunshot wounds, and besides being highly successful as a surgeon was a very popular in society, his magnificent physique and temperament making him a notable and attractive personality.
In 1881, he was appointed assistant-surgeon at St Thomas' Hospital, London and for twenty year continued his work here as a surgeon, lecturer and consulting surgeon. In 1881, he acted as honorary secretary-general of the International Medical Congress in London and was knighted for his
Daoud Anastas Hanania داود حنانيا (born 1934 in Jerusalem) is a Jordanian heart surgeon of Palestinian origin. Hanania is a former Lieutenant General in the Jordanian Armed Forces, he is also currently a Senator in the Jordanian Parliament.
Daoud Hanania was born into a Greek Orthodox Christian Palestinian family originally hailed from Jerusalem, Palestine. His father, Anastas Hanania, was a lawyer and politician. The Hananias lived in West Jerusalem until 1948. In the early 1950s they permanently moved to Amman, Jordan, where Hanania's father came to hold several cabinet positions in the Jordanian government, including Foreign Minister, Minister of Justice, Minister for Refugees and Minister of Finance. Anastas Hanania was also Jordan's Ambassador to Great Britain from 1960–1966 and a Senator from 1968 to 1989 in Jordan's Upper House of Parliament.
After completing his primary and secondary education in Jerusalem at al-Ummah College and the College des Frères, Daoud Hanania joined the Jordanian army at age 17. He was sent on a military scholarship to study medicine in England in 1951. Hanania earned his M.B.B.S. medical degree from St. Mary's Hospital Medical School of the
Ernst von Bergmann (16 December 1836 – 25 March 1907) was a Baltic German surgeon. He is the beginner of aseptic surgery.
Born in Riga, Livonia (now – Latvia), in 1860 he earned his doctorate at the University of Dorpat, and later returned to Dorpat in 1871, where he was a professor of surgery until 1878. After spending a few years as a professor at Würzburg, he moved to the University of Berlin in 1882, where he remained for the remainder of his career. Two of his assistants in Berlin were Curt Schimmelbusch (1860–1895) and Friedrich Gustav von Bramann (1854–1913). His son, Gustav von Bergmann (1878–1955) was a noted doctor of internal medicine.
Bergmann was the first physician to introduce heat sterilisation of surgical instruments, thus greatly reducing the number of infections in surgery. Thus increased the responsibility of the surgeon for the inflammation after procedures. He was a surgeon in the Austro-Prussian War (1866) and the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71), where he gained experience treating cranial trauma and neurological disorders. Bergmann published several surgical works, including a classic treatise on cranial surgery titled Die Chirurgische Behandlung der
Stephen Paget (1855-1926) was an English surgeon, the son of the distinguished surgeon and pathologist Sir James Paget. Stephen Paget has been long credited with proposing the "seed and soil" theory of metastasis, even though in his paper “The Distribution Of Secondary Growths In Cancer Of The Breast”, The Lancet, Volume 133, Issue 3421, 23 March 1889, Pages 571-573, he clearly states “…the chief advocate of this theory of the relation between the embolus and the tissues which receive it is Fuchs…”. The paper by Fuchs is “Das Sarkom des Uvealtractus”, Wien, 1882. Graefe's Archiv für Ophthalmologie, XII, 2, p. 233. In his paper, Paget presents and analyzes 735 fatal cases of breast cancer, complete with autopsy, as well as many other cancer cases from the literature and argues that the distribution of metastases cannot be due to chance, concluding that although “the best work in pathology of cancer is done by those who… are studying the nature of the seed…” [the cancer cell], the “observations of the properties of the soil" [the secondary organ] "may also be useful”...
Arthur Edward George 'Art' Themen (born 1939) is a British jazz saxophonist and an orthopaedic surgeon).
Themen was born on 26 November 1939 in Manchester. In 1958 he began his medical studies at the University of Cambridge, going on in 1961 to complete his studies at St Mary's Hospital Medical School in London, qualifying in 1964. He specialised in orthopaedic medicine, eventually becoming a consultant.
Themen started playing jazz with the Cambridge University Jazz Group, and then in London playing with blues musicians Jack Bruce and Alexis Korner. In 1965 he played with the Peter Stuyvesant Jazz Orchestra in Zürich, going on to play with such English luminaries as Michael Garrick and Graham Collier's Music.
In 1974 he entered on what was to be one of his central musical relationships when he started playing with Stan Tracey. He has played with all of Tracey's groups, touring with him all over the world as well as around the UK. He has also played and toured with musicians such as Nat Adderley, Ian Carr, George Coleman, and Al Haig.
In 1995 he formed a quartet with pianist John Critchinson.
His style originally owed much to the influence of Dexter Gordon and Sonny Rollins, but
Charles D. Kelman (May 23, 1930 – June 1, 2004) was an ophthalmologist and a pioneer in cataract surgery.
Kelman was born in Brooklyn, New York to David and Eva Kelman. He grew up in Queens where he attended Forest Hills High School. After graduation, he attended Boston's Tufts University, where he earned a B.S. degree, then studied medicine at the University of Geneva where he obtained his M.D. degree. After interning at Kings County Hospital, he did his residency (1956-1960) at Wills Eye Hospital in Philadelphia, then worked as an ophthalmologist at the Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital in New York.
One of the cataract surgery techniques that Kelman developed, phacoemulsification, has become today's standard. Inspired by his dentist's ultrasonic tools, in 1967 Kelman introduced the technique that uses ultrasonic waves to emulsify the nucleus of the eye's lens to remove the cataracts without a large incision. This new surgery removed the need for an extended hospital stay and made the surgery less painful. It has helped 100 million people nation-wide. "Dr. Kelman, who received the National Medal of Technology from President George H. W. Bush in 1992, was inducted [in February
Dr. Daniel John Fortmann (April 11, 1916 – May 23, 1995) was a professional American football offensive lineman in the National Football League for the Chicago Bears. He played college football at Colgate University and was drafted in the ninth round of the 1936 NFL Draft. According to legend, Bears' owner George Halas, reportedly drafted Fortmann because his name had a good, solid football ring to it.
Uncertain as to whether to go to medical school or play football, Halas convinced Fortmann that he could do both. Dan enrolled at the University of Chicago, where he obtained his degree in 1940. He interned in Detroit and completed his surgical training in Pittsburgh. He then set up as a surgeon in Burbank, California, where he became the team physician for the Los Angeles Rams from 1947-1963.
Fortmann was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1965. He was selected as an All-Pro guard for six consecutive years.
Ivo Hélcio Jardim de Campos Pitanguy (born 1926 in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais)is a plastic surgeon based in Rio de Janeiro.
Pitanguy studied at the Bethesda North Hospital in Cincinnati, where he worked with John Longacre. Soon after, Pitanguy went to France and England where he studied plastic surgery.
In 1953 he began working at a Brazilian hospital. On December 17, 1961, a burning circus tent fell on 2,500 spectators in the Brazilian city of Niterói. Pitanguy treated burn victims for weeks on an emergency basis. He later referred to the event as life changing, as it taught him that for many, physical appearance was critical to living. Pitanguy founded a private clinic called Clínica Ivo Pitanguy in the Botafogo section of Rio de Janeiro where he operates on clients and trains surgeons.
Pitanguy is also a philanthropist. He renovated a ward at the public Santa Casa da Misericórdia Hospital in Rio where, for four decades, he has offered treatment for free.
Pitanguy is a member of the Academia Brasileira de Letras and of the Academia Nacional de Medicina.
The Pitanguy clinic in Rio also includes an auditorium and library for Pitanguy's lectures and writings for medical students.
John Badley, F.R.C.S. (23 July 1783 – 16 April 1870) student of John Abernethy at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London. His 1801 lecture notes of Abernethy are in the archives at the University of Birmingham School of Medicine.
Born in Dudley, Worcestershire, England to a surgeon father, William Badley, of Dudley and Sarah Cox his wife. He studied medicine at Saint Bartholomew's Hospital in London where he was a favorite pupil of John Abernethy a leading surgeon at the turn of the eighteen century and himself a student of Hunter. He was elected as a Fellow and is listed in Plarr's Lives of the Fellows of the Royal College of Surgeons. Despite Abernethy's desire for him to remain in London, his father's poor health and subsequent death caused him to return to Dudley where in 1810 he married his first cousin Mary Fisher Badley.
He was sought after throughout the Midlands during the first half of the 19th century. The likeness to the right was captured "unawares." "He had ridden over one afternoon, towards the end of his life, to see a patient in the county. As he sat resting on a garden-seat, one of the younger generation who had some skill in photography seized the opportunity to get
John White (c. 1756 – 20 February 1832) was an English surgeon and botanical collector.
White was born in Sussex (some sources state he was born in 1750) and entered the Royal Navy on 26 June 1778 as third surgeon's mate. He was promoted surgeon in 1780, and was the principal surgeon during the voyage of the First Fleet to Australia. In March 1787 White joined the First Fleet transports at Plymouth, where he found that the convicts had been living for some time on salt meat, a bad preparation for a long voyage. He succeeded in obtaining supplies of fresh meat and vegetables for them, and arranged that they should be allowed up on deck in relays to obtain fresh air. His sensible and humane treatment was probably the reason why the number of convict deaths during the voyage was not higher. John White was a surgeon serving on the ship Charlotte during his voyage to Australia.
White arrived in Australia in 1788 as Surgeon-General of New South Wales and organised a hospital, but was hampered by the lack of medical supplies. He became interested in the native flora and fauna of the new land and investigated the potential of Australian plants for use as medicine. He observed the
Simon Barclay Conover (September 23, 1840 – April 19, 1908) was an American physician and politician who served as a Republican Senator from Florida.
Born in Middlesex County, New Jersey, Conover attended an academy in Trenton, New Jersey. He studied medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, and graduated from the medical department of the University of Nashville in 1864. During the United States Civil War he served in the medical department of the Union Army. He was appointed acting assistant surgeon in 1866, and was assigned to Lake City, Florida. He resigned from the medical department of the Army upon readmission of the State of Florida into the Union.
Conover was a delegate to the State constitutional convention in 1868. He was appointed State treasurer in 1868, serving one term. He was also a member of the Republican National Committee from 1868 to 1872. He was a member of the Florida House of Representatives in 1873 and served as speaker.
Conover was elected to the United States Senate and served from March 4, 1873, to March 3, 1879. There he served as chairman of the U.S. Senate Committee on Enrolled Bills. After his time in Congress, Conover resumed the practice of
Adolph Kussmaul (German: Carl Philipp Adolf Konrad Kußmaul; 22 February 1822 – 28 May 1902) was a German physician and a leading clinician of his time. He was born as the son and grandson of physicians at Graben near Karlsruhe and studied at Heidelberg. He entered the army after graduation and spent two years as an army surgeon. This was followed by a period as a general practitioner before he went to Würzburg to study for his doctorate under Virchow.
He was subsequently Professor of Medicine at Heidelberg (1857), Erlangen (1859), Freiburg (1859) and Strassburg (1876).
He died in Heidelberg.
His name continues to be used in eponyms. He described two medical signs and one disease which have eponymous names that remain in use:
The following eponymous terms are considered archaic:
Alexis Boyer (March 1, 1757 – November 23, 1833) was a French surgeon, born in Corrèze.
He was the son of a tailor, and he obtained his first medical knowledge in the shop of a barber surgeon. When he moved to Paris, he had the good fortune to attract the attention of renowned surgeons Antoine Louis (1723–1792) and Pierre-Joseph Desault (1744–1795). Boyer persevered at his profession, and became notorious for his anatomical knowledge and surgical dexterity. At the age of 37 he was appointed second surgeon to the Hôtel-Dieu in Paris. On the establishment of the École de Sante, he was named chair of operative surgery, but soon exchanged it for the chair of clinical surgery. Boyer specialized in urological pathology, especially disorders of micturition.
Boyer was a cautious and finicky physician, not always trusting of new innovations in treatment. He practiced and wrote with skill and sense. His two masterworks are Trait complet de l'anatomie (in 4 vols., 1797–1799), of which a fourth edition appeared in 1815, and Trait des maladies chirurgicales et des operations qui leur conviennent (in 2 vols., 1814–1826), of which a newer edition in seven volumes was published in 1844–1853 with
Denis Parsons Burkitt FRS(28 February 1911 – 23 March 1993), surgeon, was born in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh, Ireland. He was the son of James Parsons Burkitt. Aged eleven he lost his right eye in an accident. He attended Portora Royal School in Enniskillen and Dean Close School, England. In 1929 Burkitt entered Trinity College, Dublin, to study engineering but believing his evangelical calling was to be a doctor he transferred to medicine. In 1938 he passed the Edinburgh Royal College of Surgeons fellowship examinations. On 28 July 1943 he married Olive Rogers.
During World War II, Burkitt served with the Royal Army Medical Corps in England and later in Kenya and Somaliland. After the war Burkitt decided his future lay in medical service in the developing world and he moved to Uganda. He eventually settled in Kampala and remained there until 1964.
Burkitt 'made two major contributions to medical science related to his experience in Africa. The first was the description, distribution, and ultimately, the etiology of a pediatric cancer that bears his name Burkitt's lymphoma'.
Burkitt in 1957 observed a child with swellings in the angles of the jaw. 'About two weeks later...I
Edward Cock (1805–1892), British surgeon, was a nephew of Sir Astley Cooper, and through him became at an early age a member of the staff of the Borough Hospital in London, where he worked in the dissecting room for thirteen years. Afterwards he became in 1838 assistant surgeon at Guy's Hospital, where from 1849 to 1871 he was surgeon, and from 1871 to 1892 consulting surgeon. He rose to be president of the Royal College of Surgeons in 1869. He was an excellent anatomist, a bold operator, and a clear and incisive writer, and though in lecturing he was afflicted with a stutter, he frequently utilized it with humorous effect and emphasis. From 1843 to 1849 he was editor of Guy's Hospital Reports, which contain many of his papers, particularly on urethral stenosis, puncture of the bladder, injuries to the head, and hernia. He was the first English surgeon. to perform pharyngotomy with success, and also one of the first to succeed in trephining for middle meningeal haemorrhage; but the operation by which his name is known is that of opening the urethra through the perineum, described in 1866. He died at Kingston in 1892.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the
Helen Mary Mayo, OBE (1 October 1878 - 13 November 1967) was an Australian medical doctor and medical educator, born and raised in Adelaide. In 1896, she enrolled at the University of Adelaide, where she studied medicine. After graduating, Mayo spent two years working in infant health in England, Ireland and India. She returned to Adelaide in 1906, starting a private practice and taking up positions at the Adelaide Children's Hospital and Adelaide Hospital. In 1909, she co-founded the School for Mothers, where mothers could receive advice on infant health. This organisation, which became the Mothers' and Babies' Health Association in 1927, eventually established branches across South Australia and incorporated a training school for maternal nurses. In 1914, after unsuccessfully campaigning for the Children's Hospital to treat infants, Mayo co-founded the Mareeba Hospital for infants.
In addition to her medical achievements, Mayo participated in a number of other organisations. She was heavily involved in the University of Adelaide, serving on the university council from 1914 to 1960 (the first woman in Australia to be elected to such a position) and establishing a women's club and
Jan Mikulicz-Radecki (German: Johann von Mikulicz-Radecki) was a Polish-Austrian surgeon. He was born May 16, 1850 in Czernowitz in the Austrian Empire (present-day Chernivtsi in Ukraine) and died June 4, 1905 in Freiburg in Schlesien, German Empire (present-day Świebodzice, Poland).
While his mother Freiin von Damnitz was Austrian, his parental ancestors of the Mikulicz family were of Polish-Lithuanian szlachta origin and had been granted the Gozdawa coat of arms by King John III Sobieski after the 1683 Battle of Vienna. Mikulicz-Radecki spoke Polish, German, Russian and English fluently. When asked his nationality he used to answer "surgeon". After finishing studies at the University of Vienna under Theodor Billroth he was a director of surgery at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków, the University of Königsberg (Królewiec, Kaliningrad) and from 1890 at the University of Wrocław.
Mikulicz-Radecki's innovations in operative technique for a wide variety of diseases helped develop modern surgery. He contributed prodigiously to cancer surgery, especially on organs of the digestive system. He was first to suture a perforated gastric ulcer (1885), surgically restore part of the
Olof af Acrel (26 November 1717 – 28 May 1806), known before his ennoblement in 1780 as Olof Acrel, was a surgeon and physician of Stockholm, who perfected his knowledge by study in foreign countries and introduced many improvements into Swedish practice.
Olof af Acrel was born at Österåker, and was the brother of the missionary Israel Acrelius. After attending Uppsala University for two years, he trained as a surgeon in Stockholm. From 1740, he spent several years in Germany and France, studying at the University of Göttingen under Albrecht von Haller and also in Paris and Strasbourg. In 1743, during the War of the Austrian Succession, he was appointed acting chief surgeon at a French military hospital in Lauterbourg, Alsace. A year later, the town was captured by German troops and, after being briefly imprisoned, Acrel returned to Sweden.
In 1752, he was appointed chief surgeon of the newly-founded Seraphim Hospital in Stockholm, and as professor of surgery in 1755. He was awarded a doctorate of medicine by Uppsala University in 1760.
Acrel's discourse on the Reforms necessary in Surgical Operations made a deep impression. So did his other works, On the Mode of Treating Recent
Ambroise Paré (c. 1510 – 20 December 1590) was a French barber surgeon. He was the great official royal surgeon for kings Henry II, Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III and is considered as one of the fathers of surgery and modern forensic pathology. He was a leader in surgical techniques and battlefield medicine, especially the treatment of wounds. He was also an anatomist and invented several surgical instruments.
"Je le pansai, Dieu le guérit "
("I bandaged him and God healed him") is a quote that summarizes his work philosophy. At this time, little could be done for battlefield wounds and injured soldiers were often put out of their misery by comrades if the wound was too severe to be treated. During the 1536 Battle of Milan, Paré encountered two men who had been horribly burned by gunpowder. A soldier came up and asked if anything could be done to help them, to which he shook his head. The soldier then calmly took out his dagger and proceeded to cut their throats. A horrified Paré shouted that he was "a villain", to which he was told "Were I in such a situation, I would only pray to God for someone to do the same for me."
Pare was a keen observer and did not allow the beliefs
Benjamin Franklin Goodrich (November 4, 1841 – August 3, 1888) was an American industrialist in the rubber industry and founder of B.F. Goodrich Company.
Dr. Goodrich was born to Anson and Susan Goodrich in the farming town of Ripley, New York. He was orphaned at the age of eight, and raised thereafter by his uncle.
He received his M.D. from Cleveland Medical College (now Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine) and studied surgery at the University of Pennsylvania in 1863. He then served as a battlefront surgeon for the Union Army in the Civil War. After a few years of a struggling medical practice, he went to work in Pennsylvania's oilfields, then became a real estate speculator. In 1869 he used most of his real estate profits to purchase the Hudson River Rubber Company, a small business in Hastings-on-Hudson, New York. The following year Goodrich accepted an offer of $13,600 from the citizens of Akron, Ohio, to relocate his business there
After the war he reached a licensing agreement with Charles Goodyear and bought the Hudson Rubber Company in partnership with J.P. Morris. The company, located in Melrose, New York, failed. In 1870 he moved to Akron, Ohio, to found
Caesar (or Cæsar) Henry Hawkins FRS (19 September 1798 – 20 July 1884) was a British surgeon.
He was the son of the Rev. E. Hawkins and grandson of Sir Cæsar Hawkins, 1st Baronet (1711-1786), Serjeant-Surgeon to George II and George III (see Hawkins Baronets); and was brother to Edward Hawkins (1789-1882), Provost of Oriel, Oxford. Hawkins was born at Bisley, Gloucestershire. He was educated at Christ's Hospital, and entered St George's Hospital, London, in 1818. He was surgeon to the hospital from 1829 to 1861, and in 1862 was made serjeant-surgeon to Queen Victoria. He was president of the Royal College of Surgeons in 1852, and again in 1861; and he delivered the Hunterian oration in 1849.
His success in complex surgical cases gave him a great reputation. For long he was noted as the only surgeon who had succeeded in the operation of ovariotomy in a London hospital. This occurred in 1846, when anaesthetics were unknown. He did much to popularize colotomy. A successful operator, he nevertheless was attached to conservative surgery, and was always more anxious to teach his pupils how to save a limb than how to remove it.
He re-printed his contributions to the medical journals in
Henry C. Dalton (born May 7, 1847) was superintendent of the St. Louis City Hospital from 1886 to 1892, and later a professor of abdominal and clinical surgery at Marion Sims College of Medicine (now part of the St. Louis University School of Medicine) . He is noted for performing the first suturing of the pericardium on record. The operation occurred on September 6, 1891 at the City Hospital, on a twenty-two-year-old man who had been stabbed in the chest. Upon arrival of the patient, Dalton cleaned the wound and applied a dressing of antiseptic gauze. After several hours, the patient's condition worsened: the left side of his chest became dull to percussion; his temperature and pulse rate rose; his breathing became shallow; and he complained of considerable pain. He was taken to the surgical amphitheatre, where Dalton made an incision over the fourth rib and removed about six inches of it. After tying the severed intercostal artery to control bleeding and removing the blood from the pleural cavity, Dalton observed a transverse wound of the pericardium about two inches in length. With a sharply curved needle and catgut, he closed the wound by continuous suture, overcoming great
Dr. John Herbert Claiborne (March 16, 1828 – 1905) was a prominent Virginia politician and a leading medical administrator commanding a series of hospitals serving wounded Confederate soldiers during the American Civil War.
Born in 1828 in Virginia, Claiborne completed his medical studies in Philadelphia in 1851. That same year, he estasblished a practice in Petersburg and served later as a House of Delegates representative and senator in the Virginia state government.
In 1862, Claiborne was ordered to establish a hospital in Petersburg for treatment of wounded soldiers and was made surgeon in charge in local Confederate forces. By the time of the Siege of Petersburg, he was the executive officer in charge of all military hospitals in Petersburg. The system in the city included seven hospitals at first, but by the time of the siege, they were consolidated into two buildings on the western side of Petersburg to avoid the shelling from the east.
Claiborne's first wife, Sara Joseph Alston, died shortly after the war. He remarried and raised another family with his second wife, Annie Leslie Watson. He continued to practice in Petersburg and died in 1905.
This article was based on the
Julius Wolff (March 21, 1836 – February 18, 1902) was a German surgeon.
Julius Wolff was born on March 21, 1836, and received his doctorate in 1860 in the field of surgery for Bernhard von Langenbeck (1810–1887) at the Friedrich-Wilhelms University to Berlin. In 1861 he settled down after the state examination as a general practitioner in Berlin. He participated as a surgeon in three campaigns (1864, 1866, 1870/71).
Based on observations in his long career as a surgeon, he postulated Wolff's law (original title 1892: The law of transformation of the bone), which describes the relationship between bone geometry and mechanical influences on bone. For this he was with leading scientists of his time in active contact. Karl Culmann (1821–1881), Wilhelm Roux (1850–1924), Christian Otto Mohr (1835–1918) and Albert Hoffa (1859–1907) gave him support for the interpretation and evaluation of its research. His work established the mechanism and thus physical factors in evolutionary biology. He saw his work as an extension of the theory of evolution by Charles Darwin (1809–1882).
His work was one of the mile stones for orthopedics as a distinct discipline in medicine. Julius Wolff was the
Pierre-Joseph Desault (February 6, 1738, Magny-Vernois, Haute-Saône – June 1, 1795, Paris) was a French anatomist and surgeon.
He was destined for a career in the Church, but his own inclination was towards the study of medicine; after learning something from the barber-surgeon of his native village, he was settled as an apprentice in the military hospital of Belfort, where he acquired some knowledge of anatomy and military surgery. Going to Paris at about twenty years of age, he later opened a school of anatomy there in the winter of 1766, the success of which excited the jealousy of the established teachers and professors, who tried to make him give up his lectures. In 1776 he was admitted as a member of the Corps of Surgeons; and in 1782 he was appointed Surgeon Major to the Hospital of Charity.
Within a few years he was recognized as one of the leading surgeons of France. The clinical school of surgery which he instituted at the Hôtel-Dieu attracted great numbers of students, not only from every part of France but also from other countries; and he frequently had an audience of about 100. He introduced many improvements to the practice of surgery, as well as to the construction
William Maxwell Wood (May 21, 1809 – March 1, 1880) was an officer and surgeon in the United States Navy in the middle 19th century. He became the First Surgeon General of the U.S. Navy in 1871, with the equivalent rank of Commodore. He rose to President of the Examining Board in 1868 and Chief of the U.S. Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery in 1870 following his service in the American Civil War as Fleet Surgeon of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron aboard the USS Minnesota and Medical Officer of the James River Flotilla, participating in several famous Naval battles, and establishing temporary hospitals as needed during the Civil War.
As BUMED Chief, Wood was instrumental in increasing the stature of the Naval Surgeon, championing a bill eventually passed by Congress increasing the rank and compensation of physicians in the Navy, enabling the Navy to attract and recruit more qualified physicians. (The Appropriations Bill of 3 March 1871 created the titles of "Surgeon General of the Navy" and "Medical Director" and "established" a formal corps of Medical Officers. Ever since, the Navy Medical Corps has celebrated this day as its anniversary) During Wood's tenure at the top of
Douglas K. Ousterhout, MD, DDS, is a craniofacial surgeon with a practice in San Francisco, CA, USA. His specialty is facial feminization surgery for transsexual and transgender women, using a combination of procedures he developed in the 1990s. Though it varies for each patient, Ousterhout's approach is comprehensive of the entire face and typically includes advancing the hairline, making the forehead smaller and rounder, reducing the brow ridge, shortening and narrowing the nose, shortening the upper lip, shortening the chin, narrowing the jaw and reducing the laryngeal prominence. The procedures are often done all at once in a full day of surgery.
Dr. Alonzo Garcelon (May 6, 1813 – December 8, 1906) was the 36th Governor of Maine, an American Civil War surgeon general, and a co-founder of Bates College in Lewiston, Maine.
Garcelon was born in Lewiston, Maine, to French Huguenot parents. Garcelon attended Monmouth Academy, Waterville Academy, and New Castle Academy. Garcelon taught school during the winter terms to help pay for his tuition. In 1836 Garcelon graduated from Bowdoin College, and in 1839 he graduated from the Medical University of Ohio, which was the Medical College of Ohio at the time, and then returned to Lewiston to practice. Garcelon co-founded the Lewiston Journal in 1847. He served in the Maine House of Representatives from 1853–54, 1857–58, and in the Maine Senate from 1855-56. Garcelon was instrumental in bringing Bates College to Lewiston in 1855 and served as an instructor and longtime trustee at the College. He was elected as a Delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1856.
During the Civil War, Garcelon served in the Union Army as Maine's Surgeon General. During the impeachment of Andrew Johnson after the War, Garcelon became disgusted with the Republican Party and became a Democrat. In 1871
George Howard Monks (1853-1933) was born in Boston, Massachusetts. After graduation in Harvard medical school in 1880, he followed a 4 year internship in European medical centers during which he invented in 1883 the game Halma (ancient Greek for “jump”) derived from the British game Hoppity together with the mathematician Thomas Hill. Halma and the derived Chinese checkers knew great commercial success in the following years. He also invented a game called Basilinda. Monks began the practice of surgery in Boston in 1884 as he was appointed district physician of the Boston Dispensary and, later, visiting surgeon to the Carney Hospital. In 1890, he entered the Boston City Hospital and was promoted through various grades to surgeon-in-chief in 1910. From 1886 to 1926 Monks was connected with the Harvard Medical School (Department of Surgical Anatomy) but more importantly with Harvard Dental School where he was appointed Professor of Oral Surgery.
Sir John Richardson (5 November 1787 – 5 June 1865) was a Scottish naval surgeon, naturalist and arctic explorer.
Richardson was born at Dumfries. He studied medicine at Edinburgh University, and became a surgeon in the navy in 1807. He traveled with John Franklin in search of the Northwest Passage on the Coppermine Expedition of 1819–1822. Richardson wrote the sections on geology, botany and icthyology for the official account of the expedition.
Franklin and Richardson returned to Canada between 1825 and 1827, again traveling overland to the Arctic Ocean. The natural history discoveries of this expedition were so great that they had to be recorded in two separate works, the Flora Boreali-Americana (1833–40), written by William Jackson Hooker, and the Fauna Boreali-Americana (1829–37), written by Richardson, William John Swainson, John Edward Gray and William Kirby.
At the British Association for the Advancement of Science meeting in 1842, Richardson described the diving apparatus and treatment of diver Roderick Cameron following an injury that occurred on 14 October 1841 during the salvage operations on the HMS Royal George.
Richardson was knighted in 1846. He traveled with John
Lenox Dial Baker Sr. (November 10, 1902 - June 2, 1995) was an American orthopedic surgeon and athletic trainer at both Duke University and University of Tennessee. The Lenox Baker Children’s Hospital at Duke is named in his honor. He graduated from the Duke University School of Medicine, where he was later a professor.
He was the first director (later secretary) of the North Carolina Department of Human Resources (later renamed the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services).
Baker was inducted into the North Carolina Sports Hall of Fame in 1983.
Noel Nutels (1913-1973) was a Brazilian physician who dedicated his life to the well-being of Brazilian Amerindians.
He was born in Ukraine in 1913 and immigrated to Pernambuco in Brazil as a youngster. He qualified in medicine in Recife in 1936 and specialized in public health.
In the 1940s he joined the Indian Service and from then on he dedicated his life to the aboriginal cause, becoming a champion of Indian rights.
He has been honored in many ways and is considered one of the fathers of the Brazilian Public Health.
Paul Georges Dieulafoy (November 18, 1839 – August 16, 1911) was a French physician and surgeon. He is best known for his study of acute appendicitis and his description of Dieulafoy's lesion, a rare cause of gastric bleeding.
Dieulafoy was born in Toulouse. He studied medicine in Paris and earned his doctorate in 1869. Dieulafoy later became Chief of Medicine at the famed Hôtel-Dieu de Paris, taught pathology in the University of Paris, and was elected president of the French Academy of Medicine in 1910. He died in Paris on August 16, 1911.
He perfected a pump-like device for use in thoracentesis, and extensively studied pleurisy and liver conditions including hydatid disease and epidemic hepatitis. However, he is perhaps best known for his study of appendicitis. Dieulafoy described its early symptoms and clinical manifestations in detail, most notably the collection of symptoms now known as Dieulafoy's triad (more below), and was one of the first physicians to stress the importance of surgery in the treatment of this condition. He declared: "Le traitement médical de l'appendicite aiguë n'existe pas (The medical treatment of acute appendicitis does not exist)". His Handbook of
Jean Zuléma Amussat (21 November 1796 – 13 May 1856) was a French surgeon.
Amussat was born in Saint-Maixent, Deux-Sèvres. He became a renowned physician whose primary contributions were in the field of genitourinary surgery. Most of his work was through a private practice he held in Paris. He is remembered for the eponymous "Amussat's method" or "torsion of the arteries", which is a procedure used to arrest arterial hemorrhaging. He was also an early practitioner of lithotripsy, which was a "minimally invasive" surgery to crush stones inside the bladder via the urethra. This operation necessitated use of a recently invented device known as a lithotrite.
Amussat has several eponyms related to him:
Ala Bashir (born 1939 Iraq) is the most celebrated Iraqi painter, sculptor and plastic surgeon. His works of art have been shown in several international exhibitions in, for example, France (Paris, Cagnes-sur-Mer), the United Kingdom (London), Ireland (Dublin), Austria (Vienna), Germany (Bonn), Yugoslavia (Belgrade), Italy (Rome), Russia (Moscow), Qatar (Doha), Morocco (Rabat), Libya (Tripoli), India (New Delhi), Tunisia (Tunis), Egypt (Cairo), the United States (New York, 1976 American tour), Iraq (Baghdad) and currently at the American Visionary Art Museum in Baltimore-USA.
Ala Bashir earned many national and international awards, among which are the Gold Medal in the Biennale International Exhibition in Baghdad in 1988, the second prize in the International Poster Exhibition in Paris in 1983 and Iraq's highest State Award for Fine Art in 2003.
Bashir designed two historically important monuments in Baghdad: "The Union", a statue (73 feet high, made of stone, weighing 970 tons), depicting the love between man and woman. This monument has been destroyed by Iraqi Authority in February 2010. "The Cry", a statue (27 feet high, made of bronze), depicting the tragedy of the Amiyria
Sir Alfred Downing Fripp K.C.V.O. (12 September 1865 - 1930) was a surgeon at Guy's Hospital, London.
He was born in Dorset, the son of the artist Alfred Downing Fripp. His godfather was royal tutor John Neale Dalton. After studying at the Merchant Taylors' School in London, he took up medicine, and during the Boer War he worked in South Africa as chief medical officer of the Imperial Yeomanry Hospital, Deelfontein. He was knighted in 1903.
In 1897, Sir Alfred was appointed "Surgeon in Ordinary" to the Prince of Wales, later King Edward VII of the United Kingdom, and performed the same service for his successor, King George V. On his retirement in 1925, he had a house designed for him in Lulworth, Dorset, by Sir Edwin Lutyens.
A grateful patient founded a drinking club called the Ancient Order of Froth Blowers in 1924 to raise money for charity work conducted by Sir Alfred; Fripp devoted much time after his retirement to promoting the organisation and dispensing the funds raised. He died, and is buried, in Lulworth.
James Miranda Stuart Barry (c. 1789-1799 – 25 July 1865), was a military surgeon in the British Army. After graduation from the University of Edinburgh, Barry served in India and Cape Town, South Africa. By the end of his career, he had risen to the rank of Inspector General in charge of military hospitals. In his travels he not only improved conditions for wounded soldiers, but also the conditions of the native inhabitants. Among his accomplishments was the first caesarean section in Africa by a British surgeon in which both the mother and child survived the operation.
Although Barry lived his adult life as a man, it is widely believed that he was female assigned at birth and named Margaret Ann Bulkley and that he chose to live as a man so that he might be accepted as a university student and be able to pursue his chosen career as a surgeon. Thus Barry would be the first female assigned at birth to become a qualified medical doctor. It has also been theorized that Barry was intersex.
Information about Barry's early life has been rife with myth and speculation; with no contemporary records known. The exact date of Barry's birth is uncertain; with sources putting the date at 1789,
John Avery (February 29, 1824 – January 21, 1914) was a physician and politician from the U.S. state of Michigan.
Avery was born in Watertown, New York and moved with his parents to Michigan in 1836. He attended the common schools and entered Grass Lake Academy in Jackson, where he studied medicine for two years. He graduated from the Cleveland Medical College in 1850 and commenced the practice of medicine in Ionia, Michigan. He then moved to Otsego, Michigan, in 1852 and continued the practice of his profession.
During the American Civil War, he was assistant surgeon and surgeon of the Twenty-first Regiment, Michigan Volunteer Infantry. He served in the Army of the Cumberland in Kentucky and Tennessee and was with General William Tecumseh Sherman on his March to the Sea, as well as during the subsequent Carolinas Campaign.
He settled in Greenville, Michigan, in 1868 and again engaged in the practice of medicine. He was a member of the Michigan State House of Representatives in 1869 and 1870. He was appointed a member of the State Board of Health in 1880 and was reappointed in 1886.
Avery was elected as a Republican to the United States House of Representatives for the Fifty-third
John Belchier (1706 – 6 February 1785) was a British surgeon at Guy's Hospital from 1736 to 1768. He discovered at about the time of his Guy's appointment that the vegetable dye madder stained newly forming bone tissue, opening up the study of the growth and development of the skeleton, which was taken forward by Henri-Louis Duhamel du Monceau and John Hunter.
Belchier was awarded the Copley Medal by the Royal Society in 1737. He was a founding governor for the Foundling Hospital, a charity created by Royal Charter in 1739, and was a member of the Court of Assistants at the Company of Surgeons from 1751 to 1785.
John Hilton FRCS, FRS, FZS (1804 – 14 September 1878) was a British surgeon.
Born at Castle Hedingham, in Essex, Hilton entered Guy's Hospital in 1824. He was appointed demonstrator of anatomy in 1828, assistant-surgeon in 1845 and surgeon in 1849. In 1859 he was appointed professor of human anatomy and surgery at the Royal College of Surgeons College. As Arris and Gale professor from 1859 to 1862 he delivered a course of lectures on "Rest and Pain," which have become classics. He was also surgeon-extraordinary to Queen Victoria. In 1867 he was elected president of the Royal College of Surgeons, of which he been made a member in 1827 and a fellow in 1843. He also delivered the Hunterian oration in 1867
Hilton was the greatest anatomist of his time, and was nicknamed "Anatomical John." It was he who, with Joseph Towne the artist, enriched Guy's Hospital with its unique collection of models. In his grasp of the structure and functions of the brain and spinal cord he was far in advance of his contemporaries.
As an operator he was more cautious than brilliant. This was doubtless due partly to his living in the pre-anaesthetics period, and partly to his own consummate anatomical
Otfrid Foerster (9 November 1873 in Breslau, Silesia – 15 June 1941, also in Breslau) was a German neurologist and neurosurgeon, who made innovative contributions to neurology and neurosurgery, such as rhizotomy for the treatment of spasticity, anterolateral cordotomy for pain, the hyperventilation test for epilepsy, Foerster's syndrome, the first electrocorticogram of a brain tumor, and the first surgeries for epilepsy. He is also known as the first to describe the dermatomes (an area of skin that is supplied by a single pair of dorsal nerve roots), and he helped map the motor cortex of the cerebrum .
Foerster was born in Breslau to Richard Foerster, and studied in the Maria Magdalenen Gymnasium, graduating 1892. From 1892 to 1896 he studied medicine in Freiburg, Kiel and Breslau, obtaining his licensure by state examination in 1897 and his doctorate in the same year. Upon completion of the doctoral studies, he spent two years studying abroad, following a suggestion by Karl Wernicke (1848-1905): in the summer he went to Paris, studying with Joseph Jules Dejerine and attending classes by Pierre Marie and Joseph Babinski (1857-1932); and in the summer with Heinrich Frenkel in
Sir William Adams (1783–1827) also known as Sir William Rawson after 1825. He was born at Morwenstow in Cornwall. He was well known as an ophthalmic surgeon and was founder of Exeter's West of England Eye Infirmary. John Nash had built the Ophthalmic Hospital for him on Albany Street, London. For several years Adams gave his services free to soldiers whose eyesight had been affected in the military campaigns in Egypt. The hospital was closed in 1822.
William Adams was a pupil of John Cunningham Saunders. He was one of the central figures in the controversy which raged between 1806 and 1820 over the treatment of Egyptian ophthalmia.
Adams assumed his wife's family name and was known as Sir William Rawson after 1825.
William Longshaw, Jr. (26 April 1839 – 15 January 1865) was a physician who served in the United States Navy during the American Civil War.
Longshaw was born near Richmond, Virginia 26 April 1839. He studied pharmacology at Tulane University (then named the University of Louisiana) and received a medical degree from the University of Michigan in 1859. He entered the Navy as an assistant surgeon 25 April 1862.
While serving in the screw steamer Lehigh, Longshaw showed outstanding courage in an engagement with Confederate batteries on Sullivan's Island, Charleston, S.C., 16 November 1863. After the ship had grounded while shelling Confederate forts at Cummings Point, a hawser had to be passed to steamer Nahant, which was standing by. Dr. Longshaw, in an open boat, carried a line for the first two hawsers across to Nahant. Confederate fire was so intense that both hawsers were shot away. Lehigh was eventually refloated when Nahant pulled her free with a third hawser. Longshaw’s gallantry in this action was praised by Rear Adm. John A. Dahlgren and Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles.
Dr. Longshaw was killed in the assault on Fort Fisher, 15 January 1865, while binding up the wounds of
Hamilton Naki (26 June 1926 – 29 May 2005) was a black laboratory assistant to white cardiac surgeon Christiaan Barnard in South Africa under apartheid. He was recognized for his surgical skills and for his being able to teach medical students and physicians such skills despite not having received a formal medical education, and took a leading role in organ transplant research on animals.
A controversy arose after his death in that at least five periodicals and the Associated Press retracted statements in their obituaries of Naki that claimed that he participated in the world's first human-to-human heart transplantation in 1967; the incident has been cited as an example of inadequate fact checking by the newsmedia and delayed corrections of the errors.
Naki was born to a poor family in Ngcingane, a village in the Transkei region of the Eastern Cape of South Africa. He received six years of education up to the age of 14, after which he moved to Cape Town. Beginning about 1940, he commuted from Langa, Cape Town to the University of Cape Town to work as a gardener, specifically rolling grass tennis courts.
In 1954 Robert Goetz of the University's surgical faculty asked Naki to assist
Andrew Taylor Still, M.D. (August 6, 1828 – December 12, 1917) is considered the father of osteopathy and osteopathic medicine. He was also a physician & surgeon, author, inventor and Kansas territorial & state legislator. He was one of the founders of Baker University, the oldest 4-year college in the state of Kansas, and was the founder of the American School of Osteopathy (now A.T. Still University), the world's first osteopathic medical school, in Kirksville, Missouri.
Still was born in Lee County, Virginia, in 1828, the son of a Methodist minister and physician. At an early age, Still decided to follow in his father's footsteps as a physician. After studying medicine and serving an apprenticeship under his father, he entered the Civil War as a Hospital Steward, but would later state in his autobiography that he served as a "defacto surgeon." This is consistent with US Army military medical history of the time.
Military medical historians record that "The Hospital Stewards of the Army were originally appointed to take charge of hospital stores, furniture and supplies for the sick, and to receive and distribute rations at hospitals; but as no pharmacist was provided for
Barney Brooks (December 17, 1884 – March 30, 1952), a 20th century U.S. physician and surgeon, was an influential medical educator, particularly in surgical residency training, and was known for his research in orthopedics, intestinal obstruction, and vascular surgery. He was appointed first Professor and Chief of Surgery at the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine in 1925 where he served until his death in 1952 from a hemorrhagic stroke.
Barney Brooks was born in Texas in 1884, received his B.S. from the University of Texas in 1905, and graduated from Johns Hopkins Medical School in 1911. While at Hopkins, he worked for two years as a high school science teacher to supplement the cost. He did his internship in surgery under William Halsted but was not offered an appointment as surgical resident, so he completed his residency at The Barnes Hospital in St. Louis, Missouri, after which he joined the surgical staff at Washington University School of Medicine. In 1925 Brooks was appointed Vanderbilt University Hospital's first Professor and Chief of Surgery, in part due to a strong recommendation from Halsted, despite the fact that Halsted had denied him a residency position years
Hanaoka Seishū (華岡 青洲, October 23, 1760 – November 21, 1835) was a Japanese surgeon of the Edo period with a knowledge of Chinese herbal medicine, as well as Western surgical techniques he had learned through Rangaku (literally "Dutch learning", and by extension "Western learning"). Hanaoka is said to have been the first to perform surgery using general anesthesia.
Hanaoka studied medicine in Kyoto, and became a medical practitioner in Wakayama prefecture, located near Osaka, where he was born. Seishū Hanaoka learned traditional Japanese medicine as well as Dutch-imported European surgery. Due to the nation's self-imposed isolation policy of Sakoku, few foreign medical texts were permitted into Japan at that time. This limited the exposure of Hanaoka and other Japanese physicians to Western medical developments.
Perhaps the most notable Japanese surgeon of the Edo period, Hanaoka was famous for combining Dutch and Japanese surgery and introducing modern surgical techniques to Japan. Hanaoka successfully operated for hydrocele, anal fistula, and even performed certain kinds of plastic surgery. He was the first surgeon in the world who used the general anaesthesia in surgery and who
John Lawrence LeConte (May 13, 1825—November 15, 1883) was the most important American entomologist of the 19th century, responsible for naming and describing approximately half of the insect taxa known in the United States during his lifetime, including some 5,000 species of beetles. He was recognized as the foremost authority on North American beetles during his lifetime, and has been described as "the father of American beetle study."
A member of the scientifically inclined LeConte family, John Lawrence was born in New York City, the son of naturalist John Eatton Le Conte. His mother died when John Lawrence was only a few months old, and he was raised by his father. Based on samples of his signature, John Lawrence used the surname variant "LeConte" without the space that his father used (as "Le Conte"). John Lawrence graduated from Mount Saint Mary College (now known as Mount St. Mary's University) in 1842, and from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1846. While still in medical college, in 1844, John Lawrence traveled with his cousin Joseph LeConte to the Great Lakes. Starting at Niagara Falls, they visited Detroit and Chicago and traversed Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa and
Lucille Teasdale-Corti, CM GOQ (January 30, 1929 – August 1, 1996) was a Canadian physician, surgeon and international aid worker, who worked in Uganda and contributed to the development of medical services in the country.
Born in Montreal East, Quebec on 30 January 1929, Lucille Teasdale was the fourth of seven children. Her father René ran a grocery store in Avenue Guybourg, Saint-Léonard, Montreal.
She was educated as a boarder at Collège Jésus-Marie d'Outrement, a select Catholic college by nuns whose methods she thought to be very strict. A visit to the college by some nuns who had worked as missionaries in China acted as a catalyst for her, then aged 12, to consider becoming a doctor, this coming on top of voluntary work which she had done in a clinic serving the disadvantaged people of the Plateau Mont-Royal from which she had gained a conviction that the worst injustic was disease and that she could do something about it.
She won a scholarship to attend medical school at the University of Montreal, starting in 1950. Females were not common in the medical profession at that time and her class of 110 students included only eight women. She graduated in 1955, becoming one of
P.D. Gaitonde (1913 – 1992) was a surgeon from Goa India, jailed during Portuguese rule for a protest statement he made while holding office in this region along the west coast of India.
Pundalik (or Pundolica) D Gaitonde received his medical education first in Goa and Bombay (now Mumbai) and later proceeded to Lisbon in 1938 for further studies. He specialised in surgery and did research on the treatment of cancer.
On his return to Goa, then still ruled by the Portuguese, in 1948 end, he was appointed Surgeon-Director of the Hospital dos Milagres in Mapusa, the main commercial town in North Goa. He was arrested and deported to Portugal in 1954, for a protest during an official speech.
On his release in 1955, Gaitonde returned to India and settled in New Delhi. He worked as the honorary senior surgeon at the Irwin Hospital, and was responsible for the creation of the Cancer Unit, which he headed.
In 1960, he was elected president of the National Congress (Goa), a group participating in Goa Liberation Movement by non-violent means. He was the secretary-general of the Conference of the Nationalist Organisations of the Portuguese Colonies at Casablanca in 1961.
In that capacity, he
Dr Joseph Sampson Gamgee, MRCS, FRSE (17 April 1828, Livorno, Italy – 18 September 1886) was a surgeon at the Queen's Hospital (later the General Hospital) in Birmingham, England. He pioneered aseptic surgery (having once shared lodgings with Joseph Lister), and, in 1880 invented Gamgee Tissue, an absorbent cotton wool and gauze surgical dressing. He was known as Sampson Gamgee.
He was the son of Joseph Gamgee, a veterinary surgeon and the sibling of Dr John Gamgee, inventor and Professor of Anatomy and Physiology at Dick Veterinary College, Edinburgh and Dr Arthur Gamgee, Fullerian Professor of Physiology and Comparative Anatomy at The Royal Institution of Great Britain, London. Sampson's son Dr Leonard Parker Gamgee was also a renowned surgeon of Birmingham and his nephew (son of his sister Fanny Gamgee) was Prof Sir D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson (1860-1948).
In 1873 he founded the Birmingham Hospital Saturday Fund which raised money for various hospitals in Birmingham from overtime earnings given by workers on nominated Hospital Saturdays. It was the first such fund to raise money in this way for multiple hospitals. Sampson was also the first president of the Birmingham Medical
William Anderson FRCS (18 December 1842 – 27 October 1900) was an English surgeon born in Shoreditch, London. He was Professor of Anatomy at the Royal Academy in London, and an important collector and scholar of Japanese art. He was the first chairman of the Japan Society. Between 1882 and 1900, Anderson donated his collection of approximately 2000 of Japanese illustrated woodcut books to what is now the British Library. He was the author of a pioneering Descriptive and historical account of a collection of Japanese and Chinese paintings in the British Museum (1886); and Pictorial arts of Japan (1886).
Anderson was educated at the City of London School, the Lambeth School of Art (where he was awarded a medal for artistic anatomy) and St Thomas's Hospital (where he also won numerous prizes). He became a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons in 1869. At St Thomas's Hospital, he was in 1871 appointed surgical registrar and assistant demonstrator of anatomy. In 1873, he moved to Tokyo, Japan, where he was professor of anatomy and surgery at the Imperial Naval Medical College, and gave lectures both in English and in Japanese, which he learned for that purpose. Here, he assembled his
Daniel F. Roses, M.D. is the Jules Leonard Whitehill Professor of Surgery and Oncology of the New York University School of Medicine and a Senior Attending Surgeon at Tisch Hospital of the New York University Medical Center.
Following his training in surgery at the New York University-Bellevue Medical Center, he served on active duty as Lieutenant Commander with the Medical Corps of the United States Navy, returning to the New York University School of Medicine as a clinical fellow of the American Cancer Society.
Roses is the author or co-author of over 250 published manuscripts, abstracts, and chapters, and three books including "Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma" (W.B. Saunders) and "Breast Cancer" (ElsevierChurchill Livingstone) now in its 2nd edition. His research interests are the surgical and systemic treatment of cancer and the surgical treatment of thyroid and parathyroid disease. He is Director of the Breast Cancer Discovery Fund and the Cancer Surgery Research Fund at the NYU School of Medicine and Principal Investigator at NYU of the National Cancer Institute Multicenter Sentinel Lymphadenectomy Trial for malignant melanoma.
Roses has received the Solomon A. Berson Alumni
Doctor Jacques Bernard Hombron (1798 – 1852) was a French naval surgeon and naturalist.
Hombron served on the French voyage of the Astrolabe and Zelee between 1837 and 1840 to investigate the perimeter of Antarctica. He described a number of plants and animals with Honoré Jacquinot.
Surgeon General James Mouat VC KCB (14 April 1815 – 4 January 1899) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
Mouat was 39 years old, and a Surgeon in the 6th (Inniskilling) Dragoons, British Army during the Crimean War when the following deed took place on 26 October 1854 in the Crimea, at Balaklava, for which he was awarded the VC.
Surgeon Mouat went with Corporal Charles Wooden to the assistance of an officer who was lying seriously wounded in an exposed position, after the retreat of the Light Cavalry. He dressed the officer's wounds under heavy fire from the enemy, and by stopping a severe haemorrhage, helped to save his life.
His citation reads:
His Victoria Cross is displayed at the Army Medical Services Museum in Mytchett, Surrey.
Mary Edwards Walker (November 26, 1832 – February 21, 1919) was an American feminist, abolitionist, prohibitionist, alleged spy, prisoner of war and surgeon. She is the only woman ever to receive the Medal of Honor.
Prior to the American Civil War she earned her medical degree, married and started a medical practice. The practice didn't do well and she volunteered with the Union Army at the outbreak of the American Civil War and served as a female surgeon. She was captured by Confederate forces after crossing enemy lines to treat wounded civilians and arrested as a spy. She was sent as a prisoner of war to Richmond, Virginia until released in a prisoner exchange.
After the war she was approved for the United States military's highest decoration for bravery, the Medal of Honor, for her efforts during the war. She is the only woman to receive the medal and one of only eight civilians to receive it. Her medal was later rescinded based on an Army determination and then restored in 1977. After the war she was a writer and lecturer supporting the women's suffrage movement until her death in 1919.
She was born in the Town of Oswego, New York, on November 26, 1832, the daughter of Alvah
Walter Jackson Freeman II, M.D. (November 14, 1895 – May 31, 1972) was an American physician who specialized in lobotomy. He was a member of the American Psychiatric Association.
Walter J. Freeman was born on November 14, 1895 to a privileged family. He was raised in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania by his parents. Freeman was also known for being a bit of an oddball and he complemented his theatrical approach to demonstrating surgery by sporting a cane, goatee, and a wide-brimmed hat. Working in the field of medicine ran in his family and his grandfather, W.W. Keen was well known as a surgeon in the Civil War. His father was also a very successful doctor. Freeman attended Yale University, which at the time was Yale College, beginning in 1912 and graduated with his undergraduate degree in 1916. He then moved on to study neurology at the University of Pennsylvania Medical School. While attending medical school he studied the work of William Spiller and idolized his groundbreaking work in the new field of the neurological sciences. William Spiller also worked in Philadelphia and was credited by many in the world of psychology as being the founder of neurology. Freeman applied for a coveted
William Howard Feindel, OC GOQ FRSC (born July 12, 1918) is a Canadian neurosurgeon, scientist and professor.
Born in Bridgewater, Nova Scotia, he received a B.A. in Biology from Acadia University in 1939, a M.Sc. from Dalhousie University in 1942, and an MDCM from McGill University in 1945. Attending Merton College, Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar he received his D. Phil in 1949.
After completing his residency, Feindel was in neurosurgical practice for two years with Wilder Penfield at the Montreal Neurological Institute. In 1955 he founded the Neurosurgical Department at the University Hospital in Saskatoon.
In 1959 Feindel re-joined the Montreal Neurological Institute where he founded the William Cone Laboratory for Neurosurgical Research and became the first William Cone Professor of Neurosurgery and then Director of the MNI from 1972 to 1984. During this tenure he led a clinical neuroscience team to acquire the first CAT and combined MRI/S units in Canada and to develop the world's first PET system utilizing a prototype Japanese "Baby" cyclotron and the MNI-designed BGO crystal PET scanner for detecting brain tumours and stroke. He integrated these systems into a Brain Imaging
Sir William Macewen, CB, FRS, (22 June 1848 – 22 March 1924) was a Scottish surgeon. He was a pioneer in modern brain surgery and contributed to the development of bone graft surgery, the surgical treatment of hernia and of pneumonectomy (removal of the lungs).
Macewen was born near Port Bannatyne, Isle of Bute, Scotland in 1848 and studied at the University of Glasgow, receiving a medical degree in 1872. He was greatly influenced by Lord Joseph Lister (1827–1912), who revolutionised surgery by developing antisepsis, by the use of phenol, thus decreasing drastically the enormous mortality of surgical patients due to infections. By following Lister and adopting systematically the use of scrubbing (deep cleansing and disinfection of hands and arms), sterilisation of surgical tools, use of surgical gowns, and (recently discovered) anaesthesia, Macewen became one of the most innovative surgeons of his time and was able to greatly advance modern surgical technique and improve the recovery of patients.
In 1875 he became an assistant surgeon at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary, being promoted to full surgeon in 1877. In 1881 he was appointed lecturer on Systematic Surgery at the Royal
Władysław Dobrzaniecki (b. September 24, 1897 in Zielinka near Borszczów - July 4, 1941 in Lviv, Ukraine) was a Polish physician and surgeon.
Władysław was since 1936 head of the Saint Zofia Children Hospital in Lviv, and since 1938 titular professor of surgery at the Lviv University. He was a precursor of plastic surgery in Poland.
He was murdered by the Germans in Lviv during the Massacre of Lviv professors.
Professor Cassio Menezes Raposo do Amaral, Ph.D. (September 9, 1943, São Paulo, Brazil – September 1, 2005, Campinas, Brazil) was an internationally recognized physician and plastic and reconstructive surgeon.
He was born in São Paulo, and went on to study Medicine at the then recently-established State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), graduating in 1966. While a student, he was active in the Medical Student Union, and was one of the organizers of a preparatory course for entrance to the medical school. He also began as a student his lifelong careers as a medical researcher and teacher.
Following his graduation, he had three years of medical residence training in general surgery, being one at UNICAMP and two at the Medical School of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. He finished a specialization in plastic surgery at the University of São Paulo (USP), becoming an instructor at the Medical School of the State University of Campinas in the same year. He obtained his Ph.D. at USP and won a full professorship at UNICAMP in 1994. Dr. Cassio Raposo do Amaral post-doctoral studies in advanced plastic surgery were done abroad, at the Institute of Reconstructive Plastic Surgery of
Hunter Holmes McGuire, M.D. (October 11, 1835 – September 19, 1900) was a physician, teacher, and orator. He started several schools and hospitals which later became part of the Medical College of Virginia (MCV) in Richmond, Virginia. His statue sits prominently on the grounds of the Virginia State Capitol. Nearby, the McGuire Veterans Administration Medical Center is named in his honor.
Hunter Holmes McGuire was born in Winchester, Virginia to a prominent eye surgeon, Dr. Hugh Holmes McGuire and his wife Eliza. Young Hunter was one of 7 children. He often accompanied his father, and studied medicine at the Winchester Medical College where he graduated in 1855. His continuing medical education in Philadelphia was interrupted by the onset of the hostilities which led to the American Civil War. He taught briefly at Tulane University in New Orleans before joining the Confederate Army in 1861.
Dr. McGuire joined "The Winchester Rifles," company F of the 2nd Virginia Infantry, Confederate Army, as a private. However, his services were much more valuable as a doctor rather than a front line soldier. McGuire was made a brigade surgeon and was ordered to report to General Thomas J. Jackson
John Whitaker Hulke FRCS FRS FGS (6 November 1830 – 19 February 1895) was a British surgeon, geologist and fossil collector. He was the son of a physician in Deal, who became a Huxleyite despite being deeply religious.
Hulke became Huxley's colleague at the Royal College of Surgeons. He was a long-time collector from the Wealden cliffs of the Isle of Wight, and his work on vertebrate palaeontology included studies of Iguanodon and Hypsilophodon from the Wealden (Lower Cretaceous). He became President of the Geological Society (1882–4); and was awarded Wollaston Medal in 1888. He was President of the Pathological society in 1883, and President of the Royal College of Surgeons from 1893 until his death.
Hulke was born in Deal, Kent the son of a general practitioner. He was educated partly at a boarding-school in England, partly at the Moravian College at Neuwied (1843–1845), where he gained an intimate knowledge of German and an interest in geology through visits to the Eifel district. Of Dutch Reformed descent, and Calvinist leanings, he held strict views: "his Protestantism was of the intolerant kind". He got on well with Huxley, whose agnosticism was also rather straight-laced.
Nikolay Ivanovich Pirogov (Russian: Никола́й Ива́нович Пирого́в) (25 November [O.S. 13 November] 1810 – 5 December [O.S. 23 November] 1881) was a prominent Russian scientist, doctor, pedagogue, public figure, and corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1847). He is considered to be the founder of field surgery, and was one of the first surgeons in Europe to use ether as an anaesthetic. He was the first surgeon to use anaesthesia in a field operation (1847), invented various kinds of surgical operations, and developed his own technique of using plaster casts to treat fractured bones. His name is one of the most widely recognised in Russian medical history, and he is considered a Russian national hero.
Pirogov was born in Moscow, the son of a major in the commissary service. He learned to read early, and learned several languages as a young child. His father died in 1824, leaving his family destitute. Pirogov originally intended to become a civil servant, but the family doctor, Efrem Mukhin, who was a professor of anatomy and physiology at Moscow State University, persuaded the authorities to accept him as a student aged only 14.
Despite limited experience at medical
Valentine Mott (August 20, 1785 - April 26, 1865), American surgeon, was born at Glen Cove, New York.
He graduated at Columbia College, studied under Sir Astley Cooper in London, and also spent a winter in Edinburgh. After acting as demonstrator of anatomy he was appointed professor of surgery in Columbia College in 1809. From 1811 to 1834 he was in very extensive practice as a surgeon, and most successful as a teacher and operator.
He tied the innominate artery in 1818; the patient lived twenty-six days. He performed a similar operation on the carotid forty-six times with good results; and in 1827 he was also successful in the case of the common iliac. He is said to have performed one thousand amputations and one hundred and sixty-five lithotomies.
After spending seven years in Europe (1834-1841) Mott returned to New York where he was on the founding faculty of the university medical college of New York, now New York University School of Medicine. He translated AALM Velpeau's Operative Surgery, and was foreign associate of the Imperial Academy of Medicine of Paris.
In 1849, the same year he was elected President of the New York Academy of Medicine, Mott and his wife, the former
Wilhelm Fliess (German: Wilhelm Fließ; 24 October 1858 – 13 October 1928) was a German Jewish otolaryngologist who practised in Berlin. On Josef Breuer's suggestion, Fliess attended several "conferences" with Sigmund Freud beginning in 1887 in Vienna, and the two soon formed a strong friendship. Through their extensive correspondence and the series of personal meetings, Fliess came to play an important part in the development of psychoanalysis.
Fliess developed several idiosyncratic theories, such as reflex nasal neuroses, postulating a connection between the nose and the genitals, and vital periodicity, forerunner of the popular concepts of biorhythms that never found scientific favor, though others, such as the idea of innate bisexuality, were incorporated into Freud's theories. Fliess believed men and women went through mathematically fixed sexual cycles of 23 and 28 days, respectively. Freud referred occasional patients to him for treatment of their neurosis through anaesthetization of the nasal mucosa with cocaine, and through nasal surgery. Together, Fliess and Freud developed a Project for a Scientific Psychology, which was later abandoned. Fliess was also an author and
William Henry Thomas Sylvester VC (16 April 1831 – 13 March 1920) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
Sylvester was 24 years old, and an assistant surgeon in the 23rd Regiment of Foot (later The Royal Welch Fusiliers), British Army during the Crimean War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.
On 8 September 1855, at Sebastopol, Crimea, near the Redan, Assistant Surgeon Sylvester went with a corporal (Robert Shields) to the aid of an officer who was mortally wounded and remained with him, dressing his wounds, in a most dangerous and exposed situation. Again, on 18 September this officer was at the front, under heavy fire, attending the wounded.
He later achieved the rank of surgeon major and was the last surviving VC holder of the Crimean War. He was reputed to have worked with Florence Nightingale.
His Victoria Cross is displayed at the Army Medical Services Museum, Mytchett, Surrey.
Albert Alonzo "Doc" Ames (January 18, 1842 – November 16, 1911) held three consecutive terms as mayor of Minneapolis, Minnesota. Dr. Ames was known for his service to his country and assistance of the poor, sometimes giving medical treatment to those who could not afford it. However, he became exceedingly more famous by creating the most corrupt government in the city's history. The story became known across the United States when muckraking journalist Lincoln Steffens wrote an article in 1903 about the corruption and the efforts of a local grand jury to stop it. The article was later included in a collection of similar exposes in the book The Shame of the Cities, published in 1906.
Ames was born in Garden Prairie, a city residing in Boone County, Illinois on January 18, 1842. Ames was the fourth child to a family, soon to be, of seven. At the young age of ten, Ames relocated with his father, Dr. Alfred Elisha Ames, and mother, Martha A. Ames, to Fort Snelling located in the Minnesota Territory. At this time during the spring of 1852, Minnesota was still young—the locality was nameless and resided in a portion of the Fort Snelling reservation. Ames attended local public schools,
David Gilbert Yates (1870 - May 9, 1918) was an American otorhinolaryngologist, born in New Jersey. He attended private schools and after a brief stint as a journalist entered New York University, receiving his medical degree in 1898. He performed surgery at the Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital, and at other facilities.
He contributed many original papers to the literature of his specialty, and at various times was contributing editor of the Medical Critic and of the New International Yearbook, and medical editor of the New International Encyclopedia.
John Arderne (1307–1392) was an English surgeon, and one of the first of his time to devise workable cures. He is considered one of the fathers of surgery, described by some as England's first surgeon and by others as the country's first "of note". Many of his treatments are still in use today. Arderne's help was given to both the rich, and the poor. His view on fees was that rich men should be charged as much as possible, but poor men should be remedied free of charge. His remedies for illness are considered substantial for his time. Arderne recommended opium as a soporific and as an external anesthetic that the patient ‘schal slepe so that he schal fele no kuttyng.' In his document about Fistula in ano, John of Arderne sets out not only his operative procedures but also his code of conduct for the ideal medical practitioner.
In his early life, he resided in Newark-on-Trent. It is also believed he could have lived in Nottingham. He was in London by 1370 when he is thought to have been admitted as a member of the Guild of Surgeons. He saw active military service in the Hundred Years' War in the army of Henry of Grosmont, Duke of Lancaster, and John of Gaunt. He fought also at the
Rogerius (before 1140 – c. 1195), also called Rogerius Salernitanus, Roger Frugard, Roger Frugardi, Roggerio Frugardo, Rüdiger Frutgard and Roggerio dei Frugardi, was a Salernitan surgeon who wrote a work on medicine entitled Practica Chirurgiae ("The Practice of Surgery") around 1180 (sometimes dated earlier to 1170; sometimes later, to 1230). It is also called Chirurgiae Magistri Rogerii ("The Surgery of Master Rogerius").
Rogerius' work is clear, brief, and practical, and also unburdened with long citations derived from other medical authorities. The work, arranged anatomically and presented according to a pathologic-traumatological systematization, includes a brief recommended treatment for each affliction. Rogerius was an independent observer and was the first to use the term lupus to describe the classic malar rash.
He recommended a dressing of egg-albumen for wounds of the neck, and did not believe that nerves, when severed, could be regenerated (consolidari), though he thought they may undoubtedly be reunited (conglutinari).
Rogerius' work was the first medieval text on surgery to dominate its field in all of Europe, and it was used in the new universities in Bologna and
Samuel Prescott (August 19, 1751 – c. 1777) was a Massachusetts Patriot during the American Revolutionary War. He is best remembered for his role in the "midnight ride" to warn the townspeople of Concord of the impending British army move to capture military stores kept there at the beginning of the American Revolution. He was the only participant in the ride to reach Concord.
Dr. Samuel Prescott was born August 19, 1751. He appears to have enjoyed the privileges of growing up in the wholesome atmosphere of colonial Concord, Massachusetts, and within short distance of his many uncles, aunts, and cousins with whom he possibly learned much about his family history. Much of this history was probably passed on to the family by his grand uncle Samuel Prescott (1674–1758), who knew many of the early Prescotts, and was even old enough to remember the first ancestor of the Concord branch of the family, John Prescott (1604–1681), founder of Lancaster, Massachusetts. Indeed, the Prescotts and their extended family played an important and often heroic role in colonial history. These include settling Concord, fighting in colonial wars, and negotiating for the ransom of Mary
Selig Percy Amoils, FRCS, born 1933, is a South African ophthalmologist and biomedical engineering inventor. In 1965, Amoils refined the cryoextraction method of cataract surgery by developing a cryoprobe that was cooled through the Joule-Thomson effect of gas expansion. His system is still widely used in the fields of ophthalmology and gynaecology.
Amoils was also awarded a patent for his "rotary epithelial scrubber", an improvement on the brush first developed by Ioannis Pallikaris that removes corneal epithelial cells in preparation for photorefractive keratectomy. Another development of his in 1970, was the diamond vitrectomy cutter, various instruments enabling micro-control of blade depth in radial keratotomy, as well as the oval comparator, or astigmometer, to control astigmatism after cataract surgery.
Born, raised, and educated in Johannesburg, South Africa, Amoils briefly studied mechanical engineering prior to attending medical school at the University of Witwatersrand where he earned his MB and BCh in 1956. His specialist training was with Baragwanath Hospital in Soweto, Moorfields Eye Hospital in London, and Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary as a Clinical Fellow and
William John Little (1810–1894) was an English surgeon who is credited with the first medical identification of spastic diplegia, when he observed it in the 1860s amongst children. While spasticity surely existed before that point, Little was the first person to medically record the condition in writing. Thus, for many years, spastic diplegia was known as Little's Disease; only later did the name change. Also, Little founded the Royal Orthopaedic Hospital of London.
Little did not have any spasticity himself, but he suffered childhood poliomyelitis with residual left lower-extremity paraparesis, complicated by severe talipes. This undoubtedly sparked his special interest in lower-extremity mobility impairments, as well as his medical-orthopedic inclinations more generally. As a youth he was an apothecary's apprentice, surrendering his indentures at the age of 18 and entering medical school at the London Hospital. He was admitted to the Royal College of Surgeons in 1832.
Little is also known for his doctoral dissertation in 1837 on tenotomy, the first monograph on the subject ever published, and Little became the known source of this operation, intended for the correction of
David Hayes Agnew (November 24, 1818 – March 22, 1892) was an American surgeon.
He was born on November 24, 1818 in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. He graduated from the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania in 1838, and a few years later set up in practice at Philadelphia and became a lecturer at the Philadelphia School of Anatomy. He married Margaret Irwin in 1841. He also helped found the Irwin & Agnew Iron Foundry in 1846. In 1852, he bought and revived the Philadelphia School of Anatomy, where he continued to work through 1862. He was appointed surgeon at the Philadelphia Hospital in 1854 and was the founder of its pathological museum.
For 26 years (1863–1889) he was connected with the medical faculty of the medical school of the University of Pennsylvania, being elected professor of operative surgery in 1870 and professor of the principles and practice of surgery in the following year. From 1865 to 1884—except for a brief interval—he was a surgeon at the Pennsylvania Hospital. In 1889 he became the subject of the largest painting ever made by the Philadelphia artist Thomas Eakins, called The Agnew Clinic, in which he is shown conducting a mastectomy operation
John Abernethy FRS (3 April 1764 – 20 April 1831) was an English surgeon.
He was a grandson of the Reverend John Abernethy. He was born in Coleman Street in the City of London, where his father was a merchant. Educated at Wolverhampton Grammar School, he was apprenticed in 1779 to Sir Charles Blicke (1745–1815), a surgeon at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London. He attended the anatomical lectures of Sir William Blizard (1743–1835) at the London Hospital, and was employed to assist as demonstrator; he also attended Percivall Pott's surgical lectures at St Bartholomew's Hospital, as well as the lectures of John Hunter. On Pott's resignation of the office of surgeon of St Bartholomew's, Sir Charles Blicke, who was assistant-surgeon, succeeded him, and Abernethy was elected assistant-surgeon in 1787.
In this capacity he began to give lectures at his house in Bartholomew Close, which were so well attended that the governors of the hospital built a theatre (1790–1791), and Abernethy thus became the founder of the medical school of St Bartholomew's. He held the office of assistant-surgeon for twenty-eight years, till, in 1815, he was elected principal surgeon. He had before that time been
Doctor Joseph Ritchie (c 1788 - November 20, 1819) was an English surgeon, explorer and naturalist.
In 1818 Ritchie was sent with George Francis Lyon by Sir John Barrow to find the course of the River Niger and the location of Timbuktu. The expedition was underfunded, lacked support and because the ideas of Barrow departed from Tripoli and thus had to cross the Sahara as part of their journey. A year later, due to much officialdom they had only got as far as Murzuk, the capital of Fezzan, where they both fell ill. Ritchie never recovered and died there.
William Harrell Felton (June 19, 1823 – September 24, 1909) was an American politician, army surgeon, and Methodist minister. His wife was Rebecca Latimer Felton, who became the first woman to serve on the United States Senate, albeit only for one day.
Born on June 19, 1823, near Lexington, Georgia, Felton studied at the University of Georgia, Athens in 1843, and the Medical College of Georgia, Augusta in 1844. He spent the next seven years in Cartersville, Georgia practising medicine, teaching and farming. In 1851, he was elected as a member of the Georgia House of Representatives, representing Cass County (now called Bartow County). He was ordained as a Methodist minister in 1857, and served as a surgeon in the American Civil War.
From March 4, 1875, until March 3, 1881, Felton served as an Independent Democrat in the United States House of Representatives, although his attempt to be re-elected in 1880 was unsuccessful and he returned to his agricultural and ministerial work. He once again served in the Georgia House of Representatives from 1884-1880.
Felton died on September 24, 1909, and was buried in Oak Hill Cemetery in Washington, D.C.
Sir William Scovell Savory, 1st Baronet (30 November 1826 – 4 March 1895) was a British surgeon.
He was born in London, the son of William Henry Savory, and his second wife, Mary Webb. He entered St Bartholomew's Hospital as a student in 1844, becoming M.R.C.S. in 1847, and F.R.C.S. in 1852. From 1849 to 1859 he was demonstrator of anatomy and operative surgery at St Bartholomew's, and for many years curator of the museum, where he devoted himself to pathological and physiological work. In June 1858 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society for his papers on "the structure and connections of the valves of the human heart – On the development of striated muscular fibre in Mammalia – Phil Trans 1855 [and] on the relative temperature of arterial and venous Blood".
In 1859 he succeeded Sir James Paget as lecturer on general anatomy and physiology. In 1861 he became assistant surgeon, and in 1867 surgeon, holding the latter post till 1891; and from 1869 to 1889 he was lecturer on surgery. In the College of Surgeons he was a man of the greatest influence, and was president for four successive years, 1885–1888. As Hunterian professor of comparative anatomy and physiology (1859–1861),
Claudius Aymand (c. 1681, Paris – 7 July 1740) was a French born English surgeon who in 1735 performed the first recorded successful appendectomy. The patient was an 11-year boy who had an inguinal hernia combined with an acutely inflamed appendix.
Eric Munoz, M.D., MBA, FACS (October 14, 1947 – March 30, 2009) was an American Republican Party politician, who served in the New Jersey General Assembly from 2001, where he represented the 21st legislative district, until his death on March 30, 2009. Munoz had served as the Deputy Conference Leader since 2006.
Munoz served in the Assembly on the Health and Senior Services Committee and the Human Services Committee.
Munoz was a practicing trauma surgeon and administrator at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. He served on the National Institutes of Health Committee since 2002. From 1990-2001, he served as Chairman of the New Jersey Medical Practitioner Review Panel, where he was first appointed by Governor of New Jersey James Florio in 1990 and reappointed by Governor Christine Todd Whitman in 1995.
A longtime resident of Summit, New Jersey, Munoz served on the Summit Common Council from 1996-2001. He was a former Republican Municipal Chairman in Summit. He was elected to an unexpired term as Assemblyman in the old 21st Legislative District in 2001 to succeed Kevin J. O'Toole.
He was elected in 2001, and reelected in 2003, 2005 and 2007, to represent the new
Ernst-Günther Schenck (3 October 1904 – 21 December 1998) was a German Standartenführer (colonel) and doctor who joined the SS in 1933. Because of a chance encounter with Adolf Hitler during the closing days of World War II, his memoirs proved historically valuable. His accounts of this period influenced the accounts of Joachim Fest and James P. O'Donnell regarding the end of Hitler's life, and were included in the film Downfall.
Schenck was born in Marburg, Hesse. He trained as a doctor and joined the SS. During the war, Schenck was actively involved in the creation of a large herbal plantation in Dachau concentration camp, which contained over 200,000 medicinal plants, from which, among other things, vitamin supplements for the Waffen SS were manufactured. In 1940 he was appointed as inspector of nutrition for the SS. In 1943 Schenck developed a protein sausage, which was meant for the SS frontline troops. Prior to adoption, it was tested on 370 prisoners in Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp, some of whom died of hunger edema. In his own memoirs, Schenck stated that his only concern was to improve nutrition and fight hunger. However, a report in 1963 condemned Schenck for
Francis Davis Millet (November 3, 1846 – April 15, 1912) was an American painter, sculptor, and writer who died in the sinking of the RMS Titanic on April 15, 1912.
Francis Davis Millet was born in Mattapoisett, Massachusetts. At age sixteen, Millet entered the Massachusetts regiment, first as a drummer boy and then a surgical assistant (helping his father, a surgeon) in the American Civil War. He repeatedly pointed to his experience working for his father as giving him an appreciation for the vivid blood red that he repeatedly used in his early paintings. He graduated from Harvard with a Master of Arts degree. He worked as a reporter and editor for the Boston Courier and then as a correspondent for the Advertiser at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition.
Millet had a studio in Rome in the early 1870s, and Venice in the mid-1870s, where he lived with Charles Warren Stoddard, a well-known American travel journalist who, evidence indicates, had an active sexual interest in men. Historian Jonathan Ned Katz presents letters from Millet to Stoddard that suggest they had a romantic and intimate affair while living a bohemian life together.
In 1876, Millet returned to Boston to paint
Jules Germain François Maisonneuve (1809–1897) was a French surgeon and student of Guillaume Dupuytren. Maisonneuve is notable as the first surgeon to explain the role of external rotation in the production of ankle fractures. The eponymously named Maisonneuve fracture describes a specific fibular fracture.
Raymond O. Heimbecker, OC, OOnt (born November 29, 1922) is a Canadian cardiovascular surgeon who performed the world’s first complete heart valve transplant in 1962 and Canada’s first modern heart transplant in 1981.
Born in Calgary, Alberta, he received a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Saskatchewan in 1944. He received his Doctor of Medicine degree from the University of Toronto in 1947. He also received a Master of Arts in physiology and a Master of Science in surgery. He worked with Wilfred Bigelow and Alfred Blalock.
In 1955, he joined the Department of Surgery at the University of Toronto and was a research associate at the Ontario Heart Foundation. In 1962, he became a cardiovascular consultant to the Wellesley Hospital. He was a Professor at the University of Western Ontario.
In 1997, he was made an Officer of the Order of Canada for being "at the forefront of his specialty, developing advanced techniques for heart surgery and assisting in the first human heart valve transplant". In 2002, he was awarded the Order of Ontario.
He has received an honorary degree from the University of Saskatchewan.
Denton Arthur Cooley (born August 22, 1920) is an American heart surgeon famous for performing the first implantation of a total artificial heart. Cooley is also founder and surgeon in-chief of The Texas Heart Institute, chief of Cardiovascular Surgery at St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital, consultant in Cardiovascular Surgery at Texas Children's Hospital, and a clinical professor of Surgery at the University of Texas Medical School at Houston.
Cooley graduated in 1941 from the University of Texas, where he was a member of the Kappa Sigma fraternity, played on the basketball team, and majored in zoology. He became interested in surgery through several pre-med classes he attended in college and began his medical education at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston. He completed his medical degree and his surgical training at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in Baltimore, Maryland, where he also completed his internship. At Johns Hopkins, he worked with Dr. Alfred Blalock and assisted in the first "Blue Baby" procedure to correct an infant's congenital heart defect.
In 1946 Cooley was called to active duty with the Army Medical Corps. There, he served as chief of surgical
Ralph Bingham Cloward (born in Salt Lake City, Utah, September 24, 1908, died November 13, 2000) was an American neurosurgeon. He attended the University of Hawaii, finished college in Utah in 1930, thereafter medical school in Utah and finished his degree as a medical doctor at Rush Medical School in Chicago in 1934. He attended as a resident at the University of Chicago under Dr. Bailey. He thereafter moved to Hawaii, where he became the archipelago's first practising neurosurgeon (until 1944). In connection with the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, he performed 44 craniotomies in 4 days .
Dr. Cloward remains renowned for his contribution to spinal neurosurgery. He developed the technique called Posterior Lumbosacral Interbody Fusion (PLIF) and Anterior Cervical Interbody Fusion, the latter also known as Cloward procedure. Ralph Bingham Cloward was a member of the Western Neurosurgical Society for 40 years and served as its President in 1975. To say he and his wife Flossie were fond of the Western would be gross understatement. After his death in 2000 (in which Flossie preceded him), a number of Society members were desirous of creating an award in his name which would include a
Eric Sidney Watkins, OBE, FRCS, commonly known within the Formula One fraternity as Professor Sid or simply Prof (6 September 1928 – 12 September 2012), was a world-renowned English neurosurgeon.
Watkins served twenty-six years as the FIA Formula One Safety and Medical Delegate, head of the Formula One on-track medical team, and first responder in case of a crash. He helped to save the lives of many drivers including Gerhard Berger, Martin Donnelly, Érik Comas, Mika Häkkinen, Rubens Barrichello and Karl Wendlinger. Watkins was also known for his friendship with driver Ayrton Senna until Senna's death at the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix.
Watkins was married, with four sons and two daughters. He died on 12 September 2012 after a heart attack.
Sidney Watkins was born in Liverpool to Wallace and Jessica Watkins. Wallace was originally a coal miner from Gloucestershire, but had moved to Liverpool during the Great Depression of the 1930s where he started a small business initially repairing bicycles before progressing to motor vehicle repairs. Watkins worked for his father at the garage until he was 25. He had two brothers and a sister. Watkins gained a scolarship at Bootle Grammar School.
Thomas Thomas (August 29, 1917 – October 31, 1998), widely known as "Dr. T. Thomas", was the first cardio-thoracic surgeon of Indian citizenship, as well as a prolific author and poet.
He was trained by Reeve H. Betts in cardio-thoracic surgery at the Christian Medical College in Vellore, India. He studied at Madras Christian College, Tamil Nadu, and did his medical training at Stanley Medical College, Tamil Nadu. He was the first surgeon in South Asia to do a mitral valvulotomy.
He was awarded a Rockefeller Fellowship and did further medical research in London and Edinburgh. He later taught in hospitals in Karnataka, Kerala, Papua New Guinea, and Libya.
A prolific writer, he funded his medical studies by writing short stories that were published in the literary magazine Caravan.
He wrote poetry, short stories and several novels. Several of these are set in Kerala. His non-medical works include a book on Sister Alphonsa. This book played a role in helping the case for her canonisation. His poetry has been read on the radio in Sydney, Australia. In his later years, his poetry dealt with the themes of blindness and the nature of an expatriate's identity.
His medical publications
Toby R. Meltzer (born September 19, 1957) is a plastic and reconstructive surgeon who currently practices in Scottsdale, Arizona. Meltzer specializes in sex reassignment surgery male-to-female, sex reassignment surgery female-to-male, and facial feminization surgery. In the 1990s, Meltzer pioneered the neovaginal construction technique that increased the ability of the neoclitoris to feel sensations. In 2007, Meltzer reported that he performs 2-4 vaginoplasties a week, and that he has performed over 3000 male and female sexual reassignment (SRS) surgeries during his practice. Meltzer is considered one of the leading surgeons in this specialized field.
Meltzer is a graduate of the Louisiana State University school of medicine, where he completed a residency in general surgery. He completed his plastic surgery residency at the University of Michigan. Meltzer then began his practice, while working as a clinical professor of plastic surgery at Oregon Health Sciences University (OHSU). There he specialized in general surgery, plastic surgery, and completed a fellowship in surgery for treatment of severe burn injuries.
Working with the chief of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Division
Sir William Fergusson, 1st Baronet FRCS FRS (20 March 1808 – 10 February 1877) was a Scottish surgeon.
William Fergusson son of James Fergusson of Lochmaben, Dumfriesshire, was born at Prestonpans, East Lothian on 20 March 1808, and was educated first at Lochmaben and afterwards at the high school and University of Edinburgh. At the age of fifteen he was placed by his own desire in a lawyer's office, but the work proved uncongenial, and at seventeen he exchanged law for medicine, in accordance with his father's original wishes. He became an assiduous pupil of Dr. Robert Knox the anatomist, who was much pleased with a piece of mechanism which Fergusson constructed, and appointed him at the age of twenty demonstrator to his class of four hundred pupils.
In 1828 Fergusson became a licentiate, and in 1829 a fellow of the Edinburgh College of Surgeons. He continued zealous in anatomy, often spending from twelve to sixteen hours a day in the dissecting-room. Two of his preparations, admirably dissected, are still preserved in the museum of the Edinburgh College of Surgeons. Soon after qualifying Fergusson began to deliver a portion of the lectures on general anatomy, in association with
Sir Charles Wyndham (23 March 1837 – January 12, 1919) was an English actor-manager, born as Charles Culverwell in Liverpool, the son of a doctor. He was educated abroad, at King's College London and at the College of Surgeons and the Peter Street Anatomical School, Dublin. His taste for the stage - he had taken part in amateur drama - was too strong for him to take up either the clerical or the medical career suggested for him, and early in 1862 he made his first professional appearance in London, performing with Ellen Terry.
Further stage work was not forthcoming, and he returned to medicine. There was a shortage of surgeons in the United States, which was in the throes of the Civil War, and he volunteered to became brigade surgeon in the Union army. He served at the battles of Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville and Gettysburg. On 17 November 1864 he resigned his contract with the Army to return to the stage. He starred, in 1867, in W. S. Gilbert's La Vivandière. In later years he was to appear in America: between 1870-1872 in his own Wyndham Comedy Company; and in later tours between 1882 and 1909. On one occasion he appeared in New York with John Wilkes Booth.
Jacques Joseph (September 6, 1865 -February 12, 1934) was a German plastic surgeon.
Born Jakob Lewin Joseph in Königsberg, Prussia, he was the third child of Rabbi Israel Joseph and his wife Sara. He was an innovator in modern plastic surgery and reconstructive surgery who developed methods for aesthetic plastic surgery, including cosmetic rhinoplasty. He noted that cosmetic surgery, while not a physical necessity, was worth the risks to a person's health because of its positive impact on their spirit, personality, and role in the world. He was a pioneer of rhinoplasty, which he developed and performed on many of Berlin's Jewish community (to which he also belonged).
From 1885 to 1889, he was a student of medicine at the Friedrich Wilhelm University in Berlin. In 1892 he joined the staff of the Berlin University Clinic for Orthopaedic Surgery. In the same year he married his wife, Leonore. In 1904, Jacques Joseph published his first report on the simultaneous, intranasal correction of a hump nose with the correction of the front nasal septum. In 1916, he was appointed head of the newly founded Department of Facial Plastic Surgery at the Ear, Nose and Throat Clinic at the Charité by
John Cooper Forster (1823 – 2 March 1886) was a British surgeon.
Forster was born in 1823 in Lambeth, London, where his father and grandfather before him had been local medical practitioners. He entered Guy's Hospital in 1841, was appointed demonstrator of anatomy in 1850, assistant-surgeon, 1855, and surgeon, 1870. He became a member of the College of Surgeons in 1844, fellow in 1849 and president in 1884.
He was a prompt and sometimes bold operator. In 1858, he performed practically the first gastrostomy in England for a case of cancer of the oesophagus. Among his best-known papers were discussions of acupressure, syphilis, hydrophobia, intestinal obstruction, modified obturator hernia, torsion, and colloid cancer of the large intestine; and he published a book on Surgical Diseases of Children in 1860, founded on his experience as surgeon to the hospital for children and women in Waterloo Road. He died suddenly in London on 2 March 1886.
Robert K. Kerlan (May 13, 1922 – September 8, 1996) was an American orthopedic surgeon and the co-founder, along with Dr. Frank Jobe, of the Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic. Kerlan was the Los Angeles Dodgers' first team doctor after their move from Brooklyn to Los Angeles in 1958, and diagnosed Dodgers pitcher Sandy Koufax with traumatic arthritis in his left elbow.
Kerlan died in Santa Monica, California at age 74.
Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister OM, FRS, PC (5 April 1827 – 10 February 1912), known as Sir Joseph Lister, Bt., between 1883 and 1897, was a British surgeon and a pioneer of antiseptic surgery, who promoted the idea of sterile surgery while working at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary. Lister successfully introduced carbolic acid (now known as phenol) to sterilise surgical instruments and to clean wounds, which led to a reduction in post-operative infections and made surgery safer for patients.
Lister came from a prosperous Quaker home in Upton, Essex, a son of Joseph Jackson Lister, a pioneer of achromatic object lenses for the compound microscope.
At Quaker schools, he became a fluent reader of French and German, which were also the leading languages of medical research. As a teenager, Lister attended Grove House School Tottenham, studying mathematics, natural science, and languages.
He attended the University of London, one of only a few institutions which were open to Quakers at that time. He initially studied the Arts but graduated with honours as Bachelor of Medicine and entered the Royal College of Surgeons at the age of 26. In 1854, Lister became both first assistant to and
George Miller Beard (May 8, 1839 – January 23, 1883) was a U.S. neurologist who popularized the term neurasthenia, starting around 1869.
Dr. Beard was born in Montville, Connecticut on May 8, 1839, to Rev. Spencer F. Beard, a Congregational minister, and Lucy A. Leonard. Beard's mother died in 1842 and his father remarried the following year to Mary Ann Fellowes. He graduated from Yale College in 1862, and received his medical degree from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New York in 1866. While still in medical school during the American Civil War, he served as an assistant surgeon in the West Gulf squadron of the United States Navy aboard the gunboat New London. After the war and graduation from medical school, he married Elizabeth Ann Alden, of Westville, Connecticut, on December 25, 1866.
He is remembered best for having defined neurasthenia as a medical condition with symptoms of fatigue, anxiety, headache, impotence, neuralgia and depression, as a result of exhaustion of the central nervous system's energy reserves, which Beard attributed to civilization. Physicians who agreed with Beard associated neurasthenia with the stresses of urbanization and the increasingly
Patrick Russell (6 February 1726, Edinburgh – 2 July 1805, London) was a Scottish surgeon and naturalist who worked in India. He studied the snakes of India and is considered the 'Father of Indian Ophiology'. Russell's viper, Daboia russelii, is named after him.
The fifth son of John Russell, a well-known lawyer of Edinburgh and his third wife Mary, Patrick was the half-brother of Alexander Russell, FRS and William Russell, FRS. Patrick studied Roman and Greek classics at Edinburgh high school after which he studied medicine at the University under Alexander Monro. He graduated as a Doctor of Medicine in 1750 and joined his half-brother, Alexander Russell, who was 12 years senior in Aleppo, Syria. In 1740 Alexader had been made a Physician to the Levant Company's Factory. Alexander was involved in quarantine and disease control and was a keen naturalist with a knowledge of local languages and a close friend of the Pasha.
In 1753, Alexander resigned, returning to London and publishing a Natural History of Aleppo and Parts Adjacent in 1756. Patrick took up the position left by Alexander and worked for about 18 years. The Pasha of Aleppo held him in high regard, even honouring him
Sir Percivall Pott (6 January 1714 – 22 December 1788) London, England) was an English surgeon, one of the founders of orthopedy, and the first scientist to demonstrate that a cancer may be caused by an environmental carcinogen.
He served his apprenticeship with Edward Nourse, assistant surgeon to St Bartholomew's Hospital, and in 1736 was admitted to the Barbers' Company and licensed to practise. He became assistant surgeon to St Bartholomew's in 1744 and full surgeon from 1749 till 1787.
As the first surgeon of his day in England, excelling even his pupil, John Hunter, on the practical side, Pott introduced various important innovations in procedure, doing much to abolish the extensive use of escharotics and the cautery that was prevalent when he began his career. He also thought that soot was a carcinogen.
In 1756, Pott sustained a broken leg after a fall from his horse. It is often assumed that his injury was the same one that later came to be known as Pott's fracture, but in reality Pott's broken leg was a much more serious compound fracture of the femur. As he lay in the mud and muck, he sent a servant to buy a door from a nearby construction site, then had himself placed on
Luciano Endrizzi (b. January 8, 1921, Rovereto, Italy; d. 1986, São Paulo, Brazil) was an Italian Brazilian physician and surgeon. who became one of the most respected gynecologists and obstetricians in the country.
Dr. Endrizzi was born in Italy to Henrique Endrizzi, an Italian-Brazilian agronomist specialized in enology and Gelinda Roat, an Austrian from Trento (now Italy). The family moved in 1921 to Brazil, where his father had a brother living as a Catholic priest, Américo Endrizzi. Following his father, who earned his living working as a travelling rural adviser for the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, the young Luciano lived and studied each year in a different city: Piracicaba in 1928, Botucatu in 1929, Bauru in 1930, Sorocaba in 1931, Campinas in 1932-1933, São Carlos in 1934-1935, Campinas again in 1937, and São Paulo in 1938-1939 (where he started in the pre-medical school).
In 1940 he began to study Medicine at the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo in São Paulo. While a medical student, he developed his vocation and talents as a surgeon, working as internist in the services of great masters in this area, such as professors Alípio Correa Neto and Mário
Neville G. Poy, OC, FRCS(C), FACS (Chinese: 伍衛權; born October 29, 1935 in Hong Kong), is a retired Toronto plastic surgeon, husband of Senator Vivienne Poy and brother of Adrienne Clarkson.
Poy came to Canada in 1942 with father William Poy, mother Ethel Poy and sister Adrienne Clarkson from Hong Kong. Poy graduated from McGill University's medical school in 1960 and went into practice in Toronto shortly after. He retired in 1995 and continues to live in Toronto.
After retirement, Poy has remained active in the community. An award, the "Dr Neville G Poy Award", was created at McGill in 1994.
In 1998, he was made an Officer of the Order of Canada, Canada's second highest civilian honour, in recognition of being an "internationally renowned plastic surgeon whose extensive research in trauma has greatly improved the quality of medical care received by accident victims". In 2003, he was appointed Honorary Lieutenant-Colonel of The Queen's York Rangers. He is also a member of the Quadrangle Society of Massey College at the University of Toronto.
Charles George Drake, CC, OOnt, FRCSC (July 21, 1920 – September 15, 1998) was a Canadian neurosurgeon known for his work on treating aneurysms.
Born in Windsor, Ontario, he received his B.Sc. and MD degrees from The University of Western Ontario.
From 1974 until 1984 he was Chairman of the Department of Surgery at the University of Western Ontario. In 1986, he co-founded the Robarts Research Institute, which was Canada's only independent medical research centre until its recent merger with the university.
He was the president of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (1971–1973), the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (1977), the American College of Surgeons (1984–1985), the World Federation of Neurological Societies (1977–1981), the Society of Neurological Surgeons (1980), and the American Surgical Association (1986–1987).
In 1982 he was made an Officer of the Order of Canada and was promoted to Companion in 1998. In 1994 he was inducted in the Canadian Medical Hall of Fame. There is also a metal bust of his head outside of London's University Hospital, where Drake practiced.
He married Ruth Pitts.
Daniel Hale Williams (January 18, 1858 – August 4, 1931) was an American surgeon. He was the first African-American cardiologist, and performed the first successful open-heart surgery in the United States. He also founded Provident Hospital, the first non-segregated hospital in the United States.
At the time that he graduated from medical school, black doctors were not allowed to work in Chicago hospitals. As a result, in 1891, Williams started the Provident Hospital (Chicago) and training school for nurses in Chicago, Illinois. This was established mostly for African-American citizens.
Williams was one of the first to have performed cardiac surgery. Earlier surgeries on the pericardium were performed by Francisco Romero in 1801, Dominique Jean Larrey prior to 1850, and by Henry Dalton in 1891. In 1893 Williams repaired the torn pericardium of a knife wound patient, James Cornish, the second on record. He performed this surgery, without the benefit of penicillin or blood transfusion, at Provident Hospital, Chicago, on 10 July 1893 About fifty-five days later, James Cornish had successfully recovered from the surgery.
In 1893, during the administration of President Grover Cleveland,
Gustav Simon (May 30, 1824, Darmstadt - August 21, 1876, Heidelberg) was a German surgeon.
In 1848 he earned his medical doctorate from the University of Giessen, and from 1848 to 1861 served as a military physician with a Hessian troop outfit. During this time he also worked at a small hospital in Darmstadt that he co-founded. In 1861 at the request of Carl Friedrich Strempel (1800-1872), he was appointed professor at the University of Rostock and director of the surgical clinic. In 1867 he succeeded Karl Otto Weber (1827-1867) at the University of Heidelberg. During the Franco-Prussian War he served as a physician in reserve hospitals. Simon was a member of the Corps Starkenburgia Giessen (1843) and Saxo-Borussia Heidelberg (1845).
Simon specialized in the fields of gynecology, orthopedics and military surgery, and published a book involving his early experiences with gunshot wounds. In 1851-52 while in Paris, he had the chance to observe Antoine Joseph Jobert de Lamballe’s operative treatment of vesicovaginal fistulae (VVF). Impressed by Jobert's success rate with VVF, Simon developed his own surgical technique for VVF when he returned to Darmstadt.
Simon demonstrated that the
James Syme (7 November 1799 – 26 June 1870) was a pioneering Scottish surgeon.
He was born on 7 November in Edinburgh. His father was a writer to the signet and a landowner in Fife and Kinross, who lost most of his fortune in attempting to develop the mineral resources of his property. James was sent to the Royal High School at the age of nine, and remained until he was fifteen, when he entered the University of Edinburgh. For two years he frequented the arts classes (including botany), and in 1817 began the medical curriculum, devoting himself with particular keenness to chemistry. His chemical experiments led him to the discovery that a valuable substance is obtainable from coal tar which has the property of dissolving india-rubber, and could be used for waterproofing silk and other textile fabrics; an idea which was patented a few months afterwards by Charles Macintosh, of Glasgow (see also Mackintosh).
In the session 1818-1819 Syme became assistant and demonstrator of the dissecting room of Robert Liston, who had started as an extramural teacher of anatomy in competition with Liston's old master, Dr John Barclay; in those years he held also resident appointments in the
John Shaw Billings (April 12, 1838 – March 11, 1913) was an American librarian and surgeon best known as the modernizer of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office of the Army and as the first director of the New York Public Library.
Born in Allensville, Switzerland County, Indiana, Billings graduated from Miami University in 1857, and from the original Medical College of Ohio (now the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine) in 1860. He was medical inspector of the Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War, then became head of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office in Washington, D.C.
The Surgeon General's library that he developed (see Army Medical Museum and Library) later became the core of the National Library of Medicine. During his time as Director of the Library of the SGO, 1865–1895, he was responsible for the creation of both the Index Medicus (1879) and the Index Catalogue of the Surgeon General's Office (1880). He was elected an Associate Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1881.
He was also for some years professor of hygiene in the University of Pennsylvania. He is also credited with designing the original buildings of Johns
Joseph Pancoast (November 23, 1805 – March 6, 1882) was a renowned American surgeon. His name is eponymic to the practice of surgery, in general, and plastic surgery, in particular.
Joseph Pancoast was responsible for many seminal advancements in surgery that he described, and were depicted graphically, in numerous scholarly articles and books. His greatest work, A Treatise on Operative Surgery, was published in 1844. He was also famous for his lectures and clinics in anatomy and surgery.
Joseph Pancoast was born of Quaker parentage at Springfield Township, Burlington County, New Jersey, the son of John Pancoast (1771 – 1841) and Lucy Abbott, his wife. Joseph Pancoast married Rebecca Abbott.
In 1828, Joseph Pancoast was awarded a degree in medicine by the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. From 1839 to 1841, he was Chairman of the Department of Surgery at Jefferson Medical College. From 1841 until his resignation in 1874, Pancoast was Chairman of the Department of Anatomy at the same institution. He was succeeded by his son, William Henry Pancoast, who was also a renowned surgeon.
Lars Leksell (1907–1986) was a Swedish physician and Professor of Neurosurgery at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden. He was the inventor of radiosurgery.
Lars Leksell was born in Fässberg Parish, Sweden on November 23, 1907. He graduated in Medicine at the Karolinska Institute in 1935 and began training in neurosurgery in the same year. He became a professor of surgery at University of Lund in 1958. From 1960 until his retirement, in 1974, he was Professor of Neurosurgery at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, succeeding Herbert Olivecrona, who was the department's founder in 1920. He died in 1986.
Professor Lars Leksell was one of the first to develop a stereotactic apparatus exclusively for human functional neurosurgery in 1949, following the pioneering work of American neurosurgeons Ernest A. Spiegel and Henry T. Wycis in 1947. It was based on the Horsley–Clarke apparatus developed for animal experimentation by the British neurosurgeon Sir Victor Horsley at University College London in 1908, but instead of using the cartesian coordinate frame, it used polar coordinates. The Leksell Stereotactic Frame was and still is in wide use today. Using it, Leksell and his
René Leriche (12 October 1879, Roanne, Loire - 28 December 1955, Cassis, near Marseille) was a famous French surgeon.
René Leriche gave his name to two syndromes:
Born in Roanne the son of a lawyer Leriche began his career in Lyon. In 1924 he was appointed Professor of Surgery at the University of Strasbourg. In 1927 he was made an honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. He was the first surgeon to be made Professeur au Collège de France.
He was a technically gifted surgeon and had flair for teaching. This attracted students to him - many of whom became renowned in their own right. He emphasised the importance of regarding the patient as a whole - the holistic approach.
He devised a surgical procedure, the sympathectomy, to increase blood flow within arteries.
He was awarded the Lister Medal in 1939 for his contributions to surgical science. The corresponding Lister Memorial Lecture, delivered that same year at the Royal College of Surgeons of England, was titled 'The Listerian Idea in 1939'.
In 1958, a French postage stamp was issued with his name and portrait on it.
Leriche was a flamboyant character who enjoyed French cuisine and fine wine. He had a fine
Thomas Blizard Curling (1811 – 4 March 1888) was a British surgeon.
He was born in Tavistock Place, London in 1811, the son of civil sevant Daniel and Elizabeth (née Bllzard) Curling and educated at Manor House, Chiswick. Without a degree but through the influence of his surgeon uncle, Sir William Blizard, he became assistant-surgeon to the Royal London Hospital in 1833, becoming full surgeon in 1849. In 1843 he won the Jacksonian prize for his investigations on tetanus; and he became famous for his skill in treating diseases of the testes and rectum, his published works on which went through many editions.
He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in June 1850. After filling other important posts in the College of Surgeons, he was appointed president of the College in 1873.
He died in Cannes, France on the 4 March 1888.
Zbigniew Eugeniusz Religa [ˈzbʲiɡɲɛf rɛˈliɡa] ( listen) (December 16, 1938 — March 8, 2009) was a prominent Polish cardiac surgeon and politician.
Religa finished his studies at the Medical University of Warsaw in 1963. From 1966 to 1980 he worked in the Szpital Wolski in Warsaw, where he qualified in surgery. In 1973, he visited New York to train in vascular surgery, in 1975 he trained in cardiac surgery in Detroit. In 1973, he obtained an Ph. D. degree; in 1981 he finished his habilitation, achieving academic recognition similar to an associate professor or senior lecturer. From 1980 to 1984, Religa lectured at the Warsaw Institute of Cardiology. In 1984 he obtained a chair in cardiac surgery and directed the Cardiosurgical Clinic in Zabrze, in 1990 he became full professor at the Silesian Medical University in Katowice, being its rector from 1997 to 1999. In 2001 he returned to Warsaw to become director of both the Clinic of Cardiac Surgery No. 2 and the Institute of Cardiology.
A pioneer in human heart transplantation in Poland, he led the team to prepare the first successful heart transplantation in the country, and in June 1995 he was the first surgeon to graft an artificial
Albert Vander Veer (July 10, 1841 - December 19, 1929), was a pioneering American surgeon, credited with performing the first thyroidectomy.
He was born in Root, New York, the son of Abraham Harris Vander Veer and Sarah Martin. After attending Union Free School, Palatine, and the Canajoharie Academy, he began to study medicine under the direction of Dr. Simeon Snow, of Currytown, New York, and later under Dr. John Swinburne, a physician and surgeon of renown in Albany.
In 1861 he attended a full course of lectures at Albany Medical College, and in 1862 a second course at the National Medical College, medical department, Columbian University, now the George Washington University, from which he was graduated on December 23, 1862.
In May 1862, he enlisted in the United States Medical Corps, one of the original One Hundred Medical Cadets called to service by the Surgeon General of the United States army, they having studied medicine two years and attended one full course of lectures and passing a satisfactory examination, to act as interns in the military hospitals. After taking the examination he was assigned to Columbia College Hospital, and was soon informed by Dr. Crosby,
Sir Herbert Atkinson Barker (21 April 1869 – 21 July 1950) was an English manipulative surgeon. He developed a highly successful technique, specialising in knee and other damaged joints both in the top sportsmen and the general public. He advocated the avoidance of surgery. However, his methods were never formally approved by the medical establishment. Because of opposition towards a Lambeth degree or honorary degree for him, he was instead honored with a knighthood in 1922, nominally for services in World War I.
In the 1920s he visited Doctor's Cave Beach Club in Montego Bay, Jamaica, and was most impressed by the curative powers of the waters. His subsequent articles about the beach lead to it becoming a popular destination for those seeking cures, and this was the start of the tourist industry in Montego Bay.
Hugh of Lucca and his son, Theodoric of Lucca, are noted for their use of wine as an antiseptic in the early 13th century.
Hugh of Lucca was appointed surgeon for Bologna in Italy in 1214 for a salary of 600 Bolognini per year. His contract required that he serve the army in times of war, and in the Fifth Crusade he joined the army in Egypt. He discovered, probably through empirical observation (there was no notion of infection by germs at this time), that wine was very effective at cleaning a wound and preventing infection. Regardless of what Hugh asserted, many surgeons still used ointments, or just cauterisation. Unlike many other doctors and surgeons at that time, Hugh and Theodoric were aware that pus was not a healthy sign. Other doctors referred to it as "praiseworthy pus" and believed it got rid of any toxins in the blood, and so, that it was a good sign.
Hugh's son described how new methods of dealing with wounds were being developed by "clever and ingenious surgeons". He often criticised accepted methods.
Sir Magdi Habib Yacoub, FRS (Arabic: مجدى حبيب يعقوب [ˈmæɡdi ħæˈbiːb jæʕˈʔuːb]; born 16 November 1935 in Bilbeis, Sharqia Governorate, Egypt), is Professor of Cardiothoracic Surgery at Imperial College London.
Yacoub's major achievements may be summarised:
He was involved in the restart of UK heart transplantion in 1980 (there had been moratorium following the series of three performed by Donald Ross in 1968), carried out the first UK live lobe lung transplant and went on to perform more transplants than any other surgeon in the world. A 1980 patient, Derrick Morris, was Europe's longest surviving heart transplant recipient until his death in July 2005. A March 1978 heart by-pass patient continues to live a very active and fruitful life.
The son of a surgeon, Yacoub studied at Cairo University and qualified as a doctor in 1957. He reportedly said he decided to specialise in heart surgery after an aunt died of heart disease in her early 20s. He moved to Britain in 1962, then taught at The University of Chicago. He became a consultant cardiothoracic surgeon at Harefield Hospital in 1973.
Under his leadership, the Harefield Hospital transplant programme began in 1980 and by the end
Walter Douglas Boyd, M.D. is a notable canadian cardiothoracic surgeon.
born in Ottawa, he is a graduate of Carleton University, and the University of Ottawa for his medical degree. In 1999, he Boyd completed the world’s first closed-chest, beating-heart coronary artery bypass surgery with the use of the ZEUS Robotic Surgical System, and has conducted pioneering work in cardiothoracic surgery and the use of robotic surgical systems. Dr. Boyd is also recognized for performing the first human extracellular matrix xenograft implant for cardiovascular repair in March 2006.
He was the head of the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery at the Cleveland Clinic in Florida from 2002-2009. In August, 2009 he was named Professor of Surgery, and Director of Robotics and Biosurgery at the University of California, Davis.
Current areas of research include pioneering work in cardiac tissue regeneration with extracellular matrix/stem cells, and remote presence surgery including the development of remote telerobotic surgery systems with supervised autonomy.
He has a wife and two children.
Andreas Roland Grüntzig (June 25, 1939–October 27, 1985) was a German cardiologist who first developed successful balloon angioplasty for expanding lumens of narrowed arteries.
Grüntzig's first successful coronary angioplasty treatment on an awake human was performed in 1977, in Zurich, Switzerland. He expanded a short, about 3 mm, non-branching section of the Left Anterior Descending (LAD) artery (the front branch of the left coronary artery) which supplies the front wall and tip of the heart (see coronary circulation) which had a high grade stenosis, about 80%, of the lumen. Dr. Grüntzig presented the results of his first four angioplasty cases at the 1977 American Heart Association (AHA) meeting, which led to widespread acknowledgement of his pioneering work.
The immediate results of this treatment, despite using only a carefully kitchen built catheter (crude by current standards), was quite good. The patient became and remained angina free after this treatment. This initial patient's result was electively rechecked, by angiography at Emory University, on the 10-year anniversary of the initial treatment. The LAD narrowing, after this 10-year timespan, remained almost perfectly
José Aristodemo Pinotti (São Paulo City, December 20, 1934 — July 1, 2009) was a Brazilian physician, gynecological surgeon, university professor, scientific and educational leader and politician.
At the time of his death he was a federal congressman by the state of State of São Paulo, in his second mandate. He had retired from his professorship at the State University of Campinas and as chairman of the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of the Medical School of the University of São Paulo. He had a private clinic in São Paulo, CLAP, as well as a private research and education institute.
Dr. Pinotti studied medicine at the Medical School of the University of São Paulo, where he also obtained his doctorate.
Besides his current positions, Dr. Pinotti has had many executive and leadership positions:
He was also a candidate for mayor of the cities of Campinas and São Paulo and for vice-governor of the state of São Paulo.
As a researcher and scientist, Dr. Pinotti was extremely influential in his area. His specialty was Gynecology and Obstetrics, specifically oncology. He was considered one of the foremost international experts in surgery for breast cancer and at least one
Thomas Pickering Pick (13 June 1841 - 6 September 1919) was a British surgeon and author. He edited the tenth through fourteenth editions of Gray's Anatomy, succeeding Timothy Holmes as editor. His other notable books include Fractures and Dislocations (Cassell & Co, 1885), and Surgery (1889).
Pickering Pick's father was a Liverpool merchant. At 16, he came to London and trained at St. George's Hospital. He qualified for the Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons in 1866 and was elected as the hospital's assistant surgeon in 1869. From 1878 to 1898 he held the office of surgeon, then became a consulting surgeon prior to his 1900 retirement.
William Guybon Atherstone FRCS FGS (27 May 1814 — 26 March 1898) medical practitioner, naturalist and geologist, one of the pioneers of South African geology and a member of the Cape Parliament.
He arrived in South Africa with his parents as 1820 Settlers. His father, Dr John Atherstone, was appointed District Surgeon of Uitenhage in 1822. William, a young man of wide interests and outstanding ability, received his first training at Dr James Rose Innes's academy in Uitenhage, being at first apprenticed to his father and then serving as Assistant-Surgeon in the Sixth Frontier War 1834-1835. In 1836 he studied medicine in Dublin and was admitted as M.R.C.S. the following year, obtaining an M.D. in Heidelberg, Germany in 1839, returning to Grahamstown in the same year and joining his father in practice. He carried out research in lung-sickness, horse-sickness and tick-borne fever and was in 1847 the first surgeon outside Europe and America to perform an amputation using an anaesthetic. This operation, on 16 June 1847, was performed on the Albany Deputy Sheriff, Mr F Carlisle, and was completely successful. On recovering from the anaesthetic, the patient said "What? My leg is off?
John Henry Walsh FRCS (21 October 1810 – 12 February 1888), English writer on sport under the pseudonym of "Stonehenge", was born at Hackney, London.
He was educated at private schools, and became a fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons in 1844. For several years he followed his profession of surgeon, but gradually abandoned it on account of the success of his works on the subject of sport. He removed from the country to London in 1852, and the following year brought out his first important book, The Greyhound (3rd ed. 1875), a collection of papers originally contributed to "Bell's Life."
In 1856 his Manual of British Rural Sports appeared, which enjoyed many editions. During the same year he joined the staff of The Field, and became its editor at the close of 1857. Among his numerous books published under the name of "Stonehenge" are:
While editor of The Field, Walsh instituted a series of trials of guns, rifles and sporting powders extending over a period of many years, which greatly tended to the development of sporting firearms; and his influence upon all branches of sport was stimulating and beneficial.
He died at Putney on 12 February 1888, aged 77.
Walsh, son of Benjamin
"Chevalier" John Taylor (1703–1772) was the first in a long line of British eye surgeons. While there is some evidence that he showed promise as an eye surgeon early in his career, it became evident that his major talent was that of self-promotion.
Dubbing himself "Chevalier" and "Ophthalmiater Royal," Taylor became the self-proclaimed personal eye surgeon to King George II, the Pope and number of European royal families. He was as famous for his womanizing as for his surgical skills. Prior to performing each surgical procedure, he would deliver a long, self-promoting speech in an unusual oratorial style. (John Barrell, London Review of Books, 2004)
He was a coucher, or cataract surgeon, who performed removal of cataracts by breaking them up into pieces. He has been accused by some for accelerating the process by which composer George Handel became blind. Many (including his contemporaries) believe that Johann Sebastian Bach also died of complications due to his surgery. (Trevor-Roper, Documents of Ophthalmology, 1989) Though one dissenting view concerning Bach is presented in a recent article by Dutch ophthalmologist Dr. R. Zegers. Zegers writes that "After his training, Taylor
Jonathan Alan Borden is an American neurosurgeon who developed the Borden Classification of Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas. He has been involved in internet based telemedicine applications and is an editor of the RDDL specification for XML Namespaces.
Jonathan Alan Borden, born October 31, 1962 in Rochester, New York, raised in Hartford, Connecticut. Borden graduated from Amherst College in Amherst, Massachusetts with a Bachelor of Arts in Neuroscience and Yale University School of Medicine. He completed his internship and residency in Neurosurgery at Tufts University in Boston, Massachusetts.
His scientific work has involved the application of computer science to neurobiology. His earliest work used artificial intelligence techniques to model neurochemical networks in the brain. He used computer graphics techniques to analyze the results of traditional molecular biological experiments. Working in the laboratory of Elias Manuelidis and Laura Manuelidis at Yale School of Medicine, he authored papers on the organization of interphase chromosomes in human brain tissue.
At Tufts-New England Medical Center he developed the Borden Classification of Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas. This
Wilder Graves Penfield, OM, CC, CMG, FRS (January 26, 1891 – April 5, 1976) was an American born Canadian neurosurgeon. During his life he was called "the greatest living Canadian". He devoted much thinking to the functionings of the mind, and continued until his death to contemplate whether there was any scientific basis for the existence of the human soul.
Penfield was born in Spokane, Washington (but spent most of his life in Hudson, Wisconsin) on January 25 or January 26, 1891. He studied at Princeton University where he played on the football team. After graduation in 1913, he was hired briefly as the coach. He then obtained a Rhodes Scholarship to Merton College, Oxford, where he studied neuropathology under Sir Charles Scott Sherrington. He obtained his medical degree from Johns Hopkins University. He spent several years training at Oxford, where he met William Osler. He also studied in Spain, Germany, and New York.
After taking surgical apprenticeship under Harvey Cushing, he obtained a position at the Neurological Institute of New York, where he carried out his first solo operations against epilepsy. While in New York, he met David Rockefeller, who desired to endow an
Anton Freiherr von Eiselsberg was born on July 31, 1860 at Schloss Steinhaus, Upper Austria.
A student of Theodor Billroth, Eiselsberg served as professor of medicine at Utrecht University and at University of Königsberg before being appointed head of the First Department of Surgery at the University of Vienna. He was one of the founders of neurosurgery, co-founder of the Austrian Cancer Society in 1910, and an honorary member of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. It was his initiative that lead to the creation of the world-first emergency surgery station in Vienna, dramatically increasing the effectiveness of medical intervention after accidents.
Eiselsberg was awarded the second Lister Medal in 1927 for his contributions to surgical science. As part of the award, he was invited to give the Lister Memorial Lecture at the Royal College of Surgeons of England in July 1927.
He himself died during the early days of World War II in an accident caused by the collision of two trains in the vicinity of St. Valentin, Lower Austria, on October 25, 1939.
Antoni Cieszyński (b. 31 May 1882 in Oels (Oleśnica), Silesia, Germany - 4 July 1941 in Lwów, Poland) was a Polish physician, dentist and surgeon.
Antoni was professor and head of the Institute of Stomatology at the Lviv University. He was an editor and publisher of the "Polska Dentystyka" since 1930 renamed to "Polska Stomatologia" (Polish Stomatology) and "Słowiańska Stomatologia" (Slavic Stomatology) magazines. He was murdered by the Germans in Lviv during the Massacre of Lviv professors.
Sir Astley Paston Cooper, 1st Baronet (23 August 1768 – 12 February 1841) was an English surgeon and anatomist, who made historical contributions to otology, vascular surgery, the anatomy and pathology of the mammary glands and testicles, and the pathology and surgery of hernia.
Cooper was born at Brooke Hall in Brooke, Norfolk on 23 August 1768 and baptised at the parish church on 9 September. His father, Dr. Samuel Cooper, was a clergyman of the Church of England; his mother Maria Susanna Bransby was the author of several novels. At the age of sixteen he was sent to London and placed under Henry Cline (1750–1827), surgeon to St. Thomas' Hospital. From the first he devoted himself to the study of anatomy, and had the privilege of attending the lectures of John Hunter. In 1789 he was appointed demonstrator of anatomy at St. Thomas's Hospital, where in 1791 he became joint lecturer with Cline in anatomy and surgery, and in 1800 he was appointed surgeon to Guy's Hospital on the death of his uncle, William Cooper.
In 1802 he received the Copley Medal for two papers read before the Royal Society of London on the destruction of the tympanic membrane; and in 1805 he was elected a Fellow
Ernst Ferdinand Sauerbruch (3 July 1875 – 2 July 1951) was a German surgeon.
Sauerbruch was born in Barmen (now a district of Wuppertal), Germany. He studied medicine at the Philipps University of Marburg, the University of Greifswald, the Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, and the University of Leipzig, from the last of which he graduated in 1902. He went to Breslau in 1903, where he developed the Sauerbruch chamber, a pressure chamber for operating on the open thorax, which he demonstrated in 1904. This invention was a breakthrough in thorax medicine and allowed heart and lung operations to take place at greatly reduced risk. As a battlefield surgeon during World War I, he developed several new types of limb prostheses, which for the first time enabled simple movements to be executed with the remaining muscle of the patient.
Sauerbruch worked at the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich from 1918 to 1927 on surgical techniques and diets for treating tuberculosis. From 1928 to 1949, he was the head of the surgical department at the Charité in Berlin, attaining international fame for his innovative operations. Because of his experience and extraordinary skills he quickly
Friedrich Trendelenburg (May 24, 1844 – December 15, 1924) was a German surgeon. He was son of the philosopher Friedrich Adolf Trendelenburg, father of the pharmacologist Paul Trendelenburg and grandfather of the pharmacologist Ullrich Georg Trendelenburg.
Trendelenburg was born in Berlin and studied medicine at the University of Glasgow and the University of Edinburgh. He completed his studies at the Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin under Bernhard von Langenbeck, receiving his doctorate in 1866. He practiced medicine at the University of Rostock and the University of Bonn. In 1895 he became surgeon-in-chief at the University of Leipzig.
Trendelenburg was interested in the history of surgery. He founded the German Surgical Society in 1872. Trendelenburg was also interested in the surgical removal of pulmonary emboli. His student, Martin Kirschner, performed the first successful pulmonary embolectomy in 1924, shortly before Trendelenburg's death. He died in 1924 of cancer of the mandible, aged 80.
A number of medical treatments and terminologies have been named after Friedrich Trendelenburg, including:
John Moore, MD (August 18, 1826 – March 18, 1907) was a leading United States Army physician during the American Civil War who rose to become Surgeon General of the Army in the late 1880s.
Moore was born in Bloomington, Indiana. He attended Indiana State University and graduated in 1845. He had graduated from the Medical College of Ohio in Cincinnati in 1844. He scored first place in the internship examination at the Commercial Hospital and Lunatic Asylum of Ohio (chartered in 1821), the hospital whose attending physicians were members of the MCO faculty. He served during 1845–46, and then filled in when another intern had to leave the following mid-year.
He took further medical courses at the University of Louisville Medical Department in 1848–49 and at the medical department of the University of the City of New York in 1849–50, graduating later that same year. After one year internship in Bellevue Hospital and two years with the New York Dispensary, Moore entered the Army as assistant surgeon in 1853. He served in Fort Myers, Florida, and then in a fort in Boston Harbor before going to the Utah Territory frontier as a surgeon during the Utah War in 1857. He was promoted to the
Joseph Edward Murray (born April 1, 1919) is a retired American plastic surgeon. He performed the first successful human kidney transplant on identical twins on December 23, 1954.
Murray shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1990 with E. Donnall Thomas for work on organ and cell transplantation.
Murray was born the son of William A. Murray and Mary DePasquale and grew up in Milford, MA. He was a star athlete at the Milford High School. Murray excelled in football, ice hockey, and baseball. Upon graduation, Murray attended the College of the Holy Cross intending to play baseball. The baseball practices and lab schedules conflicted forcing him to give up baseball. Murray later attended Harvard Medical School. After graduating from medical school, Murray joined the US Army where he studied surgery at Valley Forge General Hospital in Pennsylvania.
In 2001, Murray published his autobiography, Surgery Of The Soul: Reflections on a Curious Career, which doubles as a story of 14 of his experiences and the struggles with them.
In December 1954, Murray performed the world's first successful renal transplant between the identical Herrick twins at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital;
Lafayette Houghton Bunnell (1824–1903) was an American physician, explorer, author, and an explorer of Yosemite Valley, born in Rochester, New York.
In 1851, Bunnell was a member of the Mariposa Battalion that became the non-indigenous discoverers of the Yosemite Valley. Discovery was not the main purpose of the trip: the Battalion rode out in search of Native American tribal leaders involved in recent raids on American settlements. Bunnell explored the Valley and named many of its features. Discovery of the Yosemite, and the Indian war of 1851 (1880) contains his account of his exploration and the actions of the Battalion. The majority of what is known about Chief Tenaya and the Ahwahnechee was from Bunnell's written accounts. Bunnell was the first person who encountered Chief Tenaya who subsequently wrote a book.
Bunnell later served as a surgeon in the American Civil War.
Bunnell Point at the east end of Little Yosemite Valley is named in his honour.
Nikolay Nilovich Burdenko (Russian: Никола́й Ни́лович Бурде́нко; 22 May [O.S. 3 June] 1876 – 11 November 1946) was a Russian-Ukrainian and Soviet surgeon, the founder of the Russian neurosurgery. He was Surgeon-General of the Red Army (1937-1946), an academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences (from 1939), an academician and the first director of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR (1944-1946), a Hero of Socialist Labor (from 1943), Colonel General of medical services, Stalin Prize winner (1941). He was a veteran of the Russo-Japanese, First World, Winter and the German-Soviet War.
Nikolay Burdenko was born 3 June 1876 in the village of Kamenka in Nizhnelomovsky Uyezd of Penza Governorate. In 1891, he entered to the theological seminary and after graduation in 1897 he went to Tomsk where has been admitted to the recently opened Tomsk State University. After finishing two courses, Burdenko was excluded from the university for the participation in the student revolutionary movement and was forced to leave Tomsk.
In 1906, he graduated from the University of Tartu and became in 1910 the professor of that university. In 1918, he becomes the professor of the University of
Norman Edward Shumway (February 9, 1923 – February 10, 2006) was a pioneer of heart surgery at Stanford University.
Shumway was born in Kalamazoo, Michigan. He attended the University of Michigan for one year as an undergraduate until he was drafted by the Army in 1943, which sent him to John Tarleton Agricultural College in Stephenville, Texas for engineering training. He then underwent Army Specialized Training, which included nine months of pre-medical training at Baylor University, followed by enrollment at Vanderbilt University for medical school. He received his M.D. from Vanderbilt in 1949. He did his residency at the University of Minnesota, and was awarded a surgical doctorate in 1956. In 1958, he began working as an instructor in surgery at Stanford Hospital in San Francisco, California, and later, in Palo Alto when the hospital was moved.
Shumway became chief of the division of cardiothoracic surgery at Stanford in 1965. In 1974, he negotiated the creation of a separate Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, which he chaired until his retirement in 1993. He spent many years training promising young residents of cardiothoracic surgery at Stanford University.
Viking Olov Björk (3 December 1918, Sunnansjö, Dalarna – 18 February 2009) was a Swedish cardiac surgeon.
In 1968, he collaborated with American engineer Donald Shiley to develop the first "monostrut tilting disc valve" used to replace the aortic or mitral valve.
The Bjork–Shiley heart valve was manufactured by Pfizer after they bought the Shiley company in 1979. In 1980 Björk wrote to Pfizer threatening to publish cases of valve failures — often fatal to the patients — unless corrective action was taken. This eventually led to long lawsuit that involved the recall of all existing valves and Pfizer allocating up to US$20 million to pay compensation.
Björk died on 18 February 2009.
Edward Orange Wildman Whitehouse (1 October 1816 - 26 January 1890) was an English surgeon, better-known for his ultimately unsuccessful endeavours as chief electrician of the transatlantic telegraph cable for the Atlantic Telegraph Company.
Born in Liverpool to a merchant, he qualified as a member of the Royal College of Surgeons in 1840 and established a successful practice in Brighton.
In the 1850s, he conducted experiments that, he held, showed that feared problems with practical data rates on underwater cables would not prohibit a commercial service. Though his claims were disputed by William Thomson (later known as Lord Kelvin), he was an able propagandist for the undertakers of a proposed transatlantic cable.
Cyrus West Field recruited Whitehouse as chief electrician to the Atlantic Telegraph Company; Thomson subsequently became scientific advisor, convinced that Whitehouse's theories were wrong but believing him to have the practical skill to make the scheme work.
When the cable finally opened for business, it was beset with the problems that Thomson had foreseen. Whitehouse's inadequate apparatus had to be replaced by Thomson's more sensitive mirror galvanometer but
William Harkness (December 17, 1837 – February 28, 1903) was an astronomer, born at Ecclefechan, Scotland, a son of James (1803–78) and Jane (née Weild) Harkness. Harkness died in Jersey City on February 28, 1903 at the age of 66.
Harkness was educated at Lafayette College (1854–56), graduated from the University of Rochester (1858), and studied medicine in New York City. He served as a surgeon in the Union armies during part of the American Civil War. From 1862 to 1865 he was an "aid in astronomy" at the United States Naval Observatory and then, after service on the monitor USS Monadnock (1865–66), was employed in the Hydrographic Office.
During the eclipse of August, 1869, Harkness discovered the coronal line K 1474. Three years later he was made a member of the Transit of Venus Commission, and had charge of the party at Hobart, Tasmania in 1879 and at Washington in 1882, when he became the executive officer. His most memorable accomplishments are related to the construction of telescopes, his theory of the focal curve of achromatic telescopes, and his invention of the spherometer caliper and other astronomical instruments. He was astronomical director of the Naval Observatory
C.I. Defontenay (1819–1856) was the pseudonym of French science fiction writer Charlemagne Ischir Defontenay. Defontenay's 1854 Star, ou Psi Cassiopea is seen by some as an example of proto-space opera. Others see Defontenay as a predecessor of Olaf Stapledon. Star describes the discovery in the Himalayas of a stone that has fallen from the sky. After opening it, it turns out to contain a metal box where the narrator finds some paper manuscripts. After two years of study, he managed to decipher them and finds out that they describe the alien societies of various humanoid races living in the constellation of Cassiopeia.
Defontenay's other accomplishments included being a pioneer in plastic surgery. He was a disciple of Fourier and Hoffman. His writings often display his philosophical kinship with those thinkers.
Charles Clay (December 27, 1801 – September 18, 1893) was an English surgeon, called the "Father of Ovariotomy".
He was born in Bredbury, near Stockport, Cheshire, and died in Poulton-le-Fylde, near Blackpool, Lancashire.
He began his medical education as a pupil of Kinder Wood in Manchester (where he used to attend John Dalton's lectures on chemistry), and in 1821 went to Edinburgh to continue his studies there. Qualifying in 1823, he began a general practice in Ashton-under-Lyne, but in 1839 removed to Manchester to practise as an operative and consulting surgeon. It was there that, in 1842, he first performed the operation of ovariotomy with which his name is associated. On this occasion it was perfectly successful, and when in 1865 he published an analysis of the cases he was able to show a mortality only slightly above 30%.
Although his merits in this matter have sometimes been denied, his claim to the title Father of Ovariotomy is now generally conceded, and it is admitted that he deserves the credit not only of having shown how that operation could be made a success, but also of having played an important part in the advance of abdominal surgery for which the 19th century
Edward Mott Moore (1814–1902) was an American surgeon.
He was born in Rahway, New Jersey to Lindley Murray Moore and Abigail Mott, of Quaker and Huguenot descent. His mother's sister-in-law was Lucretia Coffin Mott, the abolitionist and pioneer of the civil rights movement in the United States. His maternal uncle was Richard Mott who was elected to the Thirty-fourth and the Thirty-fifth Congresses. His paternal uncle was Elias Moore, who was elected to the Twelfth and Thirteenth Parliaments of Upper Canada. In 1847, Edward married Lucy Prescott of Windsor, Vermont. They were active in St. Luke's Episcopal Church, Rochester, New York.
He received his medical education in New York City and in Philadelphia (M.D., University of Pennsylvania, 1838). His family had settled in Rochester, New York, and it was there that he made his permanent residence. With the title of professor of surgery, he gave lectures at medical colleges – at Woodstock, Vermont (1842–1854), at Berkshire, Massachusetts (1855), at Starling Medical College (the predecessor of The Ohio State University College of Medicine), Columbus, Ohio (1857), and at Buffalo Medical College (1859–83). He was president of the Medical
Mahmut Gazi Yaşargil is a Turkish medical scientist and neurosurgeon (born on July 6, 1925 in Lice, Diyarbakır, Turkey). He is the founder of microneurosurgery. Yaşargil treated epilepsy and brain tumors with instruments of his own design. From 1953 until his retirement in 1993 he was first resident, chief resident and then professor and chairman of the Department of Neurosurgery, University of Zurich and the Zurich University Hospital. In 1999 he was honored as "Neurosurgery’s Man of the Century 1950-1999" at the Congress of Neurological Surgeons Annual Meeting.
After attending Ankara Atatürk Lisesi and Ankara University in Ankara, Turkey between 1931 and 1943, he went to Germany to study medicine at the Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany. His genius in developing microsurgical techniques for use in cerebrovascular neurosurgery transformed the outcomes of patients with conditions that were previously inoperable. In 1969 Yaşargil became associate professor and in 1973 professor and chairman of the Department of Neurosurgery, University of Zurich succeeding his mentor, Prof. Krayenbuhl. Over the next 20 years, he carried out laboratory work and clinical applications of
Sir Hugh William Bell Cairns KBE, DM, FRCS (26 June 1896 Port Pirie, South Australia - 18 July 1952 Oxford) was a British neurosurgeon.
Hugh Cairns was born in Port Pirie, but came to Adelaide for his secondary education at Adelaide High School and tertiary education at the University of Adelaide. He was awarded the 1917 South Australian Rhodes Scholarship and went to the University of Oxford to read Medicine. He was president of the Balliol Boat Club and represented Oxford as bow in the Boat Race of 1920.
Cairns worked as a neurosurgeon at the London Hospital and with Harvey Cushing at Harvard before setting up the Nuffield Department of Surgery in Oxford, in which he became the first Nuffield Professor of Surgery. He was a key figure in the development of neurosurgery as a specialty, the formation of the University of Oxford Medical School, and the treatment of head injuries during the Second World War. The Cairns Library at the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford is named after him. A blue plaque for him at his 1920s residence at Loughton has been erected.
Profoundly affected by treating T. E. Lawrence for head injuries during the 6 days before the latter died after a motorcycle
Hugh Owen Thomas (23 August 1834 – 1891) was a Welsh surgeon. He is considered the father of orthopaedic surgery in Britain.
Hugh Owen Thomas descended from a young boy who had been shipwrecked in Anglesey in 1745. Given the name Evan Thomas by the family that adopted and raised him, he established a family tradition of bone-setting. Evan Thomas — the grandson of the original survivor, and Hugh’s father — had moved to Liverpool at the age of 19, where he set up a successful practice as bone-setter. Evan, however, was not a trained physician, and three times he was taken to court to defend his practice. Although he was never convicted, the constant jealousy and antagonism of the medical community was a great toll on him; at one point his cottage was even burnt down. As a result of this, he decided to send all his five sons to train and qualify as doctors.
Hugh trained first with his uncle, Dr. Owen Roberts at St. Asaph in North Wales for four years, then he studied medicine at Edinburgh and University College, London. He qualified as MRCS in 1857. Returning to Liverpool, he first worked with his father, but incompatible temperaments did not allow this for long, so in 1859 he set up
Jacob Mendes Da Costa, or Jacob Mendez Da Costa (February 7, 1833, Saint Thomas/São Tomé, U.S. Virgin Islands, Caribbean – September 12, 1900) was an American physician and surgeon.
He taught at the Jefferson Medical College (now Thomas Jefferson University).
He is particularly known for discovering Da Costa's syndrome (also known as soldier's heart), an anxiety disorder that he first observed in soldiers in the American Civil War and documented in an 1871 study.
Dr James Esdaile (1808–1859), is a notable figure in the history of mesmerism. Esdaile married three times.
He was the eldest son of the Rev. James Esdaile and Margaret Blair, born on 6 February 1808 in Montrose, Angus, Scotland. He studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh, graduating M.D. in 1830.
In 1830, he was appointed as assistant surgeon to the East India Company, and arrived in Calcutta, Bengal (then the capital of British India), in 1831. Having suffered from chronic bronchitis and asthma since his adolescence, Esdaile thought that India's different climate would be of benefit. He suffered a total breakdown and was given an extended furlough from 1836 to 1838.
He returned from his furlough to Calcutta, and was soon appointed to the small Hooghly Hospital; and, as a consequence of this, was also responsible for the local Jail hospital.
On 4 April 1845, Esdaile performed his first mesmeric procedure:
By his own admission, Esdaile had never seen a mesmeric act; but, given the level of pain of this specific patient, and the understanding that he had gained from what he had read, it occurred to him that mesmerism might be of great value:
Esdaile did succeed.
Jocelyn Wildenstein (née Périsset; born August 5, 1940) is a New York socialite known for extensive facial surgeries, an extravagant life (she once enumerated her yearly telephone bill at $60,000 and food/wine costs at $547,000), and her divorce from Alec Wildenstein in 1999.
Born in Lausanne, Switzerland, Jocelyne Périsset's father worked in a sporting goods store. She began dating Ciryl Piguet (a Swiss movie producer) at the age of 17. She later lived in Paris with French filmmaker Sergio Gobbi. She grew up in a middle-class family in Switzerland. There she became a skilled hunter and pilot. She was introduced to Alec Wildenstein by Saudi arms dealer Adnan Khashoggi at a shooting weekend at the Wildenstein's African ranch "Ol Jogi".
Jocelyn Wildenstein was married to Alec Wildenstein when they were both in their 30s. Alec was a member of the Wildenstein family – a wealthy family of renowned art dealers. The divorce was not amicable, and has been described as "scandalous". Jocelyn walked in on Alec Wildenstein and a 19 year old Russian model in her bedroom at the Wildenstein New York home, and was threatened by Alec with a gun. This resulted in a night in jail for Alec
Dr. John Alexander McCreery (October 19, 1885 – February 1, 1948) was an American surgeon listed throughout the 1930s and 1940s as one of the top ten surgeons in the United States. Additionally, McCreery was chief of staff at Greenwich Hospital (Connecticut) from 1939-1948.
Dr. McCreery was born on October 19, 1885 in New York City, the son of John Alexander McCreery, a surgeon, and Louise Carrigan McCreery. His father was the son of a Scottish immigrant, James McCreery, who settled in New York in 1831; James McCreery later became a prominent wholesale dry-goods merchant. His mother was a daughter of Andrew Carrigan, an Irish immigrant who became an extremely wealthy provisions dealer and, upon retirement, a noted philanthropist. The wealthy McCreery family were among the first parishioners at St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York, and several members of the family are interred, to this day, inside the cathedral. McCreery had two younger sisters, Christine Forbes McCreery Hoguet (1886–1951) and Mary McKay McCreery (1888–1964). The family resided on Fifth Avenue in New York, as well at a country estate in Stockbridge, Massachusetts known as "Council Grove"; the estate is still in the
John Collins Warren (August 1, 1778 – May 4, 1856), of Boston, was one of the most renowned American surgeons of the 19th century. In 1846 he gave permission to William T.G. Morton to provide ether anesthesia while Warren performed a minor surgical procedure. News of this first public demonstration of surgical anesthesia quickly circulated around the world.
Born in Boston, he was the son of John Warren, well-known doctor, Harvard professor, and a founder of the Harvard Medical School and the nephew of Dr. Joseph Warren. He graduated from Harvard College in 1797, then began the study of medicine with his father. In 1799, he continued his medical studies in London and Paris, including work with the pioneer anatomist Sir Astley Cooper (1768–1841). On his return to America in 1802, Warren entered into partnership with his father and also assisted him with anatomical lectures, dissections, and demonstrations at Harvard Medical School.
He was named Adjunct Professor of Anatomy and Surgery in 1809, then, at his father's death in 1815, assumed the Hersey Professorship of Anatomy and Surgery, which post he held until retirement in 1847. During this time, Warren played a leading role in
Robert Liston (28 October 1794 – 7 December 1847) was a pioneering Scottish surgeon, and the son of the Scottish minister and inventor Henry Liston, whose father was also a Robert Liston, Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland.
Liston was noted for his skill and speed in an era prior to anaesthetics, when speed made a difference in terms of pain and survival. In Florence Nightingale's Notes on Nursing, she states "there are many physical operations where ceteris paribus the danger is in a direct ratio to the time the operation lasts; and ceteris paribus the operator's success will be in direct ratio to his quickness".
Richard Gordon describes Liston as "the fastest knife in the West End. He could amputate a leg in 2⁄2 minutes". Indeed, he is reputed to have been able to complete operations in a matter of seconds, at a time when speed was essential to reduce pain and improve the odds of survival of a patient; he is said to have been able to perform the removal of a limb in an amputation in 28 seconds.
Gordon described the scene thus:
He was six foot two, and operated in a bottle-green coat with wellington boots. He sprung across the blood-stained boards upon
Sanjay Gupta ( /ˈsɑːndʒeɪ ˈɡuːptə/ SAHN-jay GOOP-tə; born October 23, 1969) is an Indian American neurosurgeon and an assistant professor of neurosurgery at Emory University School of Medicine and associate chief of the neurosurgery service at Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia.
Known as a media personality on health-related issues, he is best known as CNN's multiple Emmy award winning chief medical correspondent, hosting the network's weekend health program Sanjay Gupta, M.D., and making frequent appearances on their American Morning, Larry King Live and Anderson Cooper 360° programs. His reports from Charity Hospital, New Orleans, Louisiana, in the wake of Hurricane Katrina helped the hospital to win a 2006 Emmy Award for "Outstanding Feature Story in a Regularly Scheduled Newscast". Additionally, Gupta publishes a column in Time magazine and is a special correspondent for CBS News. His books Chasing Life and Cheating Death were New York Times and national bestsellers. His latest book, Monday Mornings, a novel, was released in March, 2012 and became an instant New York Times Bestseller. It is currently being adapted as a television show with David E. Kelley and Gupta
Victor Peter Chang, AC (born Chang Yam Him; 21 November 1936 – 4 July 1991), was a Chinese Australian cardiac surgeon and a pioneer of modern heart transplantation. Born in Shanghai to Australian-born Chinese parents, he grew up in Hong Kong before moving to Australia. After completing his medical studies at the University of Sydney and working in St Vincent's Hospital, he trained in England and the United States as a surgeon before returning to Australia. In St Vincent's Hospital, he helped establish the National Cardiac Transplant Unit, the country's leading centre for heart and lung transplants. Chang's team had a high success rate in performing heart transplantations and he pioneered the development of an artificial heart valve.
In 1986, he was appointed a Companion of the Order of Australia for his "service to international relations between Australia and China and to medical science". In 1991, Chang died after being shot in a failed extortion attempt against him. His legacy includes the creation of the Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute, being voted Australian of the Century at the People's Choice Awards, and the establishment of the Victor Chang Lowy Packer Building in
William Jardine (24 February 1784 – 27 February 1843) was a Scottish physician and merchant. He co-founded the Hong Kong conglomerate Jardine, Matheson and Company. From 1841 to 1843, he was Member of Parliament for Ashburton as a Whig.
Educated in medicine at the University of Edinburgh, Jardine obtained a diploma from the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh in 1802. In the same year, he became a surgeon's mate aboard the Brunswick of the East India Company, bound for India. Captured by the French and shipwrecked in 1805, he was repatriated and returned to the East India Company's service as ship's surgeon. In May 1817, he left medicine for commerce.
Jardine was a resident in China from 1820 to 1839. His early success in Canton as a commercial agent for opium merchants in India led to his admission in 1825 as a partner of Magniac & Co., and by 1826 he was controlling that firm's Canton operations. James Matheson joined him shortly after, and Magniac & Co. was reconstituted as Jardine, Matheson & Co in 1832. After Imperial Commissioner Lin Zexu confiscated 20,000 cases of British-owned opium in 1839, Jardine arrived in London in September, and pressed Foreign Secretary Lord
William Stewart Halsted (September 23, 1852 – September 7, 1922) was an American surgeon who emphasized strict aseptic technique during surgical procedures, was an early champion of newly discovered anesthetics, and introduced several new operations, including the radical mastectomy for breast cancer. Along with William Osler (Professor of Medicine), Howard Atwood Kelly (Professor of Gynecology) and William H. Welch (Professor of Pathology), Halsted was one of the "Big Four" founding professors at Johns Hopkins Hospital. Throughout his professional life, he was addicted to cocaine and later also to morphine.
William S. Halsted was born on September 23, 1852 in New York City. His mother was Mary Louisa Haines and his father William Mills Halsted, Jr. His father was a businessman with Halsted, Haines and Company. Halsted was educated at home by tutors until 1862, when he was sent to boarding school in Monson, Massachusetts. He didn't like his new school and even ran away at one point. He was later enrolled at Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts, where he graduated in 1869. Halsted entered Yale College the following year. At Yale, Halsted was captain of the football team,